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Nipper (1884–1895) was a dog from Bristol, England, who served as the model for a painting by Francis Barraud titled "His Master's Voice". This image was the basis for the famous dog-and-gramophone trademark, one of the world's best-known, that was used by several audio recording and associated company brands, including Berliner Gramophone and its various successors, affiliates, and successors, including Berliner's German subsidiary Deutsche Grammophon; Berliner's American successor the Victor Talking Machine Co. (later known as RCA Victor and then RCA Records); Victor's Bluebird label; Zonophone; Berliner's (and later Victor's) British affiliate the Gramophone Co. Ltd. (informally known as His Master's Voice) and its successors EMI and HMV Retail Ltd.; the Gramophone Co.'s German subsidiary Electrola; Zonophone; and onetime Victor subsidiary the Japan Victor Company (JVC).

Nipper
OriginalNipper.jpg
Francis Barraud's original painting of Nipper looking into an Edison Bell cylinder phonograph
SpeciesCanis lupus familiaris
BreedMongrel (part terrier)
SexMale
Born1884
Bristol, England
Died1895 (aged 11)
England
Resting placeKingston upon Thames, England
Coordinates: 51°24′40″N 0°18′08″W / 51.410990°N 0.302226°W / 51.410990; -0.302226
Nation fromBritain
OwnerMark Henry Barraud

BiographyEdit

Nipper was born in 1884 in Bristol, England, and died in September 1895.[1] He was a mixed-breed dog and probably part Jack Russell Terrier,[2] although some sources suggest that he was a Smooth Fox Terrier,[3] or "part Bull Terrier".[4] He was named Nipper because he would "nip" the backs of visitors' legs.[5]

Nipper originally lived with his owner, Mark Henry Barraud, in the Prince's Theatre where Barraud was a scenery designer.[6] When Barraud died in 1887, his brothers Philip and Francis took care of the dog. Nipper himself died of natural causes in 1895 and was buried in Kingston upon Thames in Clarence Street, in a small park surrounded by magnolia trees. As time progressed the area was built upon, and a branch of Lloyds Bank now occupies the site. On the wall of the bank, just inside the entrance, a brass plaque commemorates the terrier that lies beneath the building.[7]

On 10 March 2010, a small road near to the dog's resting place in Kingston upon Thames was named Nipper Alley in commemoration of this resident.[8]

Advertising iconEdit

In 1898, three years after Nipper's death, Francis Barraud, his last owner and brother of his first owner, painted a picture of Nipper listening intently to a wind-up Edison-Bell cylinder phonograph. Thinking the Edison-Bell Company located in New Jersey, USA,[5] might find it useful, he presented it to James E. Hough, who promptly said, "Dogs don't listen to phonographs". On May 31, 1899, Barraud went to the Maiden Lane offices of The Gramophone Company with the intention of borrowing a brass horn to replace the original black horn on the painting. Manager William Barry Owen suggested that if the artist replaced the machine with a Berliner disc gramophone, that he would buy the painting. The image became the successful trademark of the Victor and HMV record labels, HMV music stores, and the Radio Corporation of America, after the acquisition of the Victor company in 1929. The trademark was registered by Berliner for use in the United States on July 10, 1900.[9] (See His Master's Voice for a complete history of the brands based on Nipper.)

The slogan "His Master's Voice", along with the painting, was sold to The Gramophone Company for £100 (equivalent to £10,628 in 2018) – half for the copyright and half for the physical painting itself.[11] The original oil painting hung in the EMI boardroom in Hayes, Middlesex, for many years.

Logo variationsEdit

LegacyEdit

 
One of four Nipper stained glass windows atop the "Nipper Building", the former RCA Victor Building 17 in Camden, New Jersey. This photo, taken from inside the tower, shows the 2003 replacement of the 1979 replacement of the 1915 original glass

The iconic image of a terrier-mix dog, Nipper, looking into a phonograph became an international symbol of quality and excellence for the Victor Talking Machine Company.[12] Nipper lives on through the brand names; he even appeared in ads on television with his "son", a puppy named Chipper who was added to the RCA family in 1991.[13] Real dogs continue to play the roles of Nipper and Chipper, but Chipper has to be replaced much more frequently, since his character is a puppy.

Nipper continues to be the mascot of HMV stores in countries where the entertainment retailer has the rights to him. Both RCA Records and EMI have deemphasized Nipper in the global music market due to the fragmented ownership of the trademark.

Victor Company of Japan (JVC) also uses the logo within Japan, which includes the "His Master's Voice" slogan.

A huge, four-ton Nipper can be seen on the roof of the old RTA (former RCA distributor) building now owned by Arnoff Moving & Storage[14] and located at 991 Broadway in Albany, New York.[10] A second slightly smaller one was purchased by Jim Wells from RCA in Baltimore for $1. After spending many years on private property in Nipper Park in Merrifield, Virginia, perched over Lee Highway (U.S. Route 29), it has now been returned to Baltimore, Maryland, where it originally graced the former RCA Building on Russell Street. Nipper now sits atop the Maryland Historical Society building at Park Avenue and West Centre Street in Baltimore. Though smaller than the Albany Nipper, Baltimore's includes a gramophone for Nipper to listen to. The Baltimore Nipper was saved when the Virginia site where he briefly resided was sold to developers. It is currently the location of a group of townhomes. The street leading to the development is named Nipper Way.[15]

A small statue of Nipper can be seen perched above a doorway in the Merchant Venturers Building on the corner of Park Row and Woodland Road in Bristol; this building, part of the University of Bristol, stands near the site of the old Prince's Theatre.

 
RCA Nipper atop the old RCA building, Broadway, Albany, New York
 
Nipper above a doorway of the Merchant Venturers Building in Bristol

A life-size ornament of Nipper appears in the music video to Cyndi Lauper's song "Time After Time."

In May 2017, the City of Albany held a contest for various groups or artists to submit designs for creative, painted Nipper statues which were placed throughout the city. Ten of the contestants were chosen to create ten Nipper statues - which were displayed for one year and then auctioned off for charity.[16]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

 
Nipper as used by HMV record stores
  1. ^ "The History of Nipper and His Master's Voice". www.erikoest.dk.
  2. ^ "BBC News - ENTERTAINMENT - HMV seeks budding Nipper". news.bbc.co.uk.
  3. ^ Fudge, Erica (2002). Animal. London: Reaktion. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-86189-134-1.
  4. ^ Cunliffe, Juliette (2000). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Bath, England: Parragon. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7525-4161-7.
  5. ^ a b "the nipper saga". designboom. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  6. ^ "The History of the Department of Computer Science". Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  7. ^ http://www.londondogforum.co.uk/nipper-his-masters-voice-c294.html Nipper - His Master's Voice - The London Dog Forum
  8. ^ "Kingston's Toilet Gallery alley named after HMV dog Nipper". Surrey Comet.
  9. ^ Vaclav Smil, Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867–1914 and Their Lasting Impact (Oxford University Press, 2005), p240
  10. ^ a b Rolfs, Joan & Robin. (2007). Nipper Collectibles, The RCA Victor Trademark Dog. Audio Antique LLC, USA. ISBN 978-1-932433-82-1
  11. ^ Petts, Leonard (1973). "The Story of "Nipper" and the "His Master's Voice" Francis Barraud's painting". Talking Machine Review. ISBN 0902338161.
  12. ^ "Johnson Victrola Museum, Dover, Delaware".
  13. ^ Chipper
  14. ^ "About Us". Arnoff Moving & Storage - New York's Hudson Valley Mover of Choice. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
  15. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps.
  16. ^ Barnes, Steve (13 July 2017). "Albany summer street exhibit features Nipper statues". Times Union. Retrieved 3 September 2017.

External linksEdit