July 1900

01 02 03 04 05 06 07
08 09 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30 31  

The following events occurred in July 1900:

July 2, 1900: The new LZ-1 opens a new era in air travel
July 11, 1900: Charlotte Cooper becomes first woman ever to win an Olympic medal
July 20, 1900: First confirmation that diplomats are still alive in Beijing

Sunday, July 1, 1900Edit

  • In Beijing, the Chinese army temporarily drove off German and American defenders within the legation area, and left one side unprotected for more than an hour. Had an attack been made at that time, the Chinese soldiers would have been able to overrun the foreign legations.[1]
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary, married the daughter of a Czech aristocrat, Sophie Chotek von Chotkova at Reichstadt in Bohemia (now Zákupy in the Czech Republic).[2] The couple had four children: Princess Sophie von Hohenberg who was born the following year on 24 July 1901, while Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg was born on 28 September 1902 and Prince Ernst von Hohenberg in 1904. There was also a stillborn son born in 1908. The couple were shot on Sunday, June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo by one of a team of Serbian nationalists.
  • Deputy Constable George William Hardin of the Hunt County, Texas Constable's Office was shot and mortally wounded by Bob Bolton, a saloon owner whom Hardin and two other officers were investigating for possible violation of the Sunday closing law. Hardin shot and killed Bolton and died of his wounds the following day.[3]

Monday, July 2, 1900Edit

  • From China came dispatches that proved to be wrong. According to some reports, the foreign legations in Beijing had been overrun and burned, and "the public execution of foreigners has been in progress since June 20." The New York Times published the rumors on page 7.[4] The London Daily Mail printed a similar dispatch on July 16, 1900, and a memorial service was planned for St Paul's Cathedral, then cancelled after the veracity of the Shanghai cable was questioned.[5] Still, as rumors continued to be received from dispatches, the consensus was that it was unlikely that the heavily outnumbered foreigners could hold out against the Chinese armies.[6][7][8][9][10][11]
  • Jean Sibelius's tone poem Finlandia received its première with the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Robert Kajanus.
  • Arab Algerians began a new uprising against the French colonial government in an attack on a French Foreign Legion patrol along the Touat River. Five Italian legion members were decapitated, and an Arab officer in the 1st Algerian Spahis was speared to death. From there, the rebels moved northward up the river.[12]
  • Starting at 8:03 pm, the first rigid airship flew from the Manzell district of Friedrichshafen, Germany, near Lake Constance. Luftschiff Zeppelin 1 (or LZ1), with Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin and four others aboard, flew at an altitude of 1,300 feet (400 m), going 3.75 miles (6.04 km) in 18 minutes before being forced to land due to a broken part.[13]
  • David Sarnoff, 9, arrived in New York after immigrating from Uzlyany in Russia, and went to work selling newspapers. After becoming an office boy at American Marconi, Sarnoff worked his way up and in 1916, would write a memo outlining his vision of making the radio as common a household item "as the piano or the phonograph". Over the next several decades, Sarnoff oversaw the spread of radio and then television across the world.[14]
  • Deputy Sheriff Archibald McNeill of the Duval County, Texas Sheriff's Office was shot and mortally wounded while trying to disarm a man inside a San Diego, Texas saloon. McNeill died of his wounds the following day.[15]
  • Quarantine was declared in Nome, Alaska, due to a large measles outbreak in the Native American community. Throughout 1900 the mortality rate in some communities was 100% and estimates place the death toll around 1–2,000.[16]

Tuesday, July 3, 1900Edit

  • United States Secretary of State John Hay, following up on the Open Door Policy toward China, sent a diplomatic note to the European powers making it clear that the Allied expedition against the Boxers should be limited to release of the legations, and that no attempt should be made to divide China among the victors in the invasion. "The policy of the Government of the United States is to seek a solution which may bring about permanent safety and peace to China, preserve Chinese territorial and administrative entity, protect all rights guaranteed to friendly Powers by treaty and international law, and safeguard for the world the principle of equal and impartial trade with all parts of the Chinese Empire."[17]
  • In Beijing, a force of 23 British, 15 Russian and 15 American defenders departed the safety of the walled legation compound to go on the offensive. The multinational force destroyed a tower that the Chinese armies had been building outside the legation grounds. The Chinese army temporarily drove off German and American defenders within the legation area, and left one side unprotected for more than an hour. Had an attack been made at that time, the Chinese soldiers would have been able to overrun the foreign legations.[1]
  • In Paris, a statue of George Washington was unveiled at the Place d'Iena, as a gift of the women of the United States to the people of France.[18]

Wednesday, July 4, 1900Edit

  • One of the worst streetcar accidents in American history occurred in Tacoma, Washington, when a car plunged 100 feet into a ravine, killing 43 people and injuring 65. The passengers were coming from Lakeview, Parkland, and other southern suburbs for Tacoma's Independence Day celebration. Shortly after 8:00 a.m., the car jumped the track at 26th and C Streets.[19] A 1910 streetcar accident in Kingsland, Indiana, would kill 41 people.[20]
  • The Standard Oil refinery in Bayonne, New Jersey, was destroyed. A lightning strike set fire to three of the 40,000-gallon tanks, which then spread to explode seven others. Windows were shattered in the Hook Village section of town, and the bay itself was set on fire. The fire, which caused $2.5 million in damage, was brought under control by July 7.[21]
  • The latest addition to William Randolph Hearst's newspaper empire, the Chicago American, published its first edition.[22] The paper lasted 74 years, changing its name to Chicago Today, and publishing its final issue on September 13, 1974.[23]
  • During his lifetime, Louis Armstrong gave his birthdate as July 4, 1900. After the jazz musician died in 1971, however, biographer Gary Giddins located the baptismal register certificate that showed Armstrong had actually been born on August 4, 1901.[24][25]
  • Born: Robert Desnos, French surrealist poet, in Paris (d. 1945, typhoid fever contracted while in a German concentration camp)
  • Died: Alexander Skene, 73, Scottish gynecologist, discoverer of the Skene's gland (b. 1837)

Thursday, July 5, 1900Edit

Friday, July 6, 1900Edit

Saturday, July 7, 1900Edit

Sunday, July 8, 1900Edit

Monday, July 9, 1900Edit

  • In China, the Taiyuan massacre took place as Governor Yu-Hsien of the Shanxi Province ordered captive foreign missionaries and their families to be executed. After being promised an escort to safety, the prisoners were brought before the Governor, who ordered their beheading. Reverend George Farthing was the first to die, and after all the men had been executed, Farthing's wife and three young children were killed along with the remaining foreigners. Forty-six (34 Protestant and 12 Catholic) died in one day.[34]
  • Queen Victoria signed the Act to Constitute the Commonwealth of Australia (Stat. of Victoria, 63 & 64, Chap. 12), in duplicate, keeping one copy for the United Kingdom, and giving the other document to the representatives of the Australian colonies to take home with them, along with the table, the inkstand, and the pen that had been used for the signing.[35] Under the Act, the Queen would proclaim that five of the six colonies (Victoria, South Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland) and "if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto", a sixth, would "unite in one indissoluble Federal Commonwealth under the Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland."[36] The proclamation was made on September 17, 1900, and the Commonwealth came into being on January 1, 1901.

Tuesday, July 10, 1900Edit

Wednesday, July 11, 1900Edit

Thursday, July 12, 1900Edit

  • U.S. President William McKinley, vacationing at his home in Canton, Ohio, was formally notified of his re-nomination. An observer at the time noted that he made a long speech in reply, that was notable "because of the fact that he did not make a solitary reference to the Trusts."[41]
  • A German cruise ship, the SS Deutschland, broke the Blue Riband record for the first time with an average speed of 22.42 knots (41.52 km/h; 25.80 mph).
  • Juan Gomez, described by the St. Augustine Record as "the oldest man in the United States", drowned while fishing in Florida, supposedly at the age of 122. Gomez had long claimed to be one of the crew of the pirate José Gaspar (Gasparilla), who terrorized the high seas until his death in 1821.[42]

Friday, July 13, 1900Edit

Saturday, July 14, 1900Edit

  • In China, Tientsin (Tianjin) was captured by the Allied forces after a three-day battle. The Allies had 775 killed or wounded, mostly from Russian troops and Japanese troops under the command of the Japanese Colonel Kuriya. Parties of German and French soldiers destroyed the enemy's guns, while American, British, Japanese and Austrian troops, and the Welsh Fussillers captured the arsenal.[45]

Sunday, July 15, 1900Edit

  • The village of Tchou-kia-ho (Zhujiahe) in Qin County of Hebei Province was besieged by the Boxers and by Imperial soldiers. The walled village had, since May, been a haven for 3,000 Chinese Christians, and held out for three days before being overrun, and a massacre followed. Some Catholic defenders, including Peter Zhu Rixing and Mary Zhu Wu, would later be canonized.[46]
  • On the same day, Chinese residents of the Russian city of Blagoveshchensk were slaughtered by Russian troops.[47] By July 17, thousands of Chinese had been forced into the flood-swollen Amur River where they drowned.[48]
  • 78-year-old Detective Joseph A. Perkins of the Memphis Police Department in Tennessee, a Union Army veteran of the American Civil War, was shot by a murder suspect, who was then shot and killed by Perkins' partner. Perkins would die of his wounds on July 17.[49]

Monday, July 16, 1900Edit

Tuesday, July 17, 1900Edit

Wednesday, July 18, 1900Edit

Thursday, July 19, 1900Edit

Friday, July 20, 1900Edit

  • "For one month we have been besieged in British Legation under continued shot and shell from Chinese troops. Quick relief only can prevent general massacre. --CONGER." China's minister to the United States, Wu Tingfang, delivered the telegraphed message to United States Secretary of State John Hay, providing the first confirmation that the foreign envoys in Beijing were still alive.[57] The message, sent by U.S. Ambassador to China Edwin H. Conger in the U.S. State Department cipher, had been a reply to Hay's ciphered message of July 11. To rule out the possibility that the Chinese army had captured the cipher books, Secretary John Hay sent a reply the next day: "Dispatch received. Authenticity doubted. Answer this giving your sister's name." Conger's reply confirmed the news.[58]

Saturday, July 21, 1900Edit

Sunday, July 22, 1900Edit

Monday, July 23, 1900Edit

Tuesday, July 24, 1900Edit

a push-pin
  • Revolutionaries in China signed the document "Regulations for Peaceful Rule", written by lawyer Kai Ho, including Sun Yat-sen, as well as Yang Chu-yun and Xie Zhantai (Tse Tsan Tai), for presentation to Hong Kong Governor Henry Arthur Blake, requesting British help in reconstructing China to a parliamentary government, with an advisory body composed of foreign ambassadors.[64]
  • In the pre-dawn hours, Robert Charles shot and killed Captain John Day and Patrolman Peter J. Lamb of the New Orleans Police Department as they entered his home. Although the home was surrounded, Charles was able to escape.[61][62][63][65]
  • The patent for the first "push-pin", U.S. Patent #654,319 was granted to inventor Edwin Moore of Newark, New Jersey, who had filed his application on July 24, 1899, for an improvement on previous attempts to have a pin fastened to a wood peg. The difference for Moore's creation was that the end of the peg with the pin was wider than the end held by the user so that the "body portion can be firmly held by the operator when inserting the device" to prevent his or her fingers from slipping.[66]

Wednesday, July 25, 1900Edit

  • In New Orleans, rioting broke out as white rioters began attacking black residents at random in response to the killing of two policemen by Robert Charles the previous day. With Charles still on the loose, a mob gathered at the Robert E. Lee Monument at 7 pm and then marched up St. Charles Avenue toward the Negro section of town.[67] Two days later, Charles was located at 1208 Saratoga Avenue and killed, but not before he shot 24 people.[68]

Thursday, July 26, 1900Edit

  • The Office of the United States Postmaster General issued its Order No. 875, which provided that "the introduction of rural free delivery will not increase or otherwise modify the present rate of postage on second-class matter", increasing the delivery of magazines and newspapers to rural locations.[69]

Friday, July 27, 1900Edit

  • Kaiser Wilhelm gave the infamous "Huns Speech" at Bremerhaven, Germany as he dispatched troops to fight in China. The most inflammatory line was, "Wie vor tausend Jahren die Hunnen unter ihrem König Etzel sich einen Namen gemacht, der sie noch jetzt in Überlieferung und Märchen gewaltig erscheinen läßt, so möge der Name Deutscher in China auf 1000 Jahre durch euch in einer Weise bestätigt werden, daß es niemals wieder ein Chinese wagt, einen Deutschen scheel anzusehen!".[70] "Just as the Huns under their King Etzel (figure of the "Nibelungenlied") made a name for themselves a thousand years ago which still, in saga and tradition, makes them appear powerful, so may the name "German" be impressed by you for a thousand years, that no Chinese will ever dare again look askance at a German!"[71] The Germans were, for a century thereafter, referred to as "Huns".
  • New Orleans police officers and white vigilantes surrounded the house where Robert Charles was hiding. When police officers attempted to arrest Charles, he shot and killed Corporal John F. Lally and mortally wounded Sergeant Gabriel J. Porteous, who died of his injuries the following day. Keeper Andrew Van Kuren, the jail keeper of the City Workhouse, and other officers took up positions in a home near the one where Charles was barricaded. Charles shot and killed Van Kuren when he stood in a doorway of the home. The police decided to set the house where Charles was hiding on fire in order to drive him out; when Charles tried to escape, Charles Noiret, a medical student at Tulane University, shot and killed him. The angry mob beat and fired guns at Charles' body.[63][72][73][74]

Saturday, July 28, 1900Edit

Sunday, July 29, 1900Edit

  • At Monza, King Umberto was assassinated by anarchist Gaetano Bresci, a resident of Paterson, New Jersey. The King had attended an awards ceremony at a gymnastics competition, and was preparing to leave at 10:00 p.m., when Bresci shot him three times.[77] Umberto's son Victor, the Prince of Naples, succeeded him. Back in Paterson, where Mrs. Bresci still lived, Mayor John Hinchcliffe reassured the press that the city's 104 policemen were keeping an eye on possible terrorism. "There is one thing I want to say, and that is the plot to kill King Humbert was not hatched in New Jersey," said Governor Foster McGowan Voorhees, adding, "I am sure it was made up in New York if plotted in this country at all."[78] Legend has it that King Umberto met his exact double the day before at a restaurant, and that the man died earlier in the day "of a shooting accident".[79]
  • Born: Eyvind Johnson, Swedish writer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1974, in Boden, Sweden (d. 1976)

Monday, July 30, 1900Edit

Tuesday, July 31, 1900Edit


  1. ^ a b c Boot, Max (2003). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books. p. 83. ISBN 046500721X. LCCN 2004695066.
  2. ^ "Archduke Franz Ferdinand Married". The New York Times. July 2, 1900. p. 6.
  3. ^ "Deputy Constable George William "Will" Hardin, Hunt County Constable's Office - Precinct 1, Texas". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  4. ^ "All Foreigners in Peking Dead?". The New York Times. July 3, 1900. p. 7.
  5. ^ Hevia, James Louis (2003). English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-century China. Duke University Press. p. 192.
  6. ^ "Reign of Terror in China's Capital; No Hope Now Left that the Envoys Can Be Saved; Probably Killed Days Ago". The New York Times. July 4, 1900. p. 1.
  7. ^ "Allied Troops At Tien-Tsin Cut Off; The Massacre at Peking; Detailed Accounts Leave Hardly Any Room for Doubt that All Foreigners Are Dead-- Rising Spreads to South". The New York Times. July 6, 1900. p. 1.
  8. ^ "Hope For Envoys Again Grows Dim". The New York Times. July 9, 1900. p. 1.
  9. ^ "All Hope Lost For Peking Foreigners; Even State Department Now Believes They Are Dead". The New York Times. July 14, 1900. p. 1.
  10. ^ "Still No Details Of Envoys' Fate; But All Hope is Given Up". The New York Times. July 15, 1900. p. 1.
  11. ^ "Details of the Peking Tragedy; Foreigners All Slain After a Last Heroic Stand". The New York Times. July 16, 1900. p. 1.
  12. ^ Fleming, Fergus (2007). The Sword and the Cross: Two Men and an Empire of Sand. Grove Press. p. 135.
  13. ^ "Zeppelin, Ferdinand". The Americana. Scientific American. 1911.
  14. ^ Movers and Shakers: The 100 Most Influential Figures in Modern Business. Basic Books. 2003. p. 311.
  15. ^ "Deputy Sheriff Archibald McNeill, Duval County Sheriff's Office, Texas". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  16. ^ Wolfe, Robert (April 8, 1982). "Alaska's Great Sickness, 1900: An Epidemic of Measles and Influenza in a Virgin Soil Population". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 126 (2): 91–121. PMID 11620766.
  17. ^ Lyman Van Slyke, The China White Paper: August 1949 (Stanford University Press, 1967), p. 431
  18. ^ "A Franco-American Fete", New York Times, July 4, 1900, p. 1
  19. ^ "Forty Killed in Tacoma", New York Times, July 5, 1900, p. 6
  20. ^ David E. Nye, Electrifying America: Social Meanings of a New Technology, 1880–1940 (MIT Press, 1992), p. 102
  21. ^ Kathleen Middleton, Bayonne (Arcadia Publishing, 1995), pp. 64–66
  22. ^ Ben Proctor, William Randolph Hearst, p. 153
  23. ^ "Last edition", Independent Press-Telegram (Long Beach, Cal.), September 14, 1974.
  24. ^ Terry Teachout, Pops: A Life of Louis Armstrong (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009)
  25. ^ Dan Rather and Walter Isaacson, People of the Century: One Hundred Men and Women Who Shaped the Last One Hundred Years (Simon & Schuster, 1999), p. 204
  26. ^ "Bryan Nominated; 16 To 1 Platform", New York Times, July 6, 1900, p. 1
  27. ^ "West Ham United Football Club and the Beginnings of Professional Football in East London, 1895–1914", by Charles P. Korr, Journal of Contemporary History (April 1978), pp. 211–232
  28. ^ Library of World History (Western Press Assn. 1914) p. 4684
  29. ^ Wesley Treat, Weird Arizona (Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2007), p. 200
  30. ^ Tim Drake, Saints of the Jubilee (AuthorHouse, 2002), p. 81
  31. ^ http://www.poemtree.com/poems/HomeBurial.htm[bare URL]
  32. ^ Parini, Jay (2000). Robert Frost: A Life. Macmillan. pp. 67–68.
  33. ^ "Deputy U.S. Marshal Howard Wilson, United States Department of Justice - United States Marshals Service, U.S. Government". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  34. ^ Robert Coventry Forsyth, The China Martyrs of 1900: A Complete Roll of the Christian Heroes Martyred in China in 1900 (Religious Tract Society, 1904), pp. 38–40
  35. ^ Richard Jebb, Studies in Colonial Nationalism (E. Arnold, 1905), p. 82
  36. ^ William Harrison Moore, The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia (G. Partridge & Co., 1902), pp. 335–336
  37. ^ Vaclav Smil, Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867–1914 and Their Lasting Impact (Oxford University Press US, 2005), p. 240
  38. ^ Phil Cousineau, The Olympic Odyssey: Rekindling the True Spirit of the Great Games (Quest Books, 2003), p. 118
  39. ^ "Croquet at the 1900 Paris Summer Games | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com". April 17, 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-04-17.
  40. ^ Allen Kent, Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Volume 43, p. 215
  41. ^ William H. Muldoon, Mark Hanna's "moral Cranks" And—others: A Study of Today (G.F. Spinney Co., 1900), p. 319
  42. ^ Charlie Carlson, Weird Florida (Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2005), p. 39
  43. ^ "Earl of Hopetoun selected". The New York Times. July 14, 1900. p. 1.
  44. ^ Brown, Fred Radford (1909). History of the Ninth U.S. Infantry, 1799-1909. R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company. pp. 451–460. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  45. ^ "Allies Victorious; Tien-Tsin Captured", New York Times, July 18, 1900, p. 1
  46. ^ Ball, Ann. Young Faces of Holiness. p. 174.
  47. ^ Gerrare, Wirt (1904). Greater Russia: The Continental Empire of the Old World. Macmillan. pp. 232–33.
  48. ^ Nimmo, William F. (2001). Stars and Stripes Across the Pacific. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 49.
  49. ^ "Detective Joseph A. Perkins, Memphis Police Department, Tennessee". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  50. ^ Lenin. Fleet Street Press, reprinted in READ BOOKS. 2006. pp. 35–36.
  51. ^ a b c d Wallechinsky, David (1984). The Complete Book of the Olympics. Penguin Books. pp. 120–122.
  52. ^ "Sheriff Richard Jarrett, McDonald County Sheriff's Office, Missouri". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  53. ^ A Handbook for Travellers in Japan (J. Murray 1907), p. 487
  54. ^ Michael Hartley, Christy Mathewson: A Biography (McFarland, 2004) p. 20
  55. ^ David Ewen, Music for the millions – The Encyclopedia of Musical Masterpieces (READ Books, 2007) p. 533
  56. ^ David C. Goodman and Colin Chant, ed. European Cities & Technology (Routledge, 1999), p. 208
  57. ^ "Word Received From Mr. Conger", New York Times, July 21, 1900, p. 1
  58. ^ William Roscoe Thayer, "The Life and Letters of John Hay" (Houghton Mifflin, 1916) p. 237
  59. ^ The Annual Register of World Events For the Year 1900. Longmans, Green and Co. 1901. p. 24.
  60. ^ "This Week in Black History". New Pittsburgh Courier.
  61. ^ a b Wells-Barnett, Ida B. (1900). Mob Rule in New Orleans. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  62. ^ a b "Captain John Day, New Orleans Police Department, Louisiana". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  63. ^ a b c Bernardo, Joseph (2 January 2012). "Robert Charles Riots (1900)". BlackPast.org. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  64. ^ Tsai, Jung-Fang (1995). Hong Kong in Chinese History. Columbia University Press. pp. 165–66.
  65. ^ "Patrolman Peter J. Lamb, New Orleans Police Department, Louisiana". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  66. ^ "U.S. Patent #654,319" (PDF).
  67. ^ "Mob Rule In New Orleans". The New York Times. July 26, 1900. p. 1.
  68. ^ Hair, William Ivy (1986). Carnival of Fury: Robert Charles and the New Orleans Race Riot of 1900. LSU Press. p. 1.
  69. ^ Senate Documents, Vol. 8, (G.P.O. 1908) pp. 54–56
  70. ^ "De 'Hunnenrede' van Keizer Wilhelm II - Bremerhaven 27 juli 1900". www.wereldoorlog1418.nl.
  71. ^ Jonas, Manfred (1985). The United States and Germany: A Diplomatic History. Cornell University Press. p. 63.
  72. ^ "Corporal John F. Lally, New Orleans Police Department, Louisiana". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  73. ^ "Sergeant Gabriel J. Porteous, New Orleans Police Department, Louisiana". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  74. ^ "Keeper Andrew Van Kuren, New Orleans Police Department, Louisiana". The Officer Down Memorial Page, Inc. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  75. ^ John B. Severance, Einstein: Visionary Scientist (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1999), pp. 28–32
  76. ^ Lo Hui-min, ed. The Correspondence of G.E. Morrison (CUP Archive, 1976), p. 407
  77. ^ "King of Italy Assassinated". The New York Times. July 30, 1900. p. 1.
  78. ^ Mappen, Mark (1992). Jerseyana: The Underside of New Jersey History. Rutgers University Press. pp. 120–121.
  79. ^ Khatree, Vikas. 136 Incredible Coincidences. Pustak Mahal. pp. 16–18.
  80. ^ Cudahy, Brian J. (2003). A Century of Subways: Celebrating 100 Years of New York's Underground Railways. New York: Fordham University Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0-8232-2292-6.
  81. ^ "Australian Federation", New International Encyclopedia, 2d Ed. (Dodd, Mead, 1914), p. 405
  82. ^ Coffee and Conflict in Colombia, 1886–1910, Charles W. Bergquist, pp. 151–2

External linksEdit