Patriarch Kirill of Moscow

  (Redirected from Kirill I of Moscow)

Kirill or Cyril (Russian: Кирилл, Church Slavonic: Ст҃ѣ́йшїй патрїа́рхъ кѷрі́ллъ, secular name Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, Russian: Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 20 November 1946) is a Russian Orthodox bishop. He became Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' and Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church on 1 February 2009.

Kirill
Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus'
Patriarch Kirill of Moscow 2021 (cropped).jpg
Patriarch Kirill in 2021
ChurchRussian Orthodox Church
SeeMoscow
Installed1 February 2009
Term endedIncumbent
PredecessorAlexy II
Orders
Ordination7 April 1969
Consecration14 March 1976
by Nikodim (Rotov)
Personal details
Born
Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev

(1946-11-20) 20 November 1946 (age 75)
Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia)
NationalityRussian
DenominationEastern Orthodox Church
SignatureKirill's signature
Coat of armsKirill's coat of arms
Styles of
Patriarch Kirill
Monogram Patriarchy Moskiewskiego i całej Rusi, Cyryla..svg
Reference styleHis Holiness
Spoken styleYour Holiness
Religious stylePatriarch

Prior to becoming Patriarch, Kirill was Archbishop (later Metropolitan) of Smolensk and Kaliningrad beginning on 26 December 1984, and also Chairman of the Russian Orthodox Church's Department for External Church Relations and a permanent member of the Holy Synod beginning in 1989.

A close ally of Russian leader Vladimir Putin, Kirill has described Putin’s rule as “a miracle of God.”[1] According to Putin, Kirill's father baptized him.[1] During his tenure as Patriarch of Moscow all Rus', Kirill has brought the Russian Orthodox Church closer to the Russian state.[2] Kirill's relationship with Bartholomew I of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarch and the spiritual leader of the Eastern Orthodox Christians worldwide, has been tense.[3] After Kirill lauded Russia's 2022 invasion of Ukraine, clergy in other Orthodox dioceses condemned Kirill's remarks, with Bartholomew I saying that Kirill's support for Putin and the war were "damaging to the prestige of the whole of Orthodoxy."[3]

Early life

Family

Kirill was born Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev in Leningrad (present-day Saint Petersburg) on 20 November 1946. His father, Rev. Mikhail Gundyaev, died in 1974. His mother, Raisa Gundyaeva, a teacher of German, died in 1984. His elder brother, Archpriest Nikolay Gundyaev, is a professor at Leningrad Theological Academy and rector of the Holy Transfiguration Cathedral in St. Petersburg. His grandfather, Rev. Vasily Gundyaev, a Solovki prisoner, was imprisoned and exiled in the '20s, '30s and '40s for his church activity and struggle against Renovationism.[4][5]

Schooling

After finishing the eighth grade (year 9), Vladimir Gundyayev got a job in the Leningrad Geological Expedition and worked for it from 1962 to 1965 as cartographer, combining work with studies at secondary school.[4] After graduation from school, he entered the Leningrad Seminary and later the Leningrad Theological Academy, from which he graduated cum laude in 1970.[5]

Life in the Church

On 3 April 1969, Metropolitan Nicodemus (Rotov) of Leningrad and Novgorod tonsured him with the name of Kirill after saint Cyril the Philosopher and on 7 April ordained him as hierodeacon and on 1 June as hieromonk.[4]

From 1970 to 1971, Father Kirill taught Dogmatic Theology and acted as rector's assistant for students’ affairs at the Leningrad Theological Schools and at the same time worked as personal secretary to Metropolitan Nicodem and supervising instructor of the first-grade seminarians.[4]

Episcopal ministry

Archimandrite

On 12 September 1971, Kirill was elevated to the rank of archimandrite and was posted as a representative of the Russian Orthodox Church to the World Council of Churches (WCC) in Geneva. On 26 December 1974, he was appointed rector of the Leningrad Academy and Seminary. Since December 1975, he has been a member of the WCC central committee and executive committee.[4]

In 1971, he was appointed representative of the Moscow Patriarchate at the World Council of Churches and has been actively involved in the ecumenical activity of the Russian Orthodox Church since then.[4]

Since 1994, Kirill has hosted a weekly Orthodox television program "Слово пастыря" (The Word of the Shepherd) on ORT/Channel One.[4]

Archbishop

 
Kirill I at a conference on nuclear weapons and disarmament in Amsterdam in 1981
 
Vladimir Putin, Metropolitan Kirill and Xenia Sheremeteva-Yusupova, October 2001
  • On 14 March 1976, Archimandrite Kirill was consecrated Bishop of Vyborg, Vicar of the Leningrad diocese.
  • On 2 September 1977, he was elevated to the rank of archbishop.
  • From 26 December 1984, he was Archbishop of Smolensk and Vyazma.
  • From 1986 – administrator of the parishes in the Kaliningrad Region.
  • From 1988, he became Archbishop of Smolensk and Kaliningrad.
  • On 13 November 1989, he was appointed chairman of the department for external church relations and permanent member of the Holy Synod.
  • On 25 February 1991, Archbishop Kirill was elevated to the rank of metropolitan.

The Supreme Authority of the Church charged Kirill with the following functions:

  • from 1975 to 1982 – chairman of the Leningrad Diocesan Council;
  • from 1975 to 1998 – member of the Central and Executive Committees of the World Council of Churches;
  • from 1976 to 1978 – deputy Patriarchal Exarch for Western Europe;
  • from 1976 to 1984 – member of the Holy Synod commission for Christian unity;
  • from 1978 to 1984 – administrator of the Patriarchal Parishes in Finland;
  • from 1978 to 1988 – member of the Millennium of the Baptism of Russia preparatory commission;
  • in 1990 – member of the preparatory commission for the Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church;
  • in 1990 – member of the commission for assistance in overcoming the consequences of the Chernobyl accident;
  • from 1989 to 1996 – administrator of the Hungarian Orthodox deanery;
  • from 1990 to 1991 – temporary administrator of the diocese of the Hague and Netherlands;
  • from 1990 to 1993 – temporary administrator of the diocese of Korsun;
  • from 1990 to 1993 – chairman of the Holy Synod commission for reviving religious and moral.[4]

Patriarch of Moscow

 
Kirill being presented with the patriarchal koukoulion during his enthronement

On 6 December 2008, the day after the death of Patriarch Alexy II, the Russian Holy Synod elected him locum tenens of the Patriarchal throne. On 9 December, during the funeral service for Alexey II in Christ the Saviour Cathedral (which was broadcast live by Russia's state TV channels), he was seen and reported to have fainted at one point.[6][7] On 29 December, when talking to journalists, he said he was opposed to any reforms of a liturgical or doctrinal nature in the Church.[8] On 27 January 2009, the ROC Local Council (the 2009 Pomestny Sobor) elected Kirill I of Moscow as Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus;[9][10] with 508 votes out of 700.)[11] He was enthroned on 1 February 2009.

Ecumenism

 
Russian religious leaders (Armenian, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, Orthodox, Old Believer) during the official celebrations of the National Unity Day, 4 November 2012

The conservative wing in the Russian Orthodox Church criticized Kirill for practicing ecumenism throughout the 1990s. In 2008, breakaway Bishop Diomid of Anadyr and Chukotka criticized him for associating himself with the Catholic Church.[12] However, in a 2009 statement, Kirill stated that there could be no doctrinal compromise with the Catholic Church, and that discussions with them did not have the goal of seeking unification.[13]

Still, contact with Pope Benedict XVI was characterized as greatly warm and with mutual respect with relations between the churches following. In 2012, Kirill's visit to Poland advanced greatly relations with the Roman Catholic hierarchy of Poland. Visits and encounters with Roman Catholics in Russia and abroad continue to enjoy support, if tacit, from many Orthodox clergy and lay people.[citation needed]

On 12 February 2016, Kirill and Pope Francis, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, met at José Martí International Airport near Havana, Cuba, and signed a thirty point joint declaration, prepared in advance, addressing global issues including their hope for re–establishment of full unity, the persecution of Christians in the Middle East, the Syrian Civil War and church organisation in Ukraine.[14][15] This was the first meeting between a pope and a Russian Orthodox patriarch.[16]

On 3 September 2019, Kirill and Paulose II, the head of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, met at the Patriarchal and Synod residence in St. Daniel Monastery, Moscow. Paulose II was accompanied by Malankara representatives, Zachariah Nicholovos (head of the Malankara Church department of ecumenical relations), Yuhanon Diascoros (secretary of the Malankara Church Holy Synod), Abraham Thomas (secretary of the Malankara Church department for external church relations), Aswin Zefrin Fernandis (head of the Malankara Catholicos’ protocol service), Jiss Jonson (personal secretary to the Catholicos), Jacob Mathew (member of the Malankara Church Council), Kevin George Koshi (head of the communication service of the Malankara Church department for external church relations) and Cherian Eapen (representative of the Malankara diaspora in Russia).[17] Representatives of the Patriarch included Metropolitan Hilarion (head of the Moscow Patriarchate department for external church relations (DECR)), Bishop Dionisy of Voskresensk (deputy chancellor of the Moscow Patriarchate), Archimandrite Philaret (Bulekov) (DECR vice-chairman), Hieromonk Stephan Igumnov (DECR secretary for inter-Christian relations) and R. Akhtamkhanov (DECR secretariat for inter-Christian relations).[18] During this meeting, Kirill supported the proposals made by Paulose II for cooperation in academics pertaining to iconography, church choristers, monasticism, pilgrimages, summer institutes and academic conferences.[19]

Administrative reform

Patriarch Kirill introduced significant changes in the administrative structure of the Church. On 31 March 2009, the Holy Synod, at its first meeting under the chairmanship of the newly elected Patriarch Kirill, reformed the DECR, forming new synodal institutions, which were entrusted with certain areas of activity previously dealt with by the DECR.[20] The Department for Church-Society Relations [ru], independent from the DECR,[citation needed] was created; this department was responsible for "the implementation of relations with legislative bodies, political parties, professional and creative unions, and other civil society institutions in the canonical territory of the Moscow Patriarchate." Dioceses, representative offices [ru], metochions, monasteries and stavropegic parishes far abroad, which were previously under the authority of the DECR, were directly subordinated to the Patriarch of Moscow of All Russia; to manage them, the Moscow Patriarchate's Secretariat for Institutions Abroad[a] was created. The Synodal Information Department [ru] was created.[20] The post-graduate department of the Moscow Theological Academy, which operated under the DECR, was transformed into the All-Church postgraduate and doctoral school named after Saints Cyril and Methodius Equal-to-the-Apostles [ru].[21][22]

On 27 July 2011, the Holy Synod of the Church established the Central Asian Metropolitan District, reorganizing the structure of the Church in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan.[23] Since 6 October 2011, at the request of the Patriarch, the diocesan reform began, in which 2-3 dioceses were created on the territory of one region instead of one with the formation of a metropolis (Russian: митрополия, mitropoliya), administrative structure bringing together neighboring eparchies.[24]

Foreign relations

 
Kirill and archbishop Józef Michalik signing a joint declaration to the Polish and Russian people at the Royal Castle in Warsaw (2012)
 
Kirill is greeted by Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff as he arrives at the Alvorada Palace in Brasilia, Brazil, 19 February 2016

On 20 October 2008, while on a tour of Latin America, he had a meeting with First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba Fidel Castro. Castro commended Metropolitan Kirill as his ally in combating "American imperialism".[25][26][27] Kirill awarded Fidel and Raúl Castro the Order of St. Daniel of Moscow on behalf of Patriarch Alexy II in recognition of their decision to build the first Russian Orthodox Church in Havana, to serve the Russian expatriates living there.[28]

He was criticised by some for the ROC's failures in the Diocese of Sourozh and Ukraine.[29][30][31]

Kirill "heartily congratulated"[32] Belarusian dictator Alexander Lukashenko for winning the Belarusian presidency in 2010[33][34][35] in a non-democratic election.[36]

According to the Financial Times, "Keenly aware that Putin’s actions severely undermined his authority in Ukraine, Kirill refused to absorb Crimea’s parishes and boycotted a ceremony in the Kremlin to celebrate Russia’s annexation."[37]

During the Orthodox Church of Ukraine autocephaly controversy, Patriarch Kirill was the presiding chairman of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church when the decision was made to break Eucharistic communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 15 October 2018.[38]

In 2019, he created a working committee with the Malankara Orthodox Church.[19]

After Russia invaded Ukraine in 2022, Kirill praised the invasion.[39][1] Kirill blamed the conflict on "gay parades" and made baseless claims that Ukraine was "exterminating" Russians in Donbass,[40][39] Kirill's remarks prompted clergy in some other Orthodox dioceses to condemn Kirill's remarks and seek independence from the Moscow church.[40][41]

Relations with Vladimir Putin

Kirill is a long-time ally of president Vladimir Putin.[40][39]

When Kirill was elected Patriarch on 27 January 2009, by the Local Council of the Russian Orthodox Church by secret vote he gained 508 out of 702 votes and enthroned during liturgy at the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow on 1 February 2009 the service was attended, among others, by President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev and then prime minister Vladimir Putin.[42]

The following day, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev hosted a reception (a formal banquet[43][44]) for the ROC bishops in the Grand Kremlin Palace, where Patriarch Kirill held forth about the Byzantine concept of symphonia as his vision of the ideal of church-state relations, though acknowledging that it was not possible to fully attain to it in Russia today.[45][46][47]

On 8 February 2012, at a meeting of religious leaders in Moscow, Kirill contrasted the economic and social chaos of the 1990s with the 2000s and said "What were the 2000s then? Through a miracle of God, with the active participation of the country’s leadership, we managed to exit this horrible, systemic crisis," and likened anti-government protesters' "demands to “ear-piercing shrieks” and said the protesters represented a minority of Russians."[48]

In cultural and social affairs, the Church under Kirill has collaborated closely with the Russian state under President Vladimir Putin.[49]

Patriarch Kirill has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine.[50][51] Despite calling for the "speedy restoration of peace",[52][53] Patriarch Kirill also referred to Moscow's opponents in Ukraine as "evil forces", stating "we must not allow dark and hostile external forces to laugh at us."[54]

He has been described as a "committed nationalist of the imperial variety", as someone "who thinks nothing of using the familiar words of a faith to their most egregious effect"[55]

Public controversies

Support for Putin

As Patriach, Kirill said that Putin's rule is a miracle.[56] He openly supported Putin's presidential bid in 2012 and said that Putin corrected the historically wrong path of Russia after coming to power, and conducted a special prayer ceremony in honor of Putin's re-election twice, on 7 May 2012 and in May 2018.[57]

Statement that Bulgarians should only thank Russia for their liberation

During Kirill's visit to Bulgaria in 2018 in honor of the 140th anniversary of Bulgaria's liberation from the Ottoman empire, Bulgaria's president Rumen Radev said he thanks all ethnicities that were struggling for Bulgaria's independence from the Ottomans as a part of Russia's Imperial Army: Russians, Romanians, Finns, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles, Lithuanians, Serbs, Montenegrins.[58]

In response, Kirill criticised the statement and said Bulgarians should only thank Russia, not anyone else, and that there was no place for "false interpretations of history".[59] Kirill also added that Bulgarians have been known since the Soviet era for being bad speechmakers, who are unable to speak without paper notes.[60]

In turn, Bulgaria's Vice Prime Minister Valeri Simeonov called Kirill a "2nd rate KGB agent", "the Tobacco Metropolitan" (see relevant article: ru:Табачный скандал in Ru Wiki) and said Kirill is "not a saint".[61] After a litigation launched by a local Bulgarian pro-Russian activist, a local court found there was no defamation in Simeonov's words.[62]

Support for Russia's intervention in Syria

In 2015, Kirill's envoy delivered his letter to Russian servicemen at Russia's Khmeimim Air Base in Syria. The letter claimed that Russians troops in Syria are to deliver love and peace with the hope of Jesus Christ's descending to Syria.[63] Kirill also said that Russia's actions in Syria are just.[64]

Importation of cigarettes

 
Patriarch Kirill at Easter 2011

Journalists of the newspapers Kommersant and Moskovskij Komsomolets accused Kirill of profiteering and abuse of the privilege of duty-free importation of cigarettes granted to the church in the mid-1990s and dubbed him "Tobacco Metropolitan".[65] The Department for External Church Relations was alleged to have acted as the largest supplier of foreign cigarettes in Russia.[66] The profits of this operation allegedly under Kirill's direction were estimated to have totaled $1.5 billion by sociologist Nikolai Mitrokhin in 2004, and at $4 billion by The Moscow News in 2006.[67][68] However, Nathaniel Davis said that "There is no evidence that Metropolitan Kirill has actually embezzled funds. What is more likely is that profits from the importation of tobacco and cigarettes have been used for urgent, pressing Church expenses."[66] The duty-free importation of cigarettes ended in 1997.[66] In his 2002 interview with Izvestia, Metropolitan Kirill called the allegations about his profiteering a political campaign against him.[69]

Alexander Pochinok, who was the minister of taxes and levies (1999–2000), said in 2009 that Kirill had no involvement in the violations.[70][71]

Pussy Riot

Three female members of the feminist group Pussy Riot were arrested in March 2012 for performing a song in Christ the Saviour Cathedral in Moscow during which they called on the Virgin Mary to "chase Putin out".[72] The women were arrested for hooliganism[72] and were later sentenced to two years' imprisonment.[73] The song contained swear words offending the church itself, as well as being performed in the part of church near the altar where no laity are allowed to enter.[74][75] This act was considered a desecration and offence by many of Orthodox believers in Russia,[76][77][78][79][80] and depicted as such in media.[75] It was also said that few people had known this feminist group before their act in the cathedral.[81] Commenting on the case, Kirill said they were "doing the work of Satan" and should be punished.[72] This sparked criticism of the Orthodox Church on the Runet for not showing mercy, while Amnesty International described the women as "prisoners of conscience".[72] In their closing statements, members of Pussy Riot said that Patriarch Kirill had used the church to support the cultural position of Putin's government.[82] Polls by Levada Center showed that a majority of Russians thought the punishment of the punk group was excessive, although only six percent of Russian were sympathetic to the group.[76]

Pope Benedict XVI, who was pontiff of the Catholic Church at the time, supported the position of the Russian Orthodox Church on this issue.[83]

Dust compensation dispute

 
Patriarch Kirill and Svetlana Medvedeva at the church ceremony in Sestroretsk

In March 2012, the former Russian Health Minister (1999–2004) Yury Shevchenko, pursuant to a court ruling, paid about 20 million rubles ($676,000) in compensation for the dust resultant from the renovation work that had settled in a flat upstairs in the prestigious House on the Embankment privately owned by Patriarch Kirill and occupied by the Patriarch's long-time friend businesswoman Lidia Leonova.[84][85][86] According to the media reports, the former minister is personally acquainted with the then Russian Federation prime-minister Vladimir Putin.[87]

"I sold my apartment in St. Petersburg, and we paid the required sum", said Shevchenko's son, also Yury, in early April 2012.[88]

According to the lawsuit, renovation works in Shevchenko's apartment stirred up a lot of dust, which settled on a collection of valuable books owned by Kirill. The Patriarch confirmed his ownership of the dusty apartment in a private conversation with journalist Vladimir Solovyov.[89]

Most of the reports in the media tended to be critical of Patriarch Kirill and laughing at the claims that the dust was harmful, saying that it was just sand and it would have been far more efficient to just hire a maid to vacuum it up.[85] The Patriarch himself then said he thought it to be inappropriate to forgive Shevchenko.[90]

Breguet watch

 
Patriarch Kirill holds a Christmas service at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, 6 January 2011
 
Patriarch Kirill attends a ceremony to unveil the Wall of Grief monument to victims of Stalinist repressions in October 2017

In 2012, Kirill was accused of wearing a Swiss Breguet watch worth over £20,000 (US$30,000). In an interview with Vladimir Solovyov, Kirill said that he owned a Breguet, among other gifts, but he had never worn it.[91] Concerning a photo which appeared to show him wearing the Breguet at a liturgy, Kirill stated "I was looking at that picture and suddenly I understood - it was a collage! But after that photograph was posted I began examining. As many people come and make presents. And often there are boxes that were never opened and you don't know what is there. And I found out that in fact there is Breguet watch, so I've never given commentaries that the Patriarch doesn't have it. There is a box with Breguet, but I've never worn it."[92] This triggered at least one Internet blogger to study the issue and collect images of Kirill's wristwear.[93] Some time later, photographs on his official website showed him wearing what appeared to be an expensive watch on his left wrist,[94] and later one even showed the watch airbrushed out, but with a reflection of it still visible on the table's glossy surface.[95] Later, it was stated by the Russian Church officials that it was a 24-year-old employee who "acted out of stupid, unjustifiable and unauthorized initiative" in editing the photo.[96] It was also stated that "the guilty ones [for the image manipulation] will be punished severely".[94][95]

A spokesperson added that it was "unethical" to discuss Kirill's private life, and the Russian Orthodox Church said on 4 April 2012 that foreign forces were taking revenge on it for supporting Putin: "The attacks have become more prominent during the pre-election and post-election period [... This] shows their political and also anti-Russian motives."[97]

In June 2012, Kirill was given the 2011 Silver Shoe Award (given in Russia each year "for the most dubious achievements in show business") for "immaculate disappearance of a watch" in the category "Miracles up to the elbows". The award found a pained reaction from representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church.[98]

Same-sex marriage

In 2016, Kirill stated that silencing priests that speak against same-sex marriage is similar to censorship, such as those that existed under Soviet totalitarianism. In May 2017, he again likened silencing such priests to totalitarianism seen in Nazi Germany, and referred to same-sex marriage as a threat to family values during a visit to Kyrgyzstan.[99]

Ban of Jehovah's Witnesses

Since the 1990s, Kirill has advocated for banning Jehovah's Witnesses.[100] Under Kirill's leadership, he remained the chief architect behind the ban of 170,000 Jehovah's Witnesses in 2017.[101] On 2 May 2017, the Russian Orthodox Church issued a press release stating, "Russian Orthodox Church supports [the] ban on Jehovah’s Witnesses in Russia," and again, on 13 February 2019, it reiterated full support of the ban.[102] Sam Brownback, a U.S. ambassador-at-large for international religious freedom, stated, "You may agree or disagree with their [Jehovah's Witnesses'] ideology, but they are peaceful practitioners of faith, and they are entitled to practice their faith." Since then, the United Nations and others have accused Russia of human rights abuses.[103] Kirill has a goal of establishing a global Eastern Orthodox movement in Greece, Cyprus, Ukraine, Belarus, various Balkan states, Georgia, Armenia, and Moldova.[104]

KGB affiliation

Forbes reported on February 20, 2009 that, "Kirill, who was the Metropolitan of Smolensk, succeeds Alexei II who died in December after 18 years as head of the Russian Church. According to material from the Soviet archives, Kirill was a KGB agent (as was Alexei). This means he was more than just an informer, of whom there were millions in the Soviet Union. He was an active officer of the organization. Neither Kirill nor Alexei ever acknowledged or apologized for their ties with the security agencies."[105] Further reporting from March 7, 2022 from The Guardian's Emma Graham-Harrison interviewed local Ukrainians for their opinions about Kirill and the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine. The response was mostly a pessimistic view of Kirill and his motives towards Ukraine based on his past as a KGB agent:

Like many Ukrainians who no longer trust the Russian-linked churches in their country, Yuir is particularly wary of the Moscow Patriarch, Kirill, who according to material from Soviet archives was a government agent before the fall of the USSR. "Kirill is a KGB guy, and he supports all aggression against Ukraine," he said, but asked not to give his last name, worried like many in the town about community tensions about the church. "He’s a bastard, not a religious leader."[106]

Positions regarding Ukraine and Ukrainians prior to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

On July 18, 2014, despite Russia's intervention in Donbas and Russia's occupation of Crimea (during which Putin, according to his own statement, threatened to use nuclear weapons in case of resistance to the Russians[107]), Kirill said that Russia poses no military threat to anyone.[108]

On the same day, Putin stated that he wants to involve Patriarch Kirill as a negotiator for the peace process in Ukraine.[109]

On August 14, 2014, in an address to the heads of other Orthodox churches, Patriarch Kirill stated that the anti-terrorist operation in Eastern Ukraine is a war to eradicate Orthodoxy, waged by Catholics and Ukrainian Orthodox Autocephalists, whom he called "schismatics".[110]

On April 9, 2015, at a meeting with Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, Patriarch Kirill thanked him for his geopolitical support he gives to Russia and called the sanctions imposed on Russia for the occupation of Crimea and the aggression in Donbas "illegal and unfair."[111][112]

On December 25, 2017, according to the website of Russia's occupation administration of Crimea, Patriarch Kirill by his decree awarded the head of the occupation administration Serhiy Aksyonov and the head of the occupation "State Council of Crimea" Volodymyr Kostiantynov (both contributed to the occupation of Crimea and are wanted in Ukraine on charges of committing the actions aimed at seizing power by force, subverting the constitutional order, Ukraine's territorial integrity, and charges of committing a treason against the state and creating a criminal organization[113]) with 2 church awards, respectively, the Order of St. Prince Daniel of Moscow of the 2nd rank and the Order of St. Seraphim of Sarov of the 2nd rank.[114]

In May 2019, Patriarch Kirill said that the people who set the Odesa Trade Unions House alight "were possessed of the Devil", but didn't condemn Odesa anti-Maidan activists who had killed two Maidan activists, Igor Ivanov and Andrei Biryukov, on the same day earlier.[115]

During the vote on amendments to Russia's constitution, Kirill called upon Russians to support the amendments.[116]

While he explicitly mentioned a single amendment, the one that adds the mention of faith in God, saying that even atheists should vote for it, the voting itself was actually about the entire set of amendments, with people voting on all amendments at once, instead of voting on each amendment individually, one-by-one.

Among the amendments was the amendment to protect Russia's territorial integrity, which prohibits negotiations on the transfer of Russia's territories to other countries. Since Russia considers Crimea as its own territory, this amendment would effectively bar Russia from returning Crimea to Ukraine.

On October 15, 2021, at the opening of the VII Congress of Russian Compatriots in Moscow, he accused the West of trying to impose "false narratives" about World War II, stating the need to "protect" compatriots and Russians from Russia around the world, and said that not only do parishes of The Moscow Patriarchate unite Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians through religion, but also through Russian language. Kirill urged families of these peoples to teach their own children to love their "historical homeland" Russia and to raise their children as Russophones.[117]

Support for the Russian invasion of Ukraine, 2022

Patriarch Kirill has referred to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine as "current events" and has avoided using terms like war or invasion,[118] thereby complying with Russian censorship law.[119] Kirill approves of the invasion, and has blessed the Russian soldiers fighting there. As a consequence, several priests of the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine have stopped mentioning Kirill's name during the divine service.[120] The Moscow patriarchate views Ukraine as a part of their "canonic territory". Kirill has said that the Russian army has chosen a very correct way.[121]

Kirill sees gay pride parades as a part of the reason behind Russian warfare against Ukraine.[122] He has said that the war is not physically, but rather metaphysically, important.[123]

On March 6, 2022 (Forgiveness Sunday holiday), during the liturgy in the Church of Christ the Savior, he justified Russia's attack on Ukraine, stating that it was necessary to side with "Donbas" (i.e. Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republic), where he said there is an ongoing 8-year "genocide" by Ukraine and where, Kirill said, Ukraine wants to enforce gay pride events upon local population. Despite the holiday being dedicated to the concept of forgiveness, Kirill said there can't be forgiveness without delivering "justice" first, otherwise it's a capitulation and weakness.[124] The speech came under international scrutiny, as Kirill parroted President Putin's claim that Russia was fighting "fascism" in Ukraine.[55] Throughout the speech, Kirill did not use the term "Ukrainian", but rather referred to both Russians and Ukrainians simply as "Holy Russians", also claiming Russian soldiers in Ukraine were "laying down their lives for a friend", referencing the Gospel of John.[55]

On March 9, 2022, after the liturgy, he declared that Russia has the right to use force against Ukraine to ensure Russia's security, that Ukrainians and Russians are one people, that Russia and Ukraine are one country, that the West incites Ukrainians to kill Russians in order to sow discord between Russians and Ukrainians and gives weapons to Ukrainians for this specific purpose, and therefore the West is an enemy of Russia and God.[125]

In a letter to the World Council of Churches (WCC) sent in March 2022, Kirill justified the attack on Ukraine by NATO enlargement, the protection of Russian language, and the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine. In this letter, he did not express condolences over deaths among Ukrainians.[126][127]

Kirill participated in a Zoom video call with Pope Francis on March 16, 2022, of which Francis stated in an interview[128] that Kirill "read from a piece of paper he was holding in his hand all the reasons that justify the Russian invasion."[129]

On March 27, 2022, Kirill expressed his support for the actions of Rosgvardiya in Ukraine, praising its fighters for performing their military duty, and wished them God's help in this matter.[130]

In the aftermath of the Bucha massacre on April 3, Kirill, speaking in the Main Cathedral of the Russian Armed Forces, Kirill praised the armed forces for "feats" of service, saying Russia is "peaceful".[131]

Representatives of the Vatican have criticized Kirill for his lack of willingness to seek peace in Ukraine.[132] On April 3, the former Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams said there was a strong case for expelling the Russian Orthodox Church from the WCC, saying, "When a Church is actively supporting a war of aggression, failing to condemn nakedly obvious breaches of any kind of ethical conduct in wartime, then other Churches do have the right to raise the question ... I am still waiting for any senior member of the Orthodox hierarchy to say that the slaughter of the innocent is condemned unequivocally by all forms of Christianity."[133]

The Russian Orthodox St Nicholas church in Amsterdam, Netherlands, has declared that it is no longer possible to function within the Moscow patriarchate because of the attitude that Kirill has to the Russian invasion, and instead requested to join the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.[134] The Russian-Orthodox Church in Lithuania has declared that they do not share the political views and perception of Kirill and therefore are seeking independence from Moscow.[135]

On April 10, 2022, 200 priests from the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) released an open request to the primates of the other autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches, asking them to convene a Council of Primates of the Ancient Eastern Churches at the Pan-Orthodox level and try Kirill for the heresy of preaching the "Doctrine of the Russian World" and the moral crimes of "blessing the war against Ukraine and fully supporting the aggressive nature of Russian troops on the territory of Ukraine." They noted that they "can't continue to remain in any form of canonical subordination to the Moscow Patriarch," and requested that the Council of Primates "bring Patriarch Kirill to justice and deprive him of the right to hold the patriarchal throne."[136][137]

On May 4, 2022, Kirill was included in a list of 58 entities proposed for sanctions by the European Commission in relation to the invasion of Ukraine, according to Agence France-Presse.[129][138]

Personal life

Wealth

According to a Forbes article in 2006, Kirill's wealth was $4 billion,[139] and a 2019 Novaya Gazeta report estimated his worth at $4 billion to $8 billion, although the figures have not been verified.[140] According to a 2020 investigation by Proekt, Kirill and two of his second cousins owned nine separate pieces of real estate worth $2.87 million in the Moscow Region and St. Petersburg.[140]

In 2009, Kirill was photographed wearing a $30,000 gold Breguet watch.[141] The Orthodox Church airbrushed the watch (but not its reflection on the table at which Kirill was sitting)[141] out of the photo,[1] while Kirill claimed that the watch had been doctored into the image.[142] Kirill later admitted that he did in fact own the watch.[142]

Honours and awards

Church awards

Russian Orthodox Church
  • Order of St. Prince Vladimir 2nd class (16 September 1973)
  • Order of St. Sergius of Radonezh, 1st and 2nd class
  • Order of the Holy Prince Daniel of Moscow, 1st class
  • Order of St. Innocent Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna, 2nd class
  • Order of St. Alexis the Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia, 2nd class
  • Named Panagia (1988) – for active participation in the preparation and conduct of the Jubilee celebrations of the 1000th anniversary of Christianity in Russia
  • Order of Saint Anthony and Theodosius of the Caves, 1st class (UOC-MP, 2006)
  • Order of Saint Stephen the Great pious governor, 2nd class (Orthodox Church of Moldova, 2006) – in recognition of diligent service, and the glory of the Orthodox Church in Moldova
  • Silver Jubilee Medal of St. Apostle Peter (St. Petersburg diocese, 2003)
  • Order in honour of the 450th anniversary of bringing the land Pochayiv Volyn icons (UOC-MP, 2009)
  • Order of St. Theodosius of Chernigov (Ukrainian Orthodox Church, 2011)
Awards of local orthodox churches
  • Order of Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Georgian, Serbian, Bulgarian, Hellenic, Poland, the Czech Lands and Slovakia, Finland and America.
  • Order of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, I degree (Antiochian Orthodox Church, 2011)[citation needed]
  • Gold Medal of St. Innocent (2009, The Orthodox Church in America)[citation needed]
Awards of other churches and denominations

Awards of the Russian Federation

  • Order of Merit for the Fatherland;
    • 2nd class (20 November 2006) – for his great personal contribution to the spiritual and cultural traditions and strengthening friendship between peoples
    • 3rd class (11 August 2000) – for outstanding contribution to the strengthening of civil peace and the revival of spiritual and moral traditions
  • Order of Alexander Nevsky (7 January 2011) – for outstanding personal contribution to the Motherland in the preservation of spiritual and cultural traditions
  • Order of Friendship (28 December 1995) – for services to the state, the progress made in implementing a comprehensive program of construction, reconstruction and restoration of historic and cultural sites in Moscow
  • Order of Friendship of Peoples (1988)
  • Medal "50 Years of Victory in Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945."
  • Jubilee Medal "300th Anniversary of Russian Navy" (1996)
  • Medal "In memory of the 850th anniversary of Moscow" (1997)
  • Gratitude of the President of the Russian Federation (14 August 1995) – for active participation in the preparation and conduct of the 50th anniversary of Victory in Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945
  • Diploma of the State Duma of the Russian Federation (2001)

Foreign awards

Honorary citizenships

Lukoyanovsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (2000), Smolensk Oblast (5 February 2009), Kaliningrad Oblast (5 March 2009), Kemerovo Oblast (2010), Smolensk (2003), the selo of Rizskoye of Smolensk Oblast (2004), Neman of Kaliningrad Oblast (2006), Vyazemsky District of Smolensk Oblast (2006), Kaliningrad (2006), Khoroshyovo-Mnyovniki District of Moscow (2006), Republic of Mordovia (2011 – for outstanding contribution to the preservation and development of domestic spiritual and moral traditions, strengthening of interaction of church and state).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "A spiritual defense of the war in Ukraine? Putin's patriarch is trying". Los Angeles Times. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  2. ^ Cichowlas, Ola (14 April 2017). "Patriarch Kirill: From Ambitious Reformer to State Hardliner". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  3. ^ a b MacFarquhar, Neil; Kishkovsky, Sophia (18 April 2022). "Ukraine War Divides Orthodox Faithful". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Биография Святейшего Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла". Official Website of the Moscow Patriarchate. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia". Official Website of the Department of External Church Relations. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  6. ^ "Russians bid farewell to Patriarch at grand funeral". Moscow: Reuters. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
  7. ^ Упокоился с миром (in Russian). Moscow: Gazeta.ru. 9 December 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
  8. ^ Russia’s prospective church leader says opposed to reforms RIA Novosti 29 December 2008.
  9. ^ На Московский Патриарший Престол избран митрополит Смоленский и Калининградский Кирилл MP official web site, 27 January 2009.
  10. ^ (in Russian) Имя нового Патриарха названо: Кирилл NEWSru 27 January 2009.
  11. ^ Незнакомый патриарх, или Чему нас учит история храма Христа Спасителя Archived 1 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Izvestia 26 January 2009.
  12. ^ Dzyuban, Diomid (19 June 2008). "Problems should be solved" Проблемы надо решать [Problemy nado reshat]. christian-spirit.ru (Interview) (in Russian). [s.l.]: Дух христианина. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008.
  13. ^ "Russian Church against compromise on belief-preaching with Catholics - Metropolitan Kirill". interfax-religion.com. Moscow. Interfax. 21 January 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009.
  14. ^ Erasmus (pseud.) (13 February 2016). "From the New World, a pope and a patriarch address old-world fights". The Economist (blog). London. Archived from the original on 14 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  15. ^ "Historic encounter between the Pope and Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia: Orthodox and Catholics are brothers, not competitors". visnews-en.blogspot.com. Vatican City: Vatican Information Service. 13 February 2016. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016. Includes full text of the Joint Declaration.
  16. ^ "Unity call as Pope Francis holds historic talks with Russian Orthodox Patriarch". bbc.co.uk. BBC. 12 February 2016. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  17. ^ "Patriarch Kirill meets with Primate of Malankara Church / News / Patriarchate.ru". Patriarchate.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  18. ^ "Patriarch Kirill meets with Primate of Malankara Church". The Orthodox World. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Russian and Malankara Orthodox churches form working committee". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  20. ^ a b "ЖУРНАЛЫ заседания Священного Синода Русской Православной Церкви от 31 марта 2009 года / Официальные документы / Патриархия.ru". Патриархия.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  21. ^ "В Русской Православной Церкви создан Секретариат Московской Патриархии по зарубежным учреждениям / Новости / Патриархия.ru". Патриархия.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  22. ^ "Исполнилось 65 лет со дня основания Отдела внешних церковных связей / Православие.Ru". www.pravoslavie.ru. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  23. ^ "Решением Священного Синода образован Среднеазиатский митрополичий округ / Новости / Патриархия.ru". Патриархия.ru. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  24. ^ "ЖУРНАЛЫ заседания Священного Синода от 5-6 октября 2011 года". Патриархия.ru. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  25. ^ Fidel Castro considers Metropolitan Kirill his ally in opposing American imperialism Archived 13 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Interfax 23 October 2008.
  26. ^ Митрополит Кирилл встретился с Фиделем Кастро ROC official web site, 21 October 2008
  27. ^ Фидель Кастро считает митрополита Кирилла своим союзником в противостоянии американскому империализму ROC official web site, 21 October 2008
  28. ^ The Russian Orthodox Church awards the Castro brothers Archived 13 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Interfax 20 October 2008.
  29. ^ "Игрок глобального масштаба. 60-летие митрополита Кирилла через призму украинских церковных проблем". Portal-credo.ru. 27 February 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  30. ^ Митрополит Кирилл после Украины. В минуты «триумфа» не грех вспомнить и о неудачах нынешнего председателя ОВЦС МП Oleg Vladimirov, 1 August 2008
  31. ^ Первые киевские итоги: методы церковной внешней политики РПЦ МП и роль одной личности в одной истории portal-credo.ru 24 July 2008
  32. ^ Патриаршее поздравление А.Г. Лукашенко с переизбранием на пост Президента Республики Беларусь / Патриарх / Патриархия.ru. Patriarchia.ru (22 December 2010). Retrieved on 1 November 2013.
  33. ^ Patriarch Kirill wishes Lukashenko to invariably develop fraternal relations with Russia. Interfax-Religion. 23 December 201.
  34. ^ Official Site of the Patriarch of Moscow Патриаршее поздравление А.Г. Лукашенко с переизбранием на пост Президента Республики Беларусь (Patriarchal congratulations to AG Lukashenko on being re-elected as President of the Republic of Belarus), 22 December 2010.
  35. ^ Interfax. Patriarch Kirill wishes Lukashenko to invariably develop fraternal relations with Russia, 22 December 2010.
  36. ^ "A nasty surprise in Belarus". The Economist. 29 December 2010.
  37. ^ "Putin and the Patriarchs: how geopolitics tore apart the Orthodox church". Financial Times. 21 August 2019.
  38. ^ "Statement of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church in connection with the encroachment of the Patriarchate of Constantinople on the canonical territory of the Russian Church". Official Website of the Press Service of the Moscow Patriarchate. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  39. ^ a b c "The Pope, the Patriarchs, and the Battle to Save Ukraine". The New Yorker. 12 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  40. ^ a b c "Moscow patriarch stokes Orthodox tensions with war remarks". AP NEWS. 8 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  41. ^ "US Christian leaders ask Kirill to speak out, 'reconsider' comments on Ukraine". religionnews.com. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  42. ^ "Orthodox Church enthrones leader". BBC. 31 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
  43. ^ Патриарх Кирилл призвал Церковь и государство к взаимодействию NEWSru 2 February 2009.
  44. ^ Miedwiediew: Państwo będzie wspierało Cerkiew Gazeta Wyborcza 2 February 2009.
  45. ^ Архипастыри — участники Поместного Собора присутствовали на приеме в Георгиевском зале Большого кремлевского дворца patriarchi.ru 2 February 2009.
  46. ^ Приём от имени Президента России в честь архиереев – участников Поместного собора Русской православной церкви Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. kremlin.ru. 2 February 2009.
  47. ^ Слово Святейшего Патриарха Московского и всея Руси Кирилла после интронизации 1 февраля 2009 года в соборном Храме Христа Спасителя. mospat.ru. 1 February 2009
  48. ^ "Russian patriarch calls Putin era "miracle of God"". Reuters. 8 February 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012.
  49. ^ Bennetts, Marc. "Vladimir Putin, Patriarch Kirill alliance puts atheists at risk in Russia". The Washington Times. Retrieved 30 November 2016. Mr. Putin, a former KGB officer, attends church services and portrays himself as a staunch defender of “Christian values.” In return, the Orthodox Church frequently issues public statements of support for Kremlin policies. Most recently, a church spokesman described Russia’s military campaign in Syria part of a “holy battle” against international terrorism.
  50. ^ Baczynska, Gabriela; Heneghan, Tom (6 October 2016). "How the Russian Orthodox Church answers Putin's prayers in Ukraine". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 30 November 2016. The ROC's close ties to the state were on display early in the Ukraine crisis when Kirill and the Russian Foreign Ministry issued nearly identical statements, warning against a confrontation and speaking of the larger Russia's "brotherly" Ukraine. When Russia sent its troops to Crimea, one of the justifications it used was an alleged threat to parishes there linked to Kirill's Moscow Patriarchate. Kirill's full title is "Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus," a reference to a medieval state in Kiev to which modern Russia traces its roots.
  51. ^ Woods, Mark (3 March 2016). "How the Russian Orthodox Church is backing Vladimir Putin's new world order". Christian Today. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  52. ^ "Patriarch Kirill's address to the hierarchs, clergy, monastics, and faithful of the Russian Orthodox Church / Patriarch / Patriarchate.ru". Patriarchate.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  53. ^ "Moscow Patriarch Kirill, Ukrainian Orthodox leaders issue calls for peace". Religion News Service. 24 February 2022.
  54. ^ "AFP News Agency on Twitter: "#UPDATE The head of the Russian Orthodox Church has called Moscow's opponents in Ukraine "evil forces", speaking on the fourth day of the Kremlin's invasion of its pro-Western neighbour"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  55. ^ a b c Kelaidis, Katherine (4 April 2022). "The Russian Patriarch Just Gave His Most Dangerous Speech Yet — And Almost No One In the West Has Noticed". Religion Dispatches. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  56. ^ "Russian patriarch calls Putin era "miracle of God"". Reuters. 8 February 2012.
  57. ^ "Пять вещей, которых не было у патриарха Кирилла".
  58. ^ Слово на президента Румен Радев по повод Националния празник на България – Трети март 3 March 2018, www.president.bg, accessed 23 April 2022
  59. ^ "Приехал и "наехал": патриарх Кирилл в Болгарии".
  60. ^ "С позиций силы: зачем Патриарх Кирилл болгар обидел?".
  61. ^ Симеонов: Държавата не трябва да участва в управлението, а в контрола на ЧЕЗ 7 March 2018 news.bnt.bg, accessed 23 April 2022
  62. ^ "Темида: Посещението на руския патрирах Кирил през 2018 г е политическо, Валери Симеонов не е обидил московския гост".
  63. ^ В полевом храме на базе "Хмеймим" в Сирии прошла рождественская служба www.interfax.ru
  64. ^ "Патриарх Кирилл поддержал военную операцию России в Сирии".
  65. ^ Митрополит Смоленский и Калининградский Кирилл portal-credo.ru
  66. ^ a b c Nathaniel Davis (2000). Tribulations, trials and Troubles for the Russian Orthodox Church. Religion in Eastern Europe 20 (6): 39–50. Archived 5 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ (in Russian) Божественные голоса Archived 30 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine The New Times № 50, 15 December 2008.
  68. ^ (in Russian) Уходящий год ознаменовался историческим событием: две разделенные части Православной Церкви — Русская Православная Церковь (РПЦ) и Русская Православная Церковь Заграницей (РПЦЗ) — подписали Акт о каноническом общении Archived 3 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine The New Times № 46, 24 December 2007
  69. ^ Митрополит Кирилл: «Пусть благословенье Божье пребывает со всеми нами» Archived 4 September 2012 at archive.today Izvestia, 24 December 2002.
  70. ^ Бывший глава налоговой службы России опровергает слухи о причастности митрополита Кирилла к торговле алкоголем и табаком (22 January 2009)
  71. ^ РПЦ и табачные акцизы: как это было? (21 января 2009)
  72. ^ a b c d Walker, Shaun (5 April 2012). "Plight of punk rockers turns Russians against the Church". The Independent. London. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  73. ^ Elder, Miriam (17 August 2012) Pussy Riot sentenced to two years in prison colony for hooliganism | Music. theguardian.com. Retrieved on 1 November 2013.
  74. ^ "Open letter of Fr. Sergy (Ribko) to Sir Paul McCartney - A Russian Orthodox Church Website". www.pravmir.com. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  75. ^ a b Pussy Riot Were Wrong -- by Dennis Sewell at Spectator.co.uk. Retrieved on 10 November 2016
  76. ^ a b Pussy? I prefer their old stuff -- By Courtney Weaver for the Financial Times. Retrieved on 10 November 2016
  77. ^ Pussy Riot: Putin-bashing, punk rock and politics make for a riotous mix -- By Geoffrey Macnab for The Independent. Retrieved on 10 November 2016
  78. ^ "Slideshow: Russia Remains Divided on The Pussy Riot Case". Public Radio International. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  79. ^ Punk Riffs Take on God and Putin -- By Sophia Kishkovsky for The New York Times. Retrieved on 10 November 2016
  80. ^ Ballerina Says Pussy Riot Should Clean Toilets -- By Julia Karlysheva for The Moscow Times. Retrieved on 10 November 2016
  81. ^ "Pussy Riot". www.israelshamir.net. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  82. ^ Pussy Riot closing statements (translated into English), n+1 magazine, accessed 19 August 2012.
  83. ^ Alessandro Speciale (17 October 2012). "Pope backs Orthodox Church against Pussy Riot desecration". La Stampa. Archived from the original on 3 February 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  84. ^ Unorthodox behaviour rattles Russian church Financial Times, 14 April 2012 (paper edition).
  85. ^ a b The strange case of the Patriarch, some sand, and 20 million rouble lawsuit. Siberianlight.net. 19 April 2012.
  86. ^ Ex-Minister Made to Pay Over 'Toxic Dust' Moscow Times, 9 April 2012
  87. ^ Думали, что однофамилец. Lenta.ru. 5 May 2012.
  88. ^ Сын хирурга Шевченко рассказал о конфликте вокруг «квартиры патриарха». Tvrain.ru (27 March 2012). Retrieved on 1 November 2013.
  89. ^ Piatakov, Sergei (6 April 2012) Former Minister Pays For 'Dusting' Patriarch's Flat. RIA Novosti.
  90. ^ Патриарх Кирилл прокомментировал суд за соседскую квартиру: простить обидчика было бы "некорректно" NEWSru, 30 March 2012.
  91. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (5 April 2012). "In Russia, a Watch Vanishes Up Kirill's Sleeve". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2016. Sorting through gifts he had received over the years, the patriarch discovered that he did indeed own the Breguet, Mr. Solovyov said. But he insisted that that he had never worn it and said he suspected that any photos of him wearing it had been altered with Photoshop.
  92. ^ "Patriarch Kirill found Breguet watch among his presents, but says he never wore it". Interfax-Religion. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  93. ^ "Часы Патриарха - запятая над i". Записки бывшего атеиста (in Russian). 30 March 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  94. ^ a b Schwirtz, Michael (5 April 2012). "$30,000 Watch Vanishes Up Church Leader's Sleeve". The New York Times Co. Retrieved 9 February 2016. Editors doctored a photograph on the church’s Web site of the leader, Patriarch Kirill I, extending a black sleeve where there once appeared to be a Breguet timepiece worth at least $30,000. The church might have gotten away with the ruse if it had not failed to also erase the watch’s reflection, which appeared in the photo on the highly glossed table where the patriarch was seated.
  95. ^ a b "Russia's Patriarch Kirill in furore over luxury watch". BBC. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  96. ^ "The wristwatch shot seen 'round Russia". World Now. Los Angeles Times. 6 April 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  97. ^ Walker, Shaun (4 April 2012). "Plight of punk rockers turns Russians against the Church". Retrieved 9 February 2016. The attacks have become more prominent during the pre-election and post-election period", said the Supreme Church Council in a statement yesterday, apparently referring to both the performance by Pussy Riot and the scandals. "[This] shows their political and also anti-Russian motives.
  98. ^ Patriarch Awarded Shoe, Saint-Petersburg Times, 21 June 2012.
  99. ^ Solomon, Feliz (30 May 2017). "Russia's Highest Religious Authority Just Compared Gay Marriage to Nazi Germany". The Times. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  100. ^ AsiaNews.it. "Russian Orthodox against Jehovah's Witnesses". www.asianews.it. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  101. ^ "Russia: Court Bans Jehovah's Witnesses". Human Rights Watch. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  102. ^ "Opposition to Jehovah's Witnesses in Russia: Legal measures | IIRF". www.iirf.eu. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  103. ^ "'We Liked to Sing. Now We Can Only Whisper.' How Russia Is Stepping Up Its Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses". Time. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  104. ^ Zarakhovich, Yuri (17 May 2007). "Putin's Reunited Russian Church". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  105. ^ Satter, David. "Putin Runs The Russian State--And The Russian Church Too". Forbes. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  106. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (7 March 2022). "Ukraine's pro-Russian monasteries draw local suspicion". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  107. ^ "Путін про анексію Криму: РФ була готова привести у бойову готовність атомну зброю | DW | 15.03.2015". Deutsche Welle.
  108. ^ https://www.interfax-religion.ru/?act=news&div=55957[bare URL]
  109. ^ "Интерфакс-Религия: Путин намерен привлечь патриарха Кирилла к урегулированию конфликта на Украине".
  110. ^ "Обращение Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла в связи с ситуацией на Украине к Предстоятелям Поместных Православных Церквей / Православие.Ru".
  111. ^ "Святейший Патриарх Кирилл встретился с премьер-министром Греческой Республики Алексисом Ципрасом / Видеоматериалы / Патриархия.ru".
  112. ^ https://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/4028475.html www.patriarchia.ru[bare URL]
  113. ^ Сприяли окупації Криму: Україна заочно судитиме Аксьонова, Поклонську і Константинова prm.ua
  114. ^ "Барьер - Крымтехнологии".
  115. ^ "Святейший Патриарх Кирилл принял участие в голосовании по поправкам к Конституции Российской Федерации / Новости / Патриархия.ru".
  116. ^ "Святейший Патриарх Кирилл принял участие в голосовании по поправкам к Конституции Российской Федерации / Новости / Патриархия.ru".
  117. ^ "Видеообращение Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла к участникам VII Всемирного конгресса российских соотечественников, проживающих за рубежом / Патриарх / Патриархия.ru".
  118. ^ "The Orthodox Response to Putin's Invasion". Commonweal. 27 February 2022.
  119. ^ Tebor, Celina. "Russia increases censorship with new law: 15 years in jail for calling Ukraine invasion a 'war'". USA Today.
  120. ^ "Патріарх Кирило благословив війська РФ на війну проти України. Як це сталось". BBC News Україна.
  121. ^ "After supporting Ukraine invasion, Russia's Patriarch Kirill criticized worldwide". National Catholic Reporter. 15 March 2022.
  122. ^ Sangal, Aditi; Vogt, Adrienne; Wagner, Meg; Yeung, Jessie; George, Steve; Noor Haq, Sana; Ramsay, George; Upright, Ed; Vera, Amir; Chowdhury, Maureen (8 March 2022). "Russian Orthodox Church alleges gay pride parades were part of the reason for Ukraine war". CNN. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  123. ^ "Russia's Patriarch Kirill defends invasion of Ukraine, stoking Orthodox tensions". National Catholic Reporter. 8 March 2022.
  124. ^ "Патриаршая проповедь в Неделю сыропустную после Литургии в Храме Христа Спасителя / Патриарх / Патриархия.ru".
  125. ^ "Патриаршая проповедь в среду первой седмицы Великого поста после Литургии Преждеосвященных Даров в Храме Христа Спасителя / Патриарх / Патриархия.ru".
  126. ^ https://www.oikoumene.org/sites/default/files/2022-03/Scan%20of%20the%20official%20letter.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  127. ^ "Response by H.H. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow to Rev. Prof. Dr Ioan Sauca".
  128. ^ Fontana, Luciano (5 March 2022). "Exclusive | Pope Francis: «I am ready to meet Putin in Moscow»". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  129. ^ a b CNA. "Report: EU commission proposes sanctions against Patriarch Kirill". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  130. ^ "Поздравление Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла по случаю Дня войск национальной гвардии России / Патриарх / Патриархия.ru".
  131. ^ "Слово Святейшего Патриарха Кирилла в Неделю 4-ю Великого поста после Литургии в главном храме Вооруженных сил РФ / Патриарх / Патриархия.ru".
  132. ^ "With war in Ukraine, Pope Francis' years long outreach to Kirill appears to be in ruins". 10 March 2022.
  133. ^ Hudson, Patrick (4 April 2022). "Expel Russian Orthodox from WCC says Rowan Williams". The Tablet. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  134. ^ "Russian Orthodox church in Amsterdam announces split with Moscow". the Guardian. 13 March 2022.
  135. ^ "Orthodox Church of Lithuania to seek independence from Moscow". orthodoxtimes.com.
  136. ^ "About 200 priests of the UOC-MP demand International Ecclesiastical Tribunal for Kiril". Religious Information Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  137. ^ "Pressure on Kirill intensifies – 400 priests call for condemnation by world Orthodoxy", Orthodox Times, 14 April 2022
  138. ^ Horowitz, Jason (21 May 2022). "The Russian Orthodox Leader at the Core of Putin's Ambitions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  139. ^ "Putin Runs The Russian State--And The Russian Church Too". Forbes. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  140. ^ a b "New 'Proekt' investigation uncovers millions of dollars in real estate belonging to Patriarch Kirill and his family members". Meduza. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  141. ^ a b "Russia's Patriarch Kirill in furore over luxury watch". BBC News. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  142. ^ a b Schwirtz, Michael (6 April 2012). "$30,000 Watch Vanishes Up Church Leader's Sleeve". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  143. ^ "Russian Orthodox delegation led by Metropolitan Kirill visit Chinnai and Kerala, India". Russian Orthodox Church. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  144. ^ "Председник Вучић уручио одликовања поводом Дана државности Републике Србије". Председник Републике Србије. Retrieved 24 February 2021.

External links

Eastern Orthodox Church titles
Preceded by Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia
2009–present
Incumbent
Preceded by Metropolitan Bishop of Smolensk
1984–2009
Succeeded by