2022 Russian mobilization

On 21 September 2022, seven months into the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russia declared a partial mobilization of military reservists. The decision was made a day after the announcement of the Russian annexation of the DPR, LPR, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia oblasts.[4][5]

2022 Russian mobilization
Проводы призванных в рамках мобилизации на площади Нахимова, 2022, 02.jpg
Mobilized Russian recruits in Sevastopol
Native name Частичная мобилизация в России (Chastichnaya mobilizatsiya v Rossii)
Date21 September 2022 – present[1][a]
Location Russia
Cause
Organised byRussian Ministry of Defense
Mobilization plan
  • ≈300,000 people (according to the Ministry of Defense)
  • Clause No. 7, which details the exact number of people to be mobilized, is classified.[3]

The announcement of mobilization was seen as a significant escalation of Russia's military efforts in the war with Ukraine. Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu announced that Russia had a "huge mobilization reserve" and planned to mobilize 300,000 recruits.[6] The precise details of the mobilization plans are currently unclear, however, as the exact number of people to be mobilized is classified.[7]

On October 28, Shoigu told Russian president Vladimir Putin that mobilization had been completed, which was followed an announcement by Putin of its completion.[8][9] However, it has been speculated that mobilization will only end after Putin signs a relevant decree, and that covert mobilization would still occur. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov refuted this claim, but as of late December numerous military analysts and media outlets maintain that mobilization continues to take place in Russia.[10][11]

BackgroundEdit

According to The Moscow Times, Russian authorities had repeatedly rejected the possibility of mobilization at least 15 times prior to the announcement of partial mobilization.[12][13][14] For example, on 8 March, Vladimir Putin publicly promised that no reservists would be called upon to fight in Ukraine.[15][16]

Russia had previously avoided declaring mobilization in Ukraine until this point.[2] Previously, mobilizations were conducted in the Russian Empire during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904[17] and at the beginning of World War I in 1914. The Soviet Union mobilized its population and industry following the 1941 Nazi German invasion during World War II.[18]

Donetsk and Luhansk People's RepublicsEdit

 
The first page of the Decree of the President of Russia "On the announcement of partial mobilization in the Russian Federation"
 
Crimea, which Russia annexed in 2014, is shown in pink. Pink in the Donbas area represents areas held by the DPR/LPR separatists in September 2014 (cities in red)

On 19 February 2022, general mobilization began in the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics (DNR and LNR), which at that time were not recognized by any sovereign state, including Russia. Tens of thousands of local residents were forcibly mobilized for the war (according to one estimate, up to 140,000 people by mid-June 2022).[19][20][21]

The mobilization was accompanied by mass raids on men of military age. In the enterprises of the region, up to 80% of employees were called up, which led to shutdown of mines and public transport, as well as the paralysis of cities and public services. To avoid mobilization, residents hid or tried to illegally leave the republics.[20]

The mobilization revealed numerous problems of the armed forces of the DNR and LNR. Recruits without training and combat experience found themselves on the front lines without adequate supplies: the units lacked uniforms, weapons, food, and medicines. Human rights activists reported a huge death toll among mobilized recruits in clashes with the better-trained Ukrainian military – up to 30,000 as of August 2022.[20][21]

RussiaEdit

Distribution of mobilization summonses for reservists began in April. The summonses handed out did not indicate the purpose of the call-up. Presumably, they were sent out to invite men to military registration and enlistment offices, where they would draft contracts to take part in the mobilization of reserves.[22]

On 28 May, the Russian parliament amended their military call-up legislation, thereby removing the age limit for those wishing to enlist.[23]

After Ukrainian counteroffensives in September 2022, Putin came under increasing pressure from Russian ultra-nationalists and pro-war activists such as Igor Girkin and Alexander Kots, who called for full mobilization and all-out war against Ukraine.[24] Girkin said full mobilization in Russia was the "last chance" for victory.[25]

Russian lossesEdit

In September, Russian Defense Minister Shoigu announced that the Russian military had suffered 5,937 soldiers killed during the war, and that 90% of the wounded had returned to battle. Shoigu's statement was widely regarded to be misleading; as of 16 September, Russian forces had suffered at least 6,476 deaths confirmed by name, according to the BBC. Even this number was confirmed to be low; the list of losses provided by the BBC could be at least 40–60% less than the number of actual military dead buried in Russia, not to mention soldiers whose bodies were left in Ukraine or were deliberately marked as "missing in action".[26]

The BBC collected data on the deaths of more than a thousand elite military professionals, including more than 70 military pilots, more than 370 marines, hundreds of paratroopers, and more than 200 GRU special forces soldiers, of which one in four were an officer.[26] On 21 September, the General Staff of Ukraine gave a figure of 55,100 losses of Russian forces.[27]

On 12 October, citing sources close to the Kremlin, the independent Russian media project iStories reported that more than 90,000 Russian soldiers had been killed, seriously wounded or gone missing in Ukraine.[28][29]

PreludeEdit

Volunteer recruitment campaignEdit

Even before the Kharkiv counteroffensive, the personnel situation in Russia was already considered critical, with personnel from other war zones, such as Syria and South Ossetia, begin redeployed to Ukraine in order to make up for the lack of manpower.[30][31]

Around June and July 2022, local authorities of the federal subjects of Russia were tasked with doing a recruitment campaign in order to form new military formations, in what was called a "covert mobilization".[32] Each federal subejct was to form and send a "volunteer battalion". Volunteers were offered short-term contracts with a pay of 40,000 to 50,000 rubles that will increase to 130,000 rubles once they enter in Ukraine.[32][33] By August, the newly-mobilized volunteer units were grouped in the 3rd Army Corps.[34]

Legislative changesEdit

On 20 September, the day before the mobilization, the Putin-controlled State Duma of Russia unanimously adopted amendments to include the concepts of mobilization, martial law and wartime in the Criminal Code, and introduced several articles related to military operations. Now, during the period of mobilization, voluntary surrender was now punishable by a 10-year prison sentence; looting up to 15 years, and unauthorized abandonment of a military unit up to 10 years. Criminal liability was also introduced for reserve recruits who failed to show up for training, and desertion. The law also introduced punishment for failure to comply with an order, as well as for refusing to participate in hostilities and operations.[35][36]

Political scientist Ekaterina Schulmann noted that on the official portal of the State Duma, the bill was marked as adopted by both houses of parliament, signed by the president and published, although only the State Duma had voted for it at that moment.[37]

Recruitment of prisonersEdit

Beginning in July 2022, Wagner PMC representatives began visiting Russian penal colonies. According to media sources, Wagner first began a recruiting tour from the colonies for former security forces, and then switched to high-security institutions. He invited the prisoners to take part in hostilities as part of his PMC in exchange for a pardon, removal of their criminal record, a Russian passport, and cash payments (100 thousand rubles per month, 5 million in case of death).[38]

Seven days prior to the mobilization order, a video appeared to confirm the recruitment of prisoners by Wagner.[39][40] In the video, Wagner leader Yevgeny Prigozhin spoke to a crowd of prisoners, outlining three "sins"—desertion, "drugs and alcohol," and "marauding" (giving the example of rape)—while telling them about "two grenades you must have with you when surrendering." He told them their tour of duty would last six months before receiving a full pardon, that there would be no obligation to return to prison, and that individuals who initially took up the offer but then chose not to participate would be marked as deserters and executed. Prigozhin reportly gave the prisoners only five minutes to make a decision.[41]

The Russia Behind Bars foundation has collected reports about recruitment of prisoners - according to this data, 9,728 people have been recruited as of 14 September 2022.[42]

Putin's speechEdit

After a delay in broadcasting[43] Vladimir Putin announces a partial mobilization in his address on the morning of 21 September. (Subtitled in English)

On 21 September, Vladimir Putin announced the mobilization in Russia in a pre-recorded speech which aired at 9:00 Moscow time. The speech followed the State Duma's amendments to the Criminal Code.[44] In his televised address, he said that Russia was at war with the "collective West," implicitly threatening the use of nuclear weapons.[45][46] He said that "in order to protect our motherland, its sovereignty and territorial integrity, and to ensure the safety of our people and people in the liberated territories", he decided to declare a "partial mobilization" of the Russian reserve force.[45] In his speech, Putin stated that the mobilization was suggested to him by the Ministry of Defense and General Staff of the Armed Forces. Putin said that only citizens with prior military experience would be eligible for mobilization, and would receive the same conditions as contract soldiers.[47]

Putin accused the United States and European Union of "nuclear blackmail" against the Russian Federation, and recalled the presence of their own weapons. Putin reaffirmed his support for the annexation referendums in occupied Ukrainian territories, pointing to the referendums as a justification for Russia to mobilize.[44]

In his address to the Russian audience, Putin demonized the "Nazi" West and claimed that the Ukrainian government was sending soldiers to the front lines as "cannon fodder". Putin also claimed that the West was trying to divide Russia.[48] Despite the successful Ukrainian counteroffensive in the Kharkiv and Kherson regions, Putin maintained in his address that Russia's goals in Ukraine had not changed.

DecreeEdit

Shortly after Putin's speech, an official decree was published enacting the announced mobilization:[49][50]

  1. Declare partial mobilization in the Russian Federation from 21 September 2022.
  2. Сarry out the call-up of citizens of the Russian Federation for military service for mobilization in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Citizens of the Russian Federation called up for military service by mobilization have the status of military personnel serving in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation under a contract.
  3. Establish that the level of pay for citizens of the Russian Federation called up for military service for mobilization into the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation corresponds to the level of pay for military personnel serving in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation under a contract.
  4. Contracts for military service concluded by military personnel continue to be valid until the end of the period of partial mobilization, with the exception of cases of dismissal of military personnel from military service on the grounds established by this Decree.
  5. Establish during the period of partial mobilization the following grounds for the dismissal from military service of military personnel undergoing military service under a contract, as well as citizens of the Russian Federation called up for military service for mobilization in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation:
    1. by age – upon reaching the age limit for military service;
    2. for health reasons – in connection with their recognition by the military medical commission as unfit for military service, with the exception of military personnel who have expressed a desire to continue military service in military positions that can be replaced by the specified military personnel;
    3. in connection with the entry into force of a court verdict on the imposition of a sentence of imprisonment.
  6. To the Government of the Russian Federation:
    1. to finance activities for partial mobilization;
    2. take the necessary measures to meet the needs of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, other troops, military formations and bodies during the period of partial mobilization.
  7. For official use only (classified)[51]
  8. The highest officials of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall ensure the conscription of citizens for military service for mobilization in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in the number and within the time limits determined by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation for each constituent entity of the Russian Federation.
  9. Grant citizens of the Russian Federation working in organizations of the military-industrial complex the right to deferment from conscription for military service for mobilization (for the period of work in these organizations). The categories of citizens of the Russian Federation who are granted the right to deferment and the procedure for granting it are determined by the Government of the Russian Federation.
  10. This Decree shall enter into force on the day of its official publication.[5]

Point 7Edit

Point number 7 of the decree is classified. In the public version of the decree posted on Russian government websites, point 7 was not available and was marked as "for official use."[52][53] Peskov told press that the classified clause referred to the number of reservists who could be called up for military service.[3]

The banned opposition newspaper Novaya Gazeta, operating in exile, reported on September 22, 2022, that the classified point 7 gives the Defense Department permission to mobilize up to one million men.[54][55] Putin's spokesperson Dmitry Peskov denied this, calling the reports "a lie."[3] On September 23, 2022, a source close to one of Russia's federal ministries told Meduza that 1.2 million people were going to be conscripted.[56][57] Peskov also denied this.[58]

OrganizationEdit

Text of decreeEdit

The decree does not say that only reserve servicemen are subject to conscription.[59] It lists the grounds for dismissal from military service – age, state of health, court sentence to imprisonment.[59][5] Deferment from conscription is granted to employees of the military-industrial complex.[60]

The law on mobilization also limits citizens registered with the military from leaving the country:[61]

Citizens who are registered with the military, from the moment of the announcement of mobilization, are prohibited from leaving their place of residence without the permission of military commissariats, federal executive bodies that have a reserve.

— The paragraph 2 of the article 21 of the Federal Law of 26 February 1997 No. 31-FZ "About mobilization preparation and mobilization in the Russian Federation"

The State Duma deputies voted for the introduction of the concepts of "wartime" and "martial law" the day before the announcement of mobilization. Senators and deputies of the State Duma are not subject to mobilization.[62][63]

Citizens to be mobilizedEdit

 
Men at a recruiting station in Yalta, Republic of Crimea

According to Putin's televised address, "only citizens who are currently in the reserve and, above all, those who served in the armed forces, have certain military specialties and relevant experience" would be subject to conscription.[6] According to Shoigu, 300,000 reservists were planned to be mobilized,[64] called from a pool of 25 million "potential fighters."[65] Conscripts would be sent for training or retraining, after which they would be sent to Ukraine.[6] Reservists may be banned from leaving Russia after receiving a summons.[66] The Institute for the Study of War estimated in March that Russia's reserve comprised over two million former conscripts or contract soldiers.[67][68]

Political scientist Ekaterina Schulmann noted that according to the text of Putin's decree on mobilization, "anyone can be called up, except for workers in the military-industrial complex." Lawyer and head of the human rights group Agora, Pavel Chikov, expressed doubts about the decree; stating that the Russian Ministry of Defense in fact would decide who, from where and what quantity of soldiers to send to war."[69]

 
Z symbol on a billboard reads Russian: За Путина, lit.'For Putin'

On 22 September Ramzan Kadyrov, the head of Chechnya, stated that mobilization would not be carried out in the Chechen Republic. He explained this by saying the republic had already overfulfilled their duties for force generation.[70]

ImplementationEdit

The military commissars of some Russian regions forbade persons in the reserve to travel outside their districts of residence, and that those who had received a summons or received a mobilization order were obliged to appear at registration offices. Employers of persons who have received summons or have mobilization orders were also ordered to make settlements with such persons and ensure their appearance at said offices.[71]

Britain's Ministry of Defence stated that many new recruits were being deployed to the front lines in Ukraine without any training or proper equipment.[72] One conscripted soldier wrote in a social media post: "We were officially told there would be no training before going to the front. The regiment commander confirmed this information that on the (Sep.) 29th we will go to Kherson."[72] A Russian officer told a group of mobilized men in a video posted on social media: "You're all soldiers now. Three days here. A flight. And then two weeks of military training." According to retired U.S. General Ben Hodges, "It is criminal to send untrained soldiers into combat… it's murder. I doubt these men will survive very long."[73]

Mikhail Degtyarev, the governor of Khabarovsk Krai, said that "About half of [the mobilized men] we returned home as they did not meet the selection criteria for entering the military service."[74]

In a video published by the independent news website The Insider, recently mobilized Russian soldiers complained of "inhumane" conditions, weapons shortages and mistreatment by officers.[75] Ukraine's Ministry of Defense compared Russian soldiers' living conditions to the Netflix TV show Squid Game.[76] Zabaykalsky Krai Duma deputy Andrey Gurulev said that 1.5 million sets of uniforms had "disappeared" from the MoD.[77] The Governor of the Omsk Region Alexander Burkov said that his region had a budget deficit of 13 billion rubles and had no money for mobilized men.[78]

It was reported that Russian authorities were targeting poor, homeless and people from poorer regions of Russia for conscription.[79][80] Russian authorities drafted detained protestors with no previous military experience, including a 17-year-old boy who was arrested at an anti-war demonstration in Moscow.[81]

 
Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu and Moscow Mayor Sergey Sobyanin inspected the facilities where the mobilized Russian recruits are being trained on 1 October 2022

Some of the mobilized Russian men were killed less than two weeks after being drafted, including one man who was killed near the Ukrainian city of Lysychansk on 7 October, indicating that Russian men were being sent to the front without any basic military training, which ran contrary to Putin's promise that all mobilized civilians would receive proper training before being sent into combat.[82] Some of the draftees bought uniforms and boots themselves before being sent into combat, without even minimal training.[83]

DatesEdit

The military commissar of the Kaliningrad Oblast, Colonel Yuriy Boychenko, publicly stated that mobilization summonses will be distributed before the relevant presidential decree, indicating the ambiguity about the end of the mobilization period.[84]

In Omsk, the families of conscripts were told that there would be three waves of mobilization – from 26 September to 10 October, from 11 to 25 October, and from 26 October to 10 November. This was supported by an audio recording from a meeting from the military registration and enlistment office. Information about three waves of conscription was also confirmed from Krasnoyarsk Krai.[85] A Russian military expert speculated that a second wave might take place at the end of 2022.[86] However, on 11 October 2022, Yury Shvyktin, deputy head of the State Duma’s defense committee, stated that mobilization would not be divided into phases, and that statements about first and second phases were “groundless”.[87] On 12 October, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov also denied the existence of a second wave.[88]

On 28 October, the Russian Minister of Defense Sergei Shoigu reported to Russian President Vladimir Putin that no new events were planned within the framework of partial mobilization. Military registration and enlistment offices would continue to work with volunteers and contract soldiers.[89] It has been speculated that officially, mobilization will only end after Putin signs the relevant decree; Putin himself has questioned this point of view.[8] On 1 November 2022, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov stated that a decree was not needed to end mobilization.[10]

On 5 November, Putin signed a decree that allows people convicted of serious crimes to be mobilized into the Russian army. The exemption does not include people convicted of sex crimes involving minors and crimes against the state such as treason, spying or terrorism. This could allow “hundreds of thousands” of people to be mobilized. Putin also claimed that 18,000 more people have been mobilized over the goal of 300,000.[90]

ReactionsEdit

In RussiaEdit

 
Mobilized Russian men armed with AK-47 rifles

On 22 September, Deputy Chairman of the Russian Security Council Dmitry Medvedev said that newly mobilized recruits could be used to protect the newly annexed territories in Russian-occupied Ukraine.[91]

Roskomnadzor demanded Russian media to write about mobilization using information "exclusively" from Russian government sources and threatened disobeying outlets with fines of up to 5 million rubles and blocking.[92]

Imprisoned Russian opposition politician Alexei Navalny said: "I don’t understand one thing. The army has a million people, Rosgvardia has 350,000 people, the Interior Ministry has another million and a half or two million people, and the Federal Penitentiary Service is full of people. Why are they drafting civilians?"[93]

In the Levada Center poll, conducted from 22–28 September, 47% of surveyed Russians said they had felt "anxiety, fear, and horror" following Vladimir Putin’s announcement on September 21. Another 23% said they had felt "shock," while 13% felt "anger and indignation" and 23% said they felt "pride for Russia."[94][95]

MarketsEdit

Russian markets reacted to the introduction of mobilization with a moderate collapse. By 10:43 Moscow Time, the MOEX Index had fallen by more than 4%, and the RTS Index by 5%.[96] After the opening of the exchange, the US dollar against the ruble rose to 62.61 rubles in less than two hours (+2.01 rubles by the close of trading on 20 September).[97]

Russian officials and their familiesEdit

 
The son of high-ranking Kremlin official Dmitry Peskov said he does not intend to obey a call-up to fight in Ukraine because he is "Mr. Peskov".[98]

Russians critical of the mobilizations have used social media and other electronic means to enquire en masse Russia's top officials and deputies, who supported the war and mobilization, whether they themselves or their sons would go to the front. There have been a few officials who intended to do so, but most either refused to answer or gave excuses, such as Alexey Mishustin (premier Mikhail Mishustin's son), ignored the citizens' questions (Moscow city council deputy Andrey Zyuganov, the grandson of Gennady Zyuganov) or blocked the person asking (Dmitry Rogozin).[99]

Nikolay Peskov, the son of Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov, told pranksters, who pretended to be recruitment officers, that he had no intention of going to war and would resolve the issue "on a different level."[100][98] It was seen as an example of nepotism in Russia.[98]

State Duma deputy Mikhail Matveyev, who opposed the invasion of Ukraine, suggested that Russian governors and lawmakers supporting war and mobilization should enlist in the army and go to fight in Ukraine.[24] Mikhail Degtyarev, the governor of the Khabarovsk region, said he would like to go to Ukraine as a volunteer, but could not because of his duties as governor. Residents of the region started a petition proposing to remove Degtyarev from the post of governor and send him to fight in Ukraine, which was signed by several tens of thousands of people.[24] Russian State Duma Chairman Vyacheslav Volodin said that the State Duma would support deputies who want to enlist in the army and go to war in Ukraine.[99] Putin loyalist Dmitry Vyatkin, who authored a number of restrictive bills, said in a speech that deputies should not give up their mandate and go to fight at the front, because they have the duty and responsibility to take care of the citizens of Russia and solve domestic problems.[99]

Yevgeny Prigozhin called members of the Russian parliament "useless" and said that the "deputies should go to the front", adding that "those people who have been talking from tribunes for years need to start doing something."[101]

Margarita Simonyan, the head of state broadcaster RT, complained why the "millions of security officers and guards" who are being used in Russia were not sent to the front.[102] Speaking of the chaotic mobilization and reports of old, disabled or otherwise unfit men getting called up into the army, Vladimir Solovyov, the host of the Russian State TV show Evening with Vladimir Solovyov, suggested that recruitment officers who call up the wrong people should either be shot or sent to the front to fight themselves.[103]

Russian opposition politician Emilia Slabunova, a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia, wrote a letter to President Vladimir Putin urging him to officially declare the end of mobilization. She wrote that absence of such a decree "affects the psychological state of society".[104]

Within the Russian militaryEdit

 
Residents of Russian-occupied Crimea mobilized for military service in Ukraine

On 4 October 2022, a video appeared of a man in front of a group of soldiers from Omsk Oblast with questions for the military leadership. He stated calmly that they "were all raised by alarm" after mobilization was declared, and that they "left [their] families at home, some have children, wives are on maternity leave."

  1. His first question was about compensation for service in "payment" and "material support," mentioning that their "families need it very much," that "from other regions the guys are paid, everything is stable," and that this is "the most important question."
  2. His second question was "about the unregulated," recalling that his bank told him to "write a statement, or [have his wife write one] for credit" to pay "loans, mortgages," and other "monthly payments" while serving, which he "didn't have time for" because "the order came in the evening" before he "was supposed to come to the military command." He then proposed that "Credits and vacations should be provided. At least a vacation."

He concluded the video saying "We are ready to go, we are here. Support us, our families" to applause from the other soldiers.[105][106]

Exodus of RussiansEdit

Russian citizens reportedly purchased plane tickets to other countries following the mobilization. Before the televised address of Russian President Vladimir Putin, all air tickets to Istanbul on 21 September, as well as almost all tickets to Yerevan, were sold.[47] Russia's Federal Security Service stated that 261,000 Russians had already left Russia as of 26 September.[107] On 6 October, the Kremlin denied reports that 700,000 Russians have fled the country since Putin announced the mobilisation order.[108]

After the announcement of mobilization, many kilometers of traffic jams formed at Russia's borders with Kazakhstan, Georgia, Belarus, Finland and Mongolia:[109] along the Georgian border, vehicles were lined up for at least 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and near Kazakhstan, cars were abandoned as motorists fled.[110] Finland, Poland and the Baltic countries announced they would not offer refuge to Russians fleeing mobilization.[111][112] Chair of the Senate of Kazakhstan Mäulen Äşimbaev announced that Kazakhstan would not issue permanent residence permits to Russian citizens evading mobilization without permission from the Russian government.[113] More than 200,000 Russian men fled to Kazakhstan.[72] In the first week after the announcement, Georgia took in the most refugees.[114] Two men fled Russia by boat, landing in the small town of Gambell, Alaska on 4 October and sought for asylum.[115]

On 27 September 2022, White House press secretary Karine Jean-Pierre encouraged Russian men trying to escape being called up to fight in Ukraine to apply for asylum in the United States.[116]

Russians heading to South Korea by boat in hopes of evading Putin's mobilization have been denied entry in most cases.[117]

In December 2022, Kazakhstan reportedly deported a Russian citizen, a former presidential guard, who fled mobilization; Kazakhstan denied his asylum claim in late November while human rights activists have said that the country's law on refugees allows him to stay in Kazakhstan while his lawyers appeal.[118]

Help for army conscriptsEdit

Numerous human rights and public organizations expressed their readiness to help mobilized Russians. Among them are Agora, Committee of Soldiers' Mothers, Conscript's School, Movement of Conscious Objectors from Military Service, Call to Conscience, Citizen and Army.[119][120][121][122]

ProtestsEdit

The Vesna movement called for wide-ranging protest action. The action called "No mogilization (grave-ization)" was scheduled for the evening of 21 September.[123][47]

Protests against the mobilization for the war with Ukraine occurred throughout Russia. Protesters in Moscow chanted the slogan "Putin to the trenches!"[124] As of 22:00 Moscow time on 21 September, more than 1,233 people had already been detained in 38 cities.[125] Moscow police intelligence received that the detained men were handed summons to the military registration and enlistment office. Peskov noted that the delivery of subpoenas to detainees did not contradict the law.[126] In Sokolinaya Gora, a detainee was threatened with a criminal case and 10-year prison sentence for refusing to receive a summons.[127] The Moscow prosecutor's office warned organizing or participating in anti-war protests could lead to up to 15 years in prison.[128]

In Grozny several dozen women tried to hold a protest rally against mobilization. All of them were detained.[129]

On 22 September, in Babayurt, Republic of Dagestan, the federal highway was blocked at the exit from the village. A group of villagers gathered near the local military registration and enlistment office, where there was a clash between them and a government employee.[130][131]

On 24 September, anti-mobilization rallies organized by Vesna took place in many Russian cities.[132] The rallies were marked by mass detentions not only of protesters, but also of ordinary passers-by.[133] According to OVD-Info, more than 750 people were detained by 22:30 Moscow time.[134]

On 25 September, the women of Yakutsk went to a rally under the slogans "We will not give up our husbands," "No to genocide," and "No to war". People gathered in osuokhay [ru], a traditional round dance symbolizing the blessing of mothers for the safe return of their husbands and sons. The women were soon dispersed by the security forces.[135][136] On the same day, residents of Endirey, Dagestan, took part in a rally against mobilization. The police fired live rounds into the air in an attempt to disperse the rally.[137]

On 26 September, a man set himself on fire at the Ryazan bus station.[138] On 30 September, rapper Walkie T committed suicide, saying in a video posted to Telegram that he refused to kill another man.[139]

On 5 October, recently mobilized Russian soldiers protested in Belgorod Oblast over their poor living conditions and lack of equipment.[140]

On 15 October, relatives of men drafted from the Bryansk Oblast released a video appeal to Vladimir Putin, asking him to intervene to bring their sons and husbands back home.[83]

AttacksEdit

After the announcement of mobilization, Alexei Navalny's legal team promised to render assistance to anyone who would try to evade conscription. According to Ivan Zhdanov, Navalny's headquarters would support any form of protest over mobilization, including arson of military registration offices throughout the country.[141][142]

On 21 September, a recruiting station was set on fire in Nizhny Novgorod.[143] On the night of 21–22 September in Lomonosov, Saint Petersburg, a registration office was set on fire.[144] In the city of Gay, Orenburg Oblast, unknown people also tried to set fire to a military recruitment building.[145] In Tolyatti, an unknown person threw a Molotov cocktail at the city hall building.[146][147]

On 23 September, it was reported that military recruitment offices were set on fire in the cities of Svobodny, Khabarovsk, Kamyshin, and the village of Tselinnoye.[148][149]

On 24 September, the military office in Kansk and the office of United Russia in Salavat were set on fire.[150][151][152]

On 25 September, there were attempts to set fire to registration offices in Ruzayevka, Chernyakhovsk, Kirovsk, village administrations in Bereslavka (Volgograd Oblast) and Syaskelevo [ru] (Leningrad Oblast), and in Uryupinsk and Tarusa.[153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160]

On 26 September, during a meeting with recently mobilized recruits in Ust-Ilimsk (Irkutsk Oblast), a man opened fire at the head of the draft board, who ended up in intensive care.[161][162][163] According to local media, before opening fire, the attacker said: “Now we’ll all go home!”.[164]

In UkraineEdit

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy called on Russians to not submit to "criminal mobilization", saying "Russian commanders do not care about the lives of Russians — they just need to replenish the empty spaces left by the dead, wounded, those who fled or the Russian soldiers that were captured."[165] Ukrainian authorities said that Russians forcibly mobilized and sent to Ukraine could surrender. According to the Ukrainian Deputy Prime Minister Iryna Vereshchuk, those who surrender will be guaranteed security.[166] In a statement issued by the Ukrainian Presidential Office on 24 September, President Zelenskyy outlined a three-point promise to any Russian soldier who chooses to surrender:

  1. "First, you will be treated in a civilized manner, in accordance with all conventions."
  2. "Second, no one will know the circumstances of your surrender, no one in Russia will know that your surrender was voluntary."
  3. "And third, if you are afraid to return to Russia and do not want an exchange, we will find a way to ensure this as well."

He ended this outline saying that "Ukraine will do everything for its victory" and that "no tricks will help the occupier."[167][168]

Oleksiy Danilov, Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine, called the decision on partial mobilization a "complex program for the disposal of Russians."[169] In an interview with Bild, Zelenskyy noted that Ukraine was waiting for such a step from Putin, summarizing: “Putin wants to drown Ukraine in blood. But also in the blood of our own soldiers.”[170]

For Ukrainian society, the Russian mobilization did not enter national news, as it had been discussed since the start of the conflict. Online, the news was met with memes about the “couch troops of the Russian Federation” (people who called for a tougher war online and now have the opportunity to actually go to the front and put their ideas into practice) and compensation for the families of Russian military casualties.[170]

Anton Herashchenko, an advisor to Ukraine's Minister of Internal Affairs, estimated that Russia would begin a new wave of mobilization in January 2023.[104]

InternationalEdit

Government representatives and diplomats from European countries and the United States described Putin's decision to mobilize as a sign of Russia's failure in the war with Ukraine, a step toward escalation, and an indication of panic in the Russian leadership. Some representatives noted that their governments will continue to provide military assistance to Ukraine to protect against Russian aggression.[171] Other Western politicians have also expressed disregard of Putin's threats of nuclear escalation.[172]

  •   Czech Foreign Minister Jan Lipavský stated that the Czech Republic will not issue humanitarian visas to Russians who have fled to avoid mobilization.[173] The Czech Republic stopped issuing visas to Russian citizens in February 2022.[174]
  •   Prime Minister of Estonia Kaja Kallas announced that the country would not provide asylum to Russians fleeing mobilization.[175]
  •   French President Emmanuel Macron said he had "no rational explanation" for the steps of Vladimir Putin in Ukraine, adding that it was likely "a combination of ressentiment, the strategy of hegemony in the region and, I would say, the consequences of COVID-19, isolation."[176][177]
  •   German Chancellor Olaf Scholz called the mobilization "an act of desperation" that will "make everything worse," noting that he "completely underestimated" from the beginning the willingness of the Ukrainian people to resist.[178] German Interior Minister Nancy Faeser said that "Deserters threatened with serious repression can, as a rule, obtain international protection in Germany."[179]
  •   In response to the move, the IDF issued an order to return to Israel all Israeli soldiers who are on vacation in Russia, and a blanket ban on departures from Israel to Russia for IDF soldiers. In addition, the Israeli Foreign Ministry issued a travel warning for Israelis with Russian citizenship to Russia, warning them that they could be conscripted.[180]
  •   Kazakh President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev stated that Kazakhstan would help fleeing Russians, saying that "Most of them are forced to leave because of the current hopeless situation."[181]
  •   Former President of Mongolia Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj published a video on the YouTube channel of the World Federation of Mongols urging Putin to stop the war, honouring Russian refugees bound to "start freeing [their] country from dictatorship," welcoming Buryats, Tuvans, and Kalmyks "used as nothing more than cannon fodder," instructing Russian draftees not to "shoot Ukrainians" and "kill that country," nor "their freedom," and praising the "brave people" of Ukraine and President Zelenskyy.[182] According to him, different countries should accept representatives of small nationalities whom the Russian authorities send to war. In particular, Mongolia is ready to shelter refugees.
  •   Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte called Putin's actions a "sign of panic," adding that the threat of nuclear weapons did not worry him.[172]
  •   In an interview with PBS News, President of Poland Andrzej Duda called the mobilization as "an attempt to save face" by Russia.[183]
  •   British Secretary of State for Defense Ben Wallace said that the mobilization is evidence of Russia's defeat.[184]
  •   United States Ambassador to Ukraine Bridget A. Brink noted that "fake referendums and mobilization are signs of Russia's weakness and failure."[185] Speaking at the United Nations Security Council, Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken castigated Putin for "choosing not to end the war, but to expand it" despite the "remarkable unity" against Russia's efforts by many countries speaking of "consequences of this war and the need to end it," as well the "serious questions and concerns" from Moscow's allies. He remarked on Putin's mobilization announcement taking place "this week, when most of the world gathers at the United Nations, to add fuel to the fire that he started," which Blinken believed showed "utter contempt for the UN charter, the General Assembly, and this council"; also noting that Putin's threats to retaliate to post-annexation attacks with "all weapon systems available" took place nine months after Russia's signed a joint statement in the council reading that "nuclear war can never be won and must never be fought."[note 1][188] He reminded the council of the protest and resistance among the Russian people, quoting the anti-mobilization protesters' chant of "Let our children live."[189]

Germany offered asylum to Russian oppositionists and conscripts who did not want to go to war with Ukraine.[190] In contrast, the Finnish Foreign Ministry said that the country is preparing to introduce a complete ban on entry for Russian citizens on Schengen visas.[191] Estonia announced that they would close entry for all Russians who participated in the war with Ukraine, and Latvia refused to issue humanitarian visas to Russians who evade mobilization, citing security concerns.[192]

AnalysisEdit

According to the Institute for the Study of War, mobilization is unlikely to allow Russia to significantly increase its combat power.[193] According to lawyer Alexei Tabalov, writing for The Insider, one of the objectives of amending the laws on desertion was the "enslavement of military personnel at the front."[37]

Other experts say that Russia suffers from a lack of infrastructure to train and equip the mobilized, caused by heavy losses of equipment and ammunition on the battlefield and the abolition of many logistics and management structures that once allowed the countries of the former Soviet Union to quickly train and arm mobilized conscripts.[194][195] Jean-Christophe Noël, associate researcher at IFRI, said that "One of the Russian weaknesses is joint-army combats, and their reservists are not at all prepared for that. They would be used as cannon fodder in any attempt at an offensive."[196]

The Washington Post noted that by announcing the mobilization, Putin took a big risk – according to polls, young men may begin to express opposition to the war due to the mobilization decree.[197] According to the analysis of economists Oleg Itskhoki and Maxim Mironov, Russia may lose more than 10% of men aged 20–29 as a result of losses in the war and emigration. After the end of the war, Russia expects a surge in crime. Also, a significant number of children, especially in poor regions, will be left without fathers, which will lead to a new surge in crime in 5–10 years, when these children become teenagers.[198]

Doug Klain, a nonresident fellow at the Atlantic Council’s Eurasia Center, wrote that "Sending untrained, underequipped, and largely unwilling men to fight in Ukraine will be a slaughter with little precedent in modern war fighting... In the United States, new Army recruits need 10 weeks of basic training, at a bare minimum, to be ready for combat."[199] Gustaf Gressel, a senior policy fellow at the Berlin office of the European Council on Foreign Relations, said that "My gut feeling is that Putin doesn't really care about the inferior quality [of new troops being assembled]. So my guess is that the overall aim of this is to make Ukraine run out of bullets before Russia runs out of soldiers."[200]

CasualtiesEdit

As of 27 January 2023, BBC News Russian and Mediazona confirmed by name that a total of 823 Russians who were mobilized had been killed, of which 49 died within Russia due to various accidents.[201][202] Due to the fog of war and deliberate misinformation campaigns on both sides, the real number of mobilized recruits killed in Ukraine is unknown.

Newly mobilized soldiers from the Samara Oblast were among those killed in Ukrainian shelling of the Makiivka military quarters on New Year's Eve on 31 December 2022.[203] Ukraine claimed the attack killed up to 400 Russian soldiers and wounded 300 others. The attack was carried out using HIMARS rockets.[203] By 25 January 2023, BBC News Russian and Mediazona had identified the names of 92 mobilized Russians who had been killed during the shelling.[204]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The statement in English read that nuclear war "cannot be won" rather than "can never be won".[186][187]
  1. ^ According to Russian law, a decree either ending recruitment for the war effort or repealing the one that authorized it is required to be signed by the president.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Так завершена мобилизация в России или все-таки нет? Разбираемся в заявлениях Путина, Пескова и Минобороны". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 1 November 2022. Так что, мобилизация в России окончена? К сожалению, нет. До тех пор, пока президент не подпишет указ о завершении «частичной» мобилизации, Минобороны в любой момент может спустить в регионы новые планы, после чего призыв возобновится.
  2. ^ a b c Hopkins, Valerie (21 September 2022). "Ukraine Live Updates: Putin Calls Up More Troops as His War Effort Falters". New York Times. 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  3. ^ a b c Новости, Р. И. А. (22 September 2022). "Песков опроверг информацию о планах мобилизовать миллион человек". РИА Новости (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  4. ^ "Путин объявил частичную мобилизацию в России". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  5. ^ a b c "Указ "Об объявлении частичной мобилизации в Российской Федерации"". Президент России (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  6. ^ a b c "Путин объявил о частичной мобилизации в России". BBC News Russian. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  7. ^ "Песков раскрыл деталь закрытого пункта в указе о частичной мобилизации". fontanka.ru – новости Санкт-Петербурга (in Russian). 21 September 2022. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Путин объяснил отсутствие указа о завершении мобилизации". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  9. ^ "Песков ответил на вопрос об указе Путина о завершении мобилизации". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 31 October 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Песков заявил, что точка в частичной мобилизации поставлена и без указа". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  11. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, December 22". Critical Threats. Retrieved 25 December 2022.
  12. ^ "Российские власти 15 раз отвергали возможность мобилизации". The Moscow Times telegram. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  13. ^ "Хроника текущих событий. Экономика, общество, политика. Выпуск 201". Tayga.info (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  14. ^ "UPDATE 2-Despite Ukraine's advances, Russia says mobilisation is not on the agenda". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  15. ^ "Putin says will not use conscript soldiers in Ukraine". Reuters. 8 March 2022.
  16. ^ "Putin Bets It All in Ukraine". Der Spiegel. 23 September 2022.
  17. ^ J. N. Westwood (1986). Russia Against Japan, 1904–1905. State University of New York Press. p. 124. ISBN 9780887061912.
  18. ^ "Шойгу: будут мобилизованы 300 тысяч резервистов". Радио Свобода (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  19. ^ ""Всех мужчин пускают на пушечное мясо" Многие жители ДНР уже 50 дней прячутся от принудительной мобилизации на войну. Вот рассказ одного из них". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  20. ^ a b c "Жизнь здесь катится в хреновую сторону В ЛНР и ДНР на войну с Украиной забрали десятки тысяч жителей. Без них в тылу не работают предприятия, а спецслужбы преследуют даже жен призывников". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  21. ^ a b "Облавы будут на первое сентября". Правозащитник о принудительной мобилизации в "ДНР", "ЛНР" и охоте на уклоняющихся (in Russian), retrieved 25 September 2022
  22. ^ ""Вообще никто не хочет брать их". В первый день мобилизации петербургских дворников вновь отправили раздавать повестки". Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  23. ^ "Федеральный закон от 28.05.2022 № 147-ФЗ ∙ Официальное опубликование правовых актов ∙ Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации". publication.pravo.gov.ru. Archived from the original on 9 August 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  24. ^ a b c "Putin is facing pressure from Russia's hawkish nationalists who want all-out war in Ukraine". Business Insider. 17 September 2022.
  25. ^ "Saying The Quiet Part Out Loud: Ukrainian Victories Push Kremlin Toward Potential Mobilization". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 15 September 2022.
  26. ^ a b "Минобороны России впервые с марта назвало потери в Украине. Цифра меньше, чем известно фамилий погибших". BBC News Russian (in Russian). 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  27. ^ "Путін оголосив часткову мобілізацію в Росії". BBC News Україна. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  28. ^ "Over 90K 'Irrecoverable Losses' Suffered by Russian Soldiers in Ukraine: iStories". The Moscow Times. 12 October 2022.
  29. ^ "Russia's 'irrecoverable losses' in Ukraine: more than 90,000 troops dead, disabled, or AWOL". Meduza. 12 October 2022.
  30. ^ "Exclusive: Russia deploys Syrian fighters to Ukraine to shore up its defences". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  31. ^ AFP (26 March 2022). "Georgia's Breakaway Region Sends Troops to Ukraine". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  32. ^ a b "Пехота пуще неволи Десятки вооруженных групп — ЧВК "Вагнера", кадыровцы, неонацисты — принимают в ряды "пушечного мяса" на войну в Украине всех, включая зеков и больных. Мы попытались стать добровольцами". Новая газета. Европа. 24 September 1973. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  33. ^ Pennington, Tim Lister,Josh (30 July 2022). "Russia is recruiting thousands of volunteers to replenish its ranks in Ukraine. Prior experience isn't always required". CNN. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  34. ^ "Russian Offensive Campaign Assessment, August 5". Critical Threats. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  35. ^ "Госдума ввела в Уголовный кодекс понятия "мобилизация" и "военное положение" — а также статьи о мародерстве и сдаче в плен". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  36. ^ "Russian Lawmakers Approve Long Jail Terms for Military Surrender, Refusal to Serve". The Moscow Times. 20 September 2022.
  37. ^ a b "Законопроект о мобилизации стал законом еще до одобрения в Совфеде и подписания Путиным". The Insider (in Russian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  38. ^ ""В первую очередь интересуют убийцы и разбойники — вам у нас понравится". Похоже, Евгений Пригожин лично вербует наемников в колониях". Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  39. ^ "Соратники Навального опубликовали видео вербовки заключенных Пригожиным в ИК‑6 Йошкар‑Олы". Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  40. ^ ""Я вас живыми забираю. Но не всегда живыми возвращаю" Посмотрите, как Евгений Пригожин вербует заключенных на войну в Украине". Meduza. 14 September 2022. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  41. ^ "'If you desert, we'll execute you': 'Putin's chef' recruits convicts for war". YouTube. The Telegraph. 15 September 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  42. ^ "Ольга Романова комментирует видео: на нем человек, похожий на Пригожина, зовет осужденных на войну". Настоящее Время (in Russian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  43. ^ Troianovski, Anton (20 September 2022). "Putin kept Russia and the world waiting hours for a speech that never happened". The New York Times.
  44. ^ a b Lister, Tim; Nick Paton Walsh (21 September 2022). "Putin is trying to raise the stakes in Ukraine. Here's what it means". CNN. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  45. ^ a b "Putin speech on partial mobilisation: What exactly did he say?". Al Jazeera. 21 September 2022.
  46. ^ "No More Illusions: Putin Bets It All in Ukraine". Der Spiegel. 23 September 2022.
  47. ^ a b c "Мобилизация. Главное В армию обещают призвать 300 тысяч человек. Резервистам могут закрыть выезд из России". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  48. ^ "Putin orders partial Russian mobilisation, warns West over 'nuclear blackmail'". Euractiv. 21 September 2022.
  49. ^ "Об объявлении частичной мобилизации в Российской Федерации". Decree No. 647 of 21 September 2022 (in Russian). President of Russia.
  50. ^ "Российская газета, 22.09.2022, №213(8861)" (PDF). Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). No. 223(8861). Moscow. 22 September 2022. p. 1. ISSN 1560-0823.
  51. ^ "В Кремле засекретили часть указа о частичной мобилизации в России". ura.news. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  52. ^ "Текст указа "Об объявлении частичной мобилизации в Российской Федерации"". Kommersant (in Russian). 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  53. ^ "В указе Путина о мобилизации есть закрытый пункт. В Кремле заявили, что там указано, сколько людей заберут в армию". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  54. ^ "Путин объявил частичную мобилизацию в России". Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  55. ^ "Teilmobilisierung in Russland: Erste Soldaten verabschieden sich offenbar von Familien". Der Spiegel (in German). 22 September 2022. ISSN 2195-1349.
  56. ^ "Источник "Медузы": в армию собираются призвать 1,2 миллиона человек В Москве план мобилизации — до 16 тысяч". Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  57. ^ "Russia to conscript 1.2 million people". Meduza. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  58. ^ "Песков назвал ложным сообщение о планах мобилизовать 1,2 млн россиян". Kommersant (in Russian). 23 September 2022.
  59. ^ a b "Full text of Putin's mobilization decree — translated". Politico. 21 September 2022.
  60. ^ "Война Двести десятый день. Онлайн "Медузы"". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022. Кремль опубликовал указ о частичной мобилизации. В нем не сказано, что призыву подлежат только военнослужащие запаса В указе также перечислены основания для увольнения с военной службы. Их три — возраст, состояние здоровья, приговор суда о лишении свободы. Отсрочка от призыва, согласно указу, предоставляется работникам организаций оборонно-промышленного комплекса.
  61. ^ "Война Двести десятый день. Онлайн "Медузы"". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022. Закон о мобилизации ограничивает выезд из страны для тех, кто состоит на воинском учете
  62. ^ "Война Двести десятый день. Онлайн "Медузы"". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  63. ^ "Телеканал Дождь". Telegram. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  64. ^ "Что получит и что потеряет Путин от объявленной им мобилизации". BBC News Russian (in Russian). 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  65. ^ Liffey, Kevin; Williams, Alison (21 September 2022). "Russia calls up 300,000 reservists, says 6,000 soldiers killed in Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  66. ^ "Куда бежать из России прямо сейчас. Список стран Если есть только паспорт гражданина РФ — или если есть загран, но в нем нет виз". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  67. ^ Ilyushina, Mary; Timsit, Annabelle (21 September 2022). "What does Putin's partial military mobilization mean for Russia and Ukraine?". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  68. ^ Stepanenko, Kateryna; Kagan, Frederick W.; Babcock-Lumish, Brian (5 March 2022). "Explainer on Russian Conscription, Reserve, and Mobilization". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  69. ^ ""Реальность в том, что это полная мобилизация и ловить будут всех". Эксперты о "частичной" мобилизации в России". The Insider (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  70. ^ "Рамзан Кадыров: в Чечне мобилизация проводиться не будет". RFE/RL (in Russian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  71. ^ "Военным запаса могут запретить покидать место жительства в России". Радио Свобода (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  72. ^ a b c "In a major backfire, more Russians are leaving the country because of Putin's mobilization order than are actually joining the military". Fortune. 4 October 2022.
  73. ^ "Russia to Send Conscripts to Ukraine With Little Training, Old Equipment". The Moscow Times. 29 September 2022.
  74. ^ "Thousands of mobilised Russians sent home, deemed unfit for duty". Al Jazeera. 3 October 2022.
  75. ^ "Mobilized Russian Soldiers Protest Over 'Animal' Conditions". The Moscow Times. 6 October 2022.
  76. ^ "Ukraine Mocks Russia's 'Squid Game'-like Soldiers' Quarters [Watch]". IBTimes. 29 September 2022.
  77. ^ "'Where did they disappear to?': Russian MP says 1.5 mln military uniforms are missing". Novaya Gazeta. 2 October 2022.
  78. ^ "Omsk governor: no money for the mobilised". Novaya Gazeta. 5 October 2022.
  79. ^ "Russia's Military Mobilization Targets the Homeless, Poor – Reports". The Moscow Times. 12 October 2022.
  80. ^ "Poorer Russian Regions Conscripting More Soldiers, Investigation Says". The Moscow Times. 6 October 2022.
  81. ^ "Russia drafted an old man with diabetes, a 17-year-old, and people with no training to fight in Ukraine, reports say — a sign of desperation". Business Insider. 23 September 2022.
  82. ^ "From Mobilization to Death in 10 Days: Russia's Draftees Killed in Ukraine". The Moscow Times. 14 October 2022.
  83. ^ a b "Anger Mounts as Russian Draftees Thrown Into Battle Without Training, Equipment". The Moscow Times. 18 October 2022.
  84. ^ ""Поставки начались": военком сказал, как долго будут раздавать повестки". ruwest.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  85. ^ ""Никто не спрячется". Будет три волны призыва до 10 ноября". Журнал «Холод» (in Russian). 23 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  86. ^ "Шурыгин допустил вторую волну мобилизации в России под Новый год". www.mk.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  87. ^ "Зампред Комитета Госдумы по обороне заявил, что мобилизация не делится на этапы". www.pnp.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  88. ^ Добрунов, Михаил (12 October 2022). "Кремль отверг проведение в России новой волны мобилизации". РБК (in Russian). Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  89. ^ "Шойгу заявил, что отправка граждан в войска в рамках частичной мобилизации завершена". Interfax.ru (in Russian). 28 October 2022. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  90. ^ Uliana Pavlova (5 November 2022). "Putin signs law to mobilize Russian citizens convicted of serious crimes". CNN. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  91. ^ "Russia's Medvedev: new regions can be defended with strategic nuclear weapons". Reuters. 22 September 2022.
  92. ^ "РКН под угрозой блокировок потребовал писать о "частичной мобилизации" исключительно по официальным источникам". Медиазона (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  93. ^ "'There will be five million draft dodgers running around the country.' Navalny on mobilization". Meduza. 21 September 2022.
  94. ^ "Ukraine war: Nearly half of Russians feel 'anxiety, fear or horror' over Putin's reservist call-up". Euronews. 30 September 2022.
  95. ^ "Putin's Apocalyptic End Game in Ukraine". Foreign Affairs. 6 October 2022.
  96. ^ "Российский фондовый рынок упал более чем на 5%". ko.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  97. ^ "Рубль продолжает падать на фоне новостей о мобилизации". Сибирь.Реалии (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  98. ^ a b c "Draft-dodging son of top Putin aide caught exempting himself from fighting in Ukraine war". Fortune. 22 September 2022.
  99. ^ a b c ""У них есть более важные и срочные дела". Что отвечают чиновники и депутаты на предложение отправиться в военкомат". BBC News Russian (in Russian). 22 September 2022. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  100. ^ "Pranksters called the son of one of Putin's closest allies and told him he is being enlisted in the army — but he refused". Business Insider. 22 September 2022.
  101. ^ "Putin's ally Yevgeny Prigozhin urges Russian MPs to join Wagner Group on front line". EuroWeekly News. 11 October 2022.
  102. ^ "Fact Check: Did Pro-Putin TV Host Get Mobilized into Russian Army?". Newsweek. 28 September 2022.
  103. ^ "Putin's Supporters Complain Old Russians Are Being Sent to War". Newsweek. 26 September 2022.
  104. ^ a b "Russian regional leaders wrote to Putin demanding he stop mobilizing reservists to fight in Ukraine, as chatter about a second draft intensifies". Business Insider. 23 November 2022.
  105. ^ "SOTA on Twitter: "Средств на выплаты мобилизованным не хватает, признались в Омской области. Власти региона договорились с военкоматами, чтобы дать время мобилизованным на переоформление бизнеса (без уточнения, на кого), сообщает ТАСС."". Twitter. SOTA. 4 October 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  106. ^ "'Our families need it': Russian soldiers demand pay after mobilisation order". YouTube. Guardian News. 5 October 2022. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  107. ^ "Sources: FSB reports 260,000 men left Russia, wants to close borders". 26 September 2022. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  108. ^ "Moscow denies 700,000 have fled since Putin's call-up order – but does not have 'exact figure'". The Independent. 6 October 2022.
  109. ^ "На сухопутных пограничных пунктах в России – очереди из автомобилей". Радио Свобода (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  110. ^ Hamra, Khalil; Guzel, Mehmet (23 September 2022). "Russian men leave country, fearing call to fight in Ukraine". PBS Newshour. PBS. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  111. ^ "Russia: Panic, protests follow Putin's call for 'partial mobilization'". Deutsche Welle. 21 September 2022.
  112. ^ "As masses flee Russia to avoid conscription, European neighbours grapple with whether to let them in". CBC News. 27 September 2022.
  113. ^ "No Kazakh Residence Permits For Russians Evading Mobilization, Official Says". RFE/RL. 22 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  114. ^ Schifrin, Nick; Warsi, Zeba (29 September 2022). "Russians flee to neighboring countries to avoid fighting in Putin's war against Ukraine". PBS NewsHour. PBS. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  115. ^ Bohrer, Becky (6 October 2022). "2 Russians reach remote Alaska island, seek asylum". San Bernardino Sun. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  116. ^ "White House: U.S. welcomes Russians seeking asylum". Reuters. 27 September 2022.
  117. ^ "Russians are sailing to South Korea to avoid being drafted to Ukraine — most are refused entry". NBC News. 16 October 2022.
  118. ^ "Kazakhstan Reportedly Returns Former Presidential Guard to Russia". The Moscow Times. 30 December 2022.
  119. ^ "Кого коснется мобилизация в России и как отказаться от участия в войне в Украине. Советы правозащитников". Настоящее время. 21 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  120. ^ "Список: Организации, которые помогают призывникам и военнослужащим". The Village. 21 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  121. ^ "Что делать, если вы не хотите воевать в Украине? Вот список организаций, которые постараются помочь вам избежать призыва" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 September 2022. Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  122. ^ "Все, что вам нужно знать, если мобилизация касается вас или ваших близких. Самый полный гид по мобилизации от рассылки Kit". Meduza. 23 September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  123. ^ ""Нет могилизации". Движение "Весна" объявило всероссийскую акцию протеста против мобилизации". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  124. ^ ""Путина в окопы": в России прошли акции протеста против объявленной мобилизации". BBC News Русская служба (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  125. ^ "Списки задержанных в связи с акциями против мобилизации 21 сентября". ОВД-News (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  126. ^ "Песков: вручение повесток задержанным на протестах не противоречит закону". www.kommersant.ru (in Russian). 22 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  127. ^ "Жесткие задержания и повестки в военкомат: итоги акций против мобилизации 21 сентября". ОВД-News (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  128. ^ "Moscow authorities threaten protesters with up to 15 years in prison". Meduza. 21 September 2022.
  129. ^ "В Грозном женщины попытались провести акцию против мобилизации". Радио Свобода (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  130. ^ "Жители Бабаюрта мобилизовались и перекрыли федеральную трассу | Черновик". chernovik.net. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  131. ^ ""Это все политика!": мобилизация в Дагестане спровоцировала бунт — видео". nv.ua (in Russian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  132. ^ "Движение "Весна" назначило на 24 сентября новые акции против мобилизации". Meduza (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  133. ^ "В городах России проходят протесты против мобилизации. Уже задержано около 500 человек". Настоящее Время (in Russian). Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  134. ^ "Новости | ОВД-Инфо". ovd.news (in Russian). Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  135. ^ "Прекратите геноцид: в Якутске женщины вышли на митинг против мобилизации (видео)". ФОКУС (in Russian). 25 September 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  136. ^ "В Якутске прошли протесты против мобилизации". newtimes.ru. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  137. ^ "У селения Эндирей полиция выстрелами в воздух пытается разогнать противников мобилизации | Черновик". chernovik.net. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  138. ^ "На рязанском автовокзале воспламенился мужчина". ya62.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  139. ^ Jawnson, Kershaw St (2 October 2022). "Shock In Russia Over The Suicide Of Rapper Walkie Who Refused To Go To War". AllHipHop. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  140. ^ "Russian mobilized soldiers in Belgorod region riot over inhumane conditions and written-off weapons. Footage". The Insider. 5 October 2022.
  141. ^ ""Мы окажем помощь": штаб Навального призвал поджигать военкоматы из-за мобилизации в РФ". ФОКУС (in Russian). 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  142. ^ Rus.Delfi.lv (21 September 2022). "Движение "Весна" и соратники Навального призвали протестовать против мобилизации". delfi.lv (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  143. ^ "Призывной пункт подожгли в Нижнем Новгороде". newsnn.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  144. ^ "В Петербурге и Оренбургской области подожгли военкоматы". Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  145. ^ "В Гае ночью горел военкомат – Гай: gts.tv". gts.tv. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  146. ^ "В Тольятти ранним утром 22 сентября загорелось крыльцо мэрии". TV Samara. 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  147. ^ InfoResist.org (22 September 2022). "После объявления мобилизации в российском Тольятти подожгли городскую администрацию | ФОТО". InfoResist (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  148. ^ Ua, Focus (23 September 2022). "В РФ продолжают поджигать военкоматы: уже шесть случаев с начала мобилизации (фото)". Фокус (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  149. ^ "Ночью в регионах пытались поджечь два военкомата и два здания администрации". NEWS.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  150. ^ "Городской военкомат горел прошедшей ночью... | ЧП Канск | VK". vk.com. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  151. ^ "В Канске неизвестный поджёг военкомат коктейлем Молотова". govoritmoskva.ru. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  152. ^ "24 сентября 2022 года в 05-08 поступило сообщение.. | Пожарное сообщество | ЮГ Республики Башкортостан | VK". vk.com. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  153. ^ "Baza: в Мордовии подожгли здание военкомата". NEWS.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  154. ^ "Пошла жара: в России коктейлями Молотова жгут военкоматы". ТСН.ua (in Russian). 25 September 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  155. ^ "В Кировске изощренно подожгли военкомат". 47 Новостей Ленинградской области (in Russian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  156. ^ "Тут уже и следователи, и полиция, и ФСБ: под Волгоградом дотла сгорела сельская администрация". v1.ru - новости Волгограда (in Russian). 25 September 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  157. ^ "Бутылки с "коктейлем Молотова" метнули в администрацию под Гатчиной". 47 News (in Russian). 25 September 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  158. ^ "Сирена". Telegram. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  159. ^ "В окно военкомата в Тарусе бросили коктейль Молотова". Медиазона (in Russian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  160. ^ "В Калужской области пытались сжечь военкомат". kaluganews.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  161. ^ П. Собакина; В. Никифоров (26 September 2022). "В военкомате Иркутской области мужчина устроил стрельбу". Коммерсантъ. Retrieved 26 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  162. ^ https://newizv.ru/news/incident/26-09-2022/v-irkutskoy-oblasti-mestnyy-zhitel-vystrelil-v-nachalnika-voenkomata о мотивах
  163. ^ Частичная «могилизация». Что делать, если вас могут отправить на фронт // Север. Реалии
  164. ^ "Baza". Telegram.
  165. ^ "Zelenskyy to Russians: Defy 'criminal mobilization'". Deutsche Welle. 25 September 2022.
  166. ^ "Киев предложил насильно мобилизованным сдаваться в плен – DW – 22.09.2022". dw.com (in Russian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  167. ^ Zelenskyy, Volodomyr (24 September 2022). "The heroism and grit of our warriors leave no doubt that Ukraine will prevail - address by President Volodymyr Zelenskyy". President of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 27 September 2022. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  168. ^ Zelenskyy, Volodomyr (24 September 2022). "Слава усім нашим героям! Слава нашому незламному народу! Звернення Президента. 24.09.2022" [Glory to all our heroes! Glory to our indomitable people! Address by the President.]. YouTube (in Ukrainian and Russian). Office of the President of Ukraine. Retrieved 27 September 2022.
  169. ^ "Данілов про оголошену Путіним мобілізацію: Комплексна програма утилізації росіян". nv.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  170. ^ a b Святослав Хоменко (23 September 2022). ""Очень просто. Будем уничтожать". Как Киев реагирует на новости из России". BBC. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  171. ^ ""Мобілізація – ознака паніки і провалу Росії у війні". Як Захід реагує на дії Путіна". BBC News Україна. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  172. ^ a b "Putin warning: What does Russian military call-up mean for Ukraine?". BBC News. 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  173. ^ "Foreign minister says Russians fleeing draft won't be granted humanitarian visas in Czechia". Radio Prague International. 23 September 2022.
  174. ^ "Deserting Russians will not get Czech visas". Euractiv. 23 September 2022.
  175. ^ "Естонія не надаватиме притулку росіянам, які бажають уникнути мобілізації". РБК-Украина (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  176. ^ French President Macron tells Jake Tapper Russia's invasion of Ukraine is a "post Covid-19 consequence" and countries that do not align with Ukraine are complicit in a new wave of imperialism. – CNN Video, 22 September 2022, retrieved 23 September 2022
  177. ^ "Макрон заявил, что не смог разобраться в причинах действий Путина на Украине". m24.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 23 September 2022.
  178. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Russia: Vladimir Putin announces partial mobilization of reservists | DW | 21.09.2022". DW.COM. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  179. ^ "Germany signals willingness to take in Russians fleeing Ukraine war conscription". Deutsche Welle. 22 September 2022.
  180. ^ "Breaking: Israeli senior official: The IDF has issued a directive to all soldiers who hold Russian citizenship and are in Russia to immediately return to Israel. The directive also includes a ban on IDF soldiers who hold Russian citizenship to fly to Russia". Twitter (in Hebrew). 30 September 2022. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  181. ^ "Kazakh President Urges Calm and Care for Russians Fleeing Mobilization". The Diplomat. 27 September 2022.
  182. ^ Tsakhiagiin, Elbegdorj (23 September 2022). "Message from Elbegdorj Tsakhia, President of the World Mongol Federation". YouTube. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  183. ^ Woodruff, Judy; Sagalyn, Dan (21 September 2022). "Poland President Andrzej Duda on Russia's war in Ukraine, Putin's nuclear threats". PBS. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  184. ^ "Міністр оборони Британії впіймав Путіна на брехні через мобілізацію | Новини Еспресо". espreso.tv (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  185. ^ "Посол США: мобілізація в Росії та псевдореферендуми – ознаки слабкості та провалу". www.eurointegration.com.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  186. ^ "Joint Statement of the Leaders of the Five Nuclear-Weapon States on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races". whitehouse.gov. 3 January 2022. Archived from the original on 25 September 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  187. ^ "Joint Statement of the Leaders of the Five Nuclear-Weapon States on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races" (PDF). GOV.UK. 3 January 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2022. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  188. ^ Borger, Julian (3 January 2022). "Five of world's most powerful nations pledge to avoid nuclear war". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  189. ^ Blinken, Antony J. (22 September 2022). "Secretary Blinken delivers remarks at the United Nations Security Council Ministerial Meeting - 10AM". YouTube. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  190. ^ Kormbaki, Marina; Weiland, Severin (21 September 2022). "Teilmobilmachung in Russland: Grüne und FDP wollen russischen Deserteuren Asyl gewähren". Der Spiegel (in German). ISSN 2195-1349. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  191. ^ "Suomi valmistelee parhaillaan päätöstä venäläisturistien tulon estämiseksi". www.iltalehti.fi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  192. ^ Мельникова, Мария (21 September 2022). "Латвия не будет выдавать гуманитарные визы россиянам, избегающим мобилизации". Главные события в России и мире | RTVI (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  193. ^ "Institute for the Study of War". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  194. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Russia: Vladimir Putin announces partial mobilization of reservists | DW | 21 September 2022". DW.COM. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  195. ^ Lendon, Brad (22 September 2022). "Putin can call up all the troops he wants, but Russia can't train or support them". CNN. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  196. ^ "Russian 'partial mobilization' is a military gamble far from being won". Le Monde. 22 September 2022.
  197. ^ "Analysis | Putin just called up young men to the war. He's taking a big risk". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  198. ^ "Призванная республика - Из-за войны Россия может потерять больше 10% молодых мужчин. Анализ экономистов Олега Ицхоки и Максима Миронова". Новая газета. Европа. 25 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  199. ^ "Mobilization Can't Save Russia's War". Foreign Policy. 4 October 2022.
  200. ^ "Putin's mobilization plan 'very risky'". Deutsche Welle. 23 September 2022.
  201. ^ "Без тренировки - на фронт: что известно о потерях России в Украине за 11 месяцев войны" [Without training - to the front: what is known about the losses of Russia in Ukraine during the 11 months of the war]. BBC News Russian. 23 January 2023. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  202. ^ "Russian casualties in Ukraine. Mediazona count, updated". Mediazona. 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  203. ^ a b "What we know about Ukraine's attack in Makiivka". Al Jazeera. 3 January 2023.
  204. ^ "Обстрел Макеевки: там погибло больше военных, чем сообщило минобороны России" [The shelling of Makiivka: more soldiers died there than the Russian Ministry of Defense reported]. BBC News Russian. 25 January 2023. Retrieved 28 January 2023.

External linksEdit