Open main menu

Jill Valentine[a] is a fictional character in Resident Evil, a survival horror video game series created by Japanese company Capcom. Introduced as one of two player characters in the original Resident Evil (1996), she was the first playable female character in the survival horror genre. A former member of Delta Force, Valentine initially worked alongside her partner Chris Redfield to fight the Umbrella Corporation, a pharmaceutical company whose bioterrorism created zombies. She later became a founding member of the United Nations' Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance (BSAA).

Jill Valentine
Resident Evil character
A 3D rendering of a fictional character using realistic proportions. She is wearing combat boots, military pants, a form-fitting light blue shirt, shoulder pads, a beret and tactical gloves. She has a pistol in her right hand by her side.
Jill Valentine, dressed in her police uniform from the original game[1]
First appearanceResident Evil (1996)
Last appearanceProject X Zone 2 (2015)
Created by
Designed byŌishi
Portrayed by
Voiced by
Motion capturePatricia Ja Lee
Information
NationalityAmerican[2]

Valentine was a central protagonist within the Resident Evil franchise, featuring in subsequent games in the series as well as associated novelizations and merchandise. Her appearance in the games was redesigned on multiple occasions; in later titles, such as Resident Evil (a 2002 remake of the original game), Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles and Resident Evil 5, her features were based on Canadian model and actor Julia Voth. The character also appeared in the Resident Evil film series, where she is portrayed by actor Sienna Guillory. Valentine was additionally featured in several titles issued by other gaming franchises, including Street Fighter, Marvel vs. Capcom and Project X Zone.

Video game publications listed Valentine among the most popular and iconic video game characters in history, and praised her as the most likable and consistent character in the franchise. She received both acclaim and criticism with regard to gender representation in video games. Several publications praised the series for its portrayal of women and considered Valentine significantly less sexualized than other female gaming characters; she was additionally cited as an example of a female character who was as competent and skilled as her male counterparts. However, others argued she was weakened as a protagonist by attributes which undermined her role as a heroine – specifically that her body shape was unrealistic and not reflective of her military background – and were critical of some of her overtly sexualized costumes.

Contents

Concept and designEdit

Jill Valentine first appeared as one of two playable protagonists, alongside her partner Chris Redfield, in Capcom's 1996 video game Resident Evil.[2] As such, she was the first playable female character in the survival horror genre.[3] Both characters were created by director Shinji Mikami and designer Isao Ōishi.[2] In the game, Valentine was identified as an American citizen with a Japanese American mother and French American father,[4] and a former member of Delta Force who excelled at bomb disposal during training.[5] Her outfit is a police uniform consisting of a beret, shoulder pads, T-shirt, tactical pants and combat boots.[1] In 2014, Shinji Mikami expressed his opposition to the sexual objectification of women in video games. In addition to not eroticizing female characters, he said he refused to portray women who were submissive to men and wrote female characters "who discover their independence as the game progresses, or who already know they are independent but have that tested against a series of challenges."[6] Prima Games' official strategy guide for Resident Evil described Valentine as having expertise in the handling of both weapons and explosive material, as well as lock picking.[7] A BradyGames strategy guide for Resident Evil Zero characterized her as intelligent, brave, and loyal.[8]

A writer for Kotaku noted that while Valentine and Redfield's storylines progress toward "the same general direction", there were substantial differences between their narratives, and highlighted differences in gameplay: "Jill has more inventory slots than Chris and carries a lockpick, which gains her early entry to rooms with substantial amounts of additional health and ammo. Chris can't carry as many items, but he can take more damage, run faster, and aim more accurately. If you want an easier experience your first time, you'll want to go with Jill."[9] For the 1998 sequel, the production team used new characters (Leon S. Kennedy and Claire Redfield) to preserve the original game's horror elements; Mikami believed Valentine and Redfield would be too experienced to be scared by the events in the sequel.[10][11] He was more invested in "vulnerable characters, in normal human beings", and explained: "The horror experience is most scary when the player really isn't sure whether their character is going to live or die – death and survival need to be on a constant see-saw. If there's a situation where you're not 100% sure that you can avoid or defeat the enemies, if you feel maybe there's a chance you'll make it – that's where horror lies."[6]

 
Julia Voth, pictured cosplaying in the original Resident Evil outfit, is the model for Valentine's appearance from 2002 onwards.[12]

Valentine's outfit in Resident Evil 3: Nemesis was noticeably less formal than the outfit worn in the original game, consisting of a blue tube top, black miniskirt and knee-high boots.[13] The character was redesigned several times over the course of the game series.[14] Her appearance in the 2002 remake of the original game was based on Canadian model and actor Julia Voth.[15] Capcom producer Hiroyuki Kobayashi said they made her more kawaii in the remake, but also kept her tough and muscular.[b] Voth's likeness was reused for Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles (2007) and Resident Evil 5 (2009).[17][18] The latter title featured Redfield as a main protagonist; character designers opted to focus on how both characters had aged since the original game.[19] Valentine was further redesigned to reflect how she had been used as a test subject in biological research experiments.[4] Her blonde hair, pale skin, and tight-fitting outfit – described as a "battle suit"[20]  – represent the effect of these experiments.[21]

The downloadable content (DLC) episode Lost in Nightmares, a prequel to the events of Resident Evil 5, included an alternative outfit for Valentine.[22] The outfit was based on military clothing and sportswear.[23] Since Resident Evil: Revelations (2012) was set at sea, her costume was made to resemble a wetsuit.[24] The initial design featured more tactical gear attached to her buoyancy control device, but it was removed to highlight her body's contours.[c] Alternate costumes as rewards for players have been a staple of the Resident Evil series.[26] Completing the 2002 remake with Valentine unlocked the ability to dress her in her Resident Evil 3 miniskirt costume and as Sarah Connor from the 1991 film Terminator 2: Judgment Day.[27] The miniskirt was added during development upon the staff's request. Following its addition, developers changed camera angles to reduce the amount of upskirting and matched the color of the skirt and underwear to make it less obvious.[28] The outfit reappears in Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D (2011).[26] Her alternate outfit in Resident Evil: Revelations, a revealing pirate costume, was deliberately made to be colorful to contrast with the storyline's dark themes.[29][30]

Voice-over and live-action actorsEdit

The actors who appeared in the original game's live-action cutscenes and recorded the voice work were credited only by their first names; Valentine was portrayed by a high school student credited as "Inezh".[2][d] Over the course of the franchise, voice actors who played Valentine included Catherine Disher in Resident Evil 3,[32] Heidi Anderson in the 2002 remake,[33] Kathleen Barr in Capcom's 2004 action-adventure game Under the Skin,[34] and Tara Platt in Pachislot Biohazard,[35] a recreational arcade game released solely in Japan.[36] Patricia Ja Lee provided the voice and motion capture for both The Umbrella Chronicles and Resident Evil 5.[37][38] Kari Wahlgren voiced the character in the 2011 game Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds.[39] In Revelations, Valentine was voiced by Michelle Ruff,[40] who returned for the non-canon game Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City.[41] Atsuko Yuya voiced Valentine in the Japanese versions of the games.[42] The character appeared in four entries of the Resident Evil film series, where she was portrayed by English actress Sienna Guillory.[43][44]

AppearancesEdit

In the Resident Evil gamesEdit

Games featuring Jill Valentine
1996Resident Evil
1997Resident Evil: Director's Cut
1998
1999Resident Evil 3: Nemesis
2000Marvel vs. Capcom 2: New Age of Heroes
2001
2002Resident Evil (2002 remake)
2003Resident Evil: The Missions
2004Under the Skin
2005
2006
2007Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles
2008Resident Evil: Genesis
2009Resident Evil 5
2010
2011Resident Evil: Mercenaries Vs.
Resident Evil: The Mercenaries 3D
Resident Evil Outbreak Survive
Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds
Ultimate Marvel vs. Capcom 3
2012Resident Evil: Revelations
Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City
Project X Zone
2013
2014
2015Project X Zone 2

Every game in the series took place in the fictional American metropolitan area Raccoon City until its destruction at the end of Resident Evil 3: Nemesis.[45] Subsequent games which featured Valentine were set on an international scale: Russia,[45] Africa,[46] and the Mediterranean Sea.[40] The original game was set in July 1998 in a mansion,[47] which Valentine and her team entered into searching for colleagues.[48] Working with partner Barry Burton, she discovered the property was a façade for a biological warfare laboratory operated by the Umbrella Corporation and that its undead occupants are scientists who had been developing the T-virus mutagen. Her commander Albert Wesker was revealed to be a double agent for Umbrella.[45] Valentine and Redfield were among the five survivors of the incident,[45] forming a strong friendship and becoming passionate opponents of bioterrorism.[49]

Valentine was the sole protagonist in Resident Evil 3: Nemesis (1999). Mikami and its director wanted the game to highlight a female character who had previously appeared in the series. Mikami explained that Resident Evil 2 protagonist Claire Redfield was due to feature as the lead in the concurrently-produced Resident Evil – Code: Veronica (2000), meaning Valentine was the only remaining female protagonist who could be used, for continuity reasons.[11] Nemesis occured two months after the first game,[5] during which time Valentine had joined the Raccoon City Police Department (RCPD) to protect as many civilians as possible from the T-virus. The reason given by Capcom for her informal clothing in this entry was that she had resigned from the police immediately prior to the city's entire population being infected with the virus.[13] She quit in protest over the failure of law enforcement to take action against Umbrella but remained in the city to investigate the corporation.[e]

In Nemesis, she escaped Raccoon City before its destruction from a nuclear strike as part of a U.S. government cover-up.[45] She was pursued by Nemesis, a supersoldier[53] who infected her with the T-virus. Her new partner Carlos Oliveira – a former Umbrella mercenary[50] – cured her of the infection using a vaccine.[32][45] The Umbrella Chronicles takes place in 2003, when Valentine and Redfield joined a private organization with the goal of exposing Umbrella's biological warfare activities,[54] leading a group to destroy their only remaining research facility.[f] After the fall of the corporation, the pair became founding members of the United Nations' Bioterrorism Security Assessment Alliance (BSAA).[45] In Revelations – set two years later – Valentine and new partner Parker Luciani were sent on a mission to rescue Redfield, who was allegedly being held hostage on a ghost ship in the Mediterranean. Once aboard, she discovered the ship was infested with a new type of mutagen capable of infecting the aquatic ecosystem. Valentine and Redfield then unraveled a political conspiracy involving an earlier mutagenic outbreak and a botched investigation by a rival agency.[40]

Resident Evil 5 took place in 2009 in the fictional African town of Kijuju,[56] where terrorists had been turning local residents into zombies. One of these terrorists is revealed to be Valentine,[46] who was missing in action for the previous two and a half years.[5] Set in 2006, the Lost in Nightmares DLC showed Valentine and Redfield searching inside a mansion for Umbrella's founder; to save Redfield from Wesker, Valentine tackled the latter through a window.[57] Neither of their bodies were recovered, and Valentine was declared dead.[46] In fact, she was injured by the fall and taken hostage by Wesker, who then used her as a test subject in his biological experiments. The antibodies produced by Valentine's system as a result of her Nemesis-era T-virus infection were used as the basis for the Uroboros Virus: the catalyst for the events of Resident Evil 5.[5]

During Resident Evil 5, Redfield discovered that Valentine is alive. Wesker had attached a mind-control device to her chest which forced Valentine to commit the terrorist acts and fight Redfield and his new partner, local BSAA agent Sheva Alomar.[21][46] She finds enough self-control to open her outfit so the device can be seen and removed. After its removal, Valentine explains that she knew what she was doing but was unable to control her actions[4] and urges Redfield and Alomar to continue their mission.[46] Another DLC episode, titled Desperate Escape, described Valentine's escape to safety with the help of local BSAA agent Josh Stone.[58]

Other appearancesEdit

Valentine featured in several of the Resident Evil films. She was originally scheduled to be the protagonist for the first Resident Evil movie (2002). Instead, Alice, portrayed by Milla Jovovich, was developed as a new character for the film series.[59] Valentine appeared in the 2004 sequel Resident Evil: Apocalypse, where she is a disgraced police officer who escapes the ruins of Raccoon City with the help of Alice and other survivors.[59][60] The character appeared in a post-credits scene in Resident Evil: Afterlife (2010), where she is seen wearing the mind-controlling device from Resident Evil 5 and leading an attack against Alice, Chris, Claire Redfield, and the survivors they rescued after a virus outbreak in Los Angeles.[61] In Resident Evil: Retribution (2012), Valentine was a primary antagonist programmed to capture Alice, but she regained control of herself when Alice removed Wesker's mind-control device from her chest.[62] The film included a fight between Valentine and Alice containing around 200 moves.[g] She did not appear in the final film, Resident Evil: The Final Chapter (2016), with the character apparently dying offscreen.[64] Jovovich explained: "Unfortunately, neither Chris or Jill is in this one. There are a lot of characters in the Resident Evil franchise and it's difficult to have everybody involved. [...] We just kind of had to make some tough choices on this one."[65]

She was also included as a playable character in several non-canon Resident Evil games.[26][66] Valentine featured in numerous mobile games in the series, and was the sole protagonist in Resident Evil: Genesis (2008), an alternative-story version of the original game.[67] Apart from the Resident Evil series, she appeared in two games in the Marvel vs. Capcom franchise[68] and the crossover tactical role-playing games Project X Zone and Project X Zone 2.[69] She made a brief cameo appearance in 2004's Under the Skin,[70] and was a playable character in both Capcom's We Love Golf! (2007) and the digital collectible card game Teppen (2019).[71][72] She additionally appeared as an alternate skin for two separate characters in the Street Fighter series: one of Chun-Li's alternate outfits in Super Gem Fighter Mini Mix (1998) had that character resembling a "gun-toting Jill Valentine wannabe",[73] while an alternate outfit for Cammy in Street Fighter V (2016) showed her wearing Valentine's costume from the original Resident Evil game.[74]

The character featured in novelizations of the films and games[75] and played a supporting role in the first novel, Resident Evil: Caliban Cove (1998), in a series by S. D. Perry.[76] In Resident Evil: The Umbrella Conspiracy (1998), Perry's novelization of the original game, Valentine's Delta Force background is not mentioned; before her career in law enforcement, she was said to have acted as an accomplice for her father Dick Valentine, who was a professional thief.[77] Several comic books based on the games have also released,[78] and she was a character in Bandai's Resident Evil Deck Building Card Game (2011).[79] Merchandise featuring Valentine include action figures and figurines.[80] Actors have portrayed her at Resident Evil-themed attractions at Universal Studios Japan and Universal Orlando's Halloween Horror Nights.[81] Capcom's themed restaurant Biohazard Cafe & Grill S.T.A.R.S., which opened in Shibuya, Tokyo in 2012, sold a noodle dish named after her.[h]

Reception and legacyEdit

Gaming publications, including the 2011 version of the Guinness World Records Gamer's Edition,[83] listed Valentine among the most popular and iconic video game characters ever created.[84][85][86] GamesTM dubbed her the best female protagonist in gaming history, describing her as "smart and resourceful, determined to bring Albert Wesker and the Umbrella Corporation to justice for the hell they have inflicted upon the world." They elaborated that her story arc was the most believable and consistent of any character found within the entire Resident Evil franchise.[87] Similarly, Complex rated her one of the greatest heroines in video game history and said she was the most likable character in Resident Evil.[88] The same publication later described her as one of the all-time greatest mascots[i] for the video game industry, describing her as "the face" of the franchise while arguing that a tough, strong and aesthetically attractive female character had the potential to appeal to a broad demographic audience.[85] At the 2013 Penny Arcade Expo, she was nominated by journalists and game developers as one of the best lead characters in both Western and Japanese role-playing video games.[89]

Several commentators have suggested that Mikami's initial portrayal of Valentine as a military professional tempered the ability of subsequent game directors to overtly sexualize the character.[6][90][91][92] Writing in The Playful Undead and Video Games: Critical Analyses of Zombies and Gameplay, Esther MacCallum-Stewart explained that his female characters possessed qualities which made them unique and viable choices for players to select over their male counterparts, and said that their combat attire helped his characters avoid criticism of adhering to the male gaze.[93] Mikami said: "I don't know if I've put more emphasis on women characters, but when I do introduce them, it is never as objects. In [other] games, they will be peripheral characters with ridiculous breast physics. I avoid that sort of obvious eroticism."[6]

As a result, The Escapist praised the series for its portrayal of women, saying that its "progressive approach" produced female characters who were not judged on gender and highlighted Valentine as a "competent, clever and professional" soldier who is "not 'good, for a woman', but simply 'good'."[90] The same publication included her among the least-sexualized female characters ever created, describing her clothing as revealing but not obscene,[94] while GamesRadar+ said she was "perhaps the most sensible" female character designed in the mid-to-late 1990s.[95] Additionally, her professional relationship with partner Chris Redfield has been celebrated for its basis in loyalty rather than romance[96] and its balance of their personalities: Valentine's intellect and Redfield's brawn.[97]

 
Valentine's Resident Evil 3 outfit (left) and its inclusion in Resident Evil: Apocalypse (right) have received criticism.[98]

Despite this, subsequent games in the series not directed by Mikami – namely Resident Evil 3 and an alternate outfit found in Resident Evil: Revelations – have depicted the character wearing revealing costumes.[13][29][30] These avatars have resulted in Valentine appearing on several lists which rank characters on their sex appeal.[99] In 2011, The Escapist's Lisa Foiles said she was "one of the hottest female character designs ever",[100] while Sarah Warn of AfterEllen.com ranked Valentine fifth in her list of the "hottest" female video game characters.[101] Some commentators have claimed that these sexualized features undermined her role as a heroine and weakened her as a protagonist; commentators have also suggested that her body shape is unrealistic – specifically that it is unreflective of her military background and physical training – and have noted that she was the only member of her team in the original game to not wear a bulletproof vest.[102][103] Other media scholars have argued that players have been intentionally encouraged to both objectify and identify with the character.[104][105]

The Resident Evil film series consistently received negative reviews.[106] Cinefantastique described Guillory's performance in Resident Evil: Apocalypse, in which she has a supporting role, as the film's only highlight.[107] Her outfit in the movie was based on her clothing from Resident Evil 3.[98][108] Producer Paul W. S. Anderson considered several ways to justify the usage of the costume, such as having it described as an undercover outfit,[109] while Milla Jovovich suggested using a heat wave as the reason.[108] Anderson eventually decided to ignore the issue altogether, arguing that people who would criticize her attire "probably shouldn't be watching a Resident Evil movie [at all]."[109] 1UP.com described the outfit as an "embarrassing relic" from a period when game developers catered exclusively to teenage boys.[110] Her costume and appearance in Resident Evil 5 were also heavily criticized by fans amid claims that it intentionally whitewashed her ethnicity.[111] The extent to which her appearance changed over the course of the game series has been criticized more generally; in 2011, GamesRadar+ said she had been redesigned so many times that it was "getting ridiculous".[14]

MacCallum-Stewart said the first Resident Evil game became "famous for its extremely clunky dialogue and voice acting, an element which lent the otherwise suspenseful game an element of charm that endeared it to players." While explaining that the quality of dialogue could be attributed to "poor translation" of the original Japanese text, she said that this inadvertently helped deviate the series from its rivals.[111] Several lines of dialogue from the game achieved enduring popularity: "You were almost a Jill sandwich", a quip delivered in awkward voiceover by Barry Burton after a falling ceiling trap almost crushes Valentine, was revived as an Internet meme a decade after the game's release; it became the subject of fan art depicting Valentine in or as a sandwich.[112] Capcom referenced the line in several of their later releases, including Dead Rising (2006),[113][114] Resident Evil: Uprising (2009),[112] and Resident Evil: Revelations 2 (2015).[115] Another piece of dialogue spoken by Burton – "And, Jill, here's a lock pick. It might be handy if you, the master of unlocking, take it with you" – also gained notoriety.[116][117] The quote has been parodied for containing an excessive amount of silence between words,[118] and was removed entirely from later editions of the game.[119]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Known in Japan as ジル・バレンタイン (Jiru Barentain)
  2. ^ Hiroyuki Kobayashi: "Instead, Jill got a little cuter [kawaii—in the context this appears to refer to personality]. Her action and atmosphere has charm. This time, we expect a lot more people [to be] charmed by Jill."[16]
  3. ^ "At the beginning of the game, Jill is wearing diving equipment, including BCD (buoyancy control device). I thought the gear had interesting details, but because the team wanted to show her bodyline, it was changed to one that only had straps."[25]
  4. ^ Shinji Mikami: "We shot the opening movie in the Tama River side of Japan. In the beginning of the movie, Jill makes her face look like she is scared, but she was not [supposed to be]. The actress for Jill was only a high-school girl at the time and she had to run around outside in the middle of the night and got mosquito bites, so she made that face; 'I wanna go home!' She was just an immature kid. That cheap shot was totally my mistake. I didn't have enough time and money, also I should have picked the actors judging on performances but it's too late now of course."[31]
  5. ^ "As our story opens, we learn what happened to Jill Valentine after the events of the original Resident Evil. Disillusioned with the failure of Raccoon City's Police Department to act against Umbrella Corporation and its genetic experiments, she decides to quit the force."[50][51] Jill Valentine's diary can be unlocked in Resident Evil: Umbrella Chronicles (2007). The entry for August 24, 1998 reads: "Chris left town today for Europe. Barry said that he was going to send his family to Canada first and then meet up with Chris after that. I have decided to remain in Raccoon City for the time being because I know that the research facility here will be vital to this case. After gathering as much information as I can, I will regroup with Barry and Chris in about a month. I know that is when my true struggle will begin..."[52]
  6. ^ Albert Wesker: "It was the year 2003. Umbrella had a base of operations in Russia, where they were working on new B.O.W. (bio-organic weapons). They were preparing to arm the unstable regions of the world with their bio weaponry. Chris and Jill had joined a regional biohazard containment unit and had heard rumors about this nightmarish facility."[55]
  7. ^ Paul W. S. Anderson: "Milla and I stay in touch with the fans, and one of the things I know they've been looking forward to is a fight between Jill Valentine and Alice. We intend to deliver that." Sienna Guillory: "There's something like 200 [fight] moves, it's massive and it's so intricate."[63]
  8. ^ The dish was "S.T.A.R.S. Original Noodles (Women Only) 'Jill Ver.'". There was a corresponding "(Men Only) 'Barry Ver.'".[82]
  9. ^ "Mascots are a crucial part of video gaming lore. This is because, as their legacies begin to develop, and the years pile on, they begin to represent not only their respective companies, but also the gaming industry as a whole. Think: where would we be today if not for a certain plumber, one blue hedgehog, and our favorite yellow hero swallowing up Power Pellets and ghosts? Well, somewhere, but not in the place we are now, where video games are a billion – yes, that's billion with a "B" – dollar industry.[85]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Jill Valentine Tribute". Capcom USA. February 14, 2013. 00:01:30. Archived from the original on April 17, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d Capcom (March 22, 1996). Resident Evil. Playstation. Scene: Closing credits.
  3. ^ Guinness 2012, p. 115
  4. ^ a b c Martin 2016, p. 7.
  5. ^ a b c d "Jill Valentine". Capcom. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. ^ a b c d Stuart, Keith (September 30, 2014). "Shinji Mikami: the godfather of horror games". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 23, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ Hodgson 2002, p. 22.
  8. ^ Birlew 2002, p. 5.
  9. ^ Klepek, Patrick (January 21, 2015). "Tips For Playing Resident Evil". Kotaku. Archived from the original on August 13, 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ "Resident Evil" (pdf). GamePro (101): 37. February 1997. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  11. ^ a b "Keeping the Nightmare Alive". Edge (74): 40. August 1999, interview with Shinji Mikami
  12. ^ Macy, Seth G. (January 5, 2016). "Wrap Your Head Around This Jill Valentine Cosplay From Jill Valentine Actress". IGN. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ a b c "Resident Evil 3: Nemesis". Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine. 3 (3): 82–83. December 1999. She is just on her way out of town (hence the casual attire) when the new nightmare begins
  14. ^ a b Meikleham, David (December 10, 2010). "Resident Evil: Revelations goes back to horror roots. Redesigns Jill Valentine for the 14th bloody time". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on September 24, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  15. ^ Sheridan, Connor (January 6, 2016). "Is this Jill Valentine cosplay still cosplay if it's her actual model?". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  16. ^ Biohazard Official Navigation Book 2002, p. 7.
  17. ^ "The Celebrities of IGN Convention Bahrain". IGN. October 19, 2014. Archived from the original on August 19, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  18. ^ Nicholson & Price 2009, p. 99, 149.
  19. ^ Nicholson & Price 2009, p. 195.
  20. ^ Plunkett, Luke (January 13, 2011). "This Resident Evil Figure Is Dressed For Battle". Kotaku. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved July 4, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ a b Capcom 2010, p. 32.
  22. ^ Laughlin, Andrew (March 15, 2010). "Resident Evil 5: Gold Edition (PS3)". Digital Spy. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on July 5, 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. ^ Capcom 2010, p. 33.
  24. ^ Capcom 2015, pp. 4, 22.
  25. ^ Capcom 2015, p. 31.
  26. ^ a b c Drake, Audrey (June 2, 2011). "Alternate Costumes in Resident Evil: The Mercenaries". IGN. Archived from the original on August 12, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  27. ^ Birlew 2002, p. 154.
  28. ^ Biohazard Official Navigation Book 2002, pp. 7, 8.
  29. ^ a b Rad, Chloi (October 20, 2015). "11 Weirdest Alternative Costumes in Games". IGN. Archived from the original on August 25, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  30. ^ a b Capcom 2015, pp. 27, 30.
  31. ^ "The History and Making of Biohazard '96". Capcom. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  32. ^ a b Capcom (September 22, 1999). Resident Evil 3: Nemesis. PlayStation. Capcom.
  33. ^ Capcom (March 22, 2002). Resident Evil. GameCube. Scene: Closing credits.
  34. ^ Capcom (October 12, 2004). Under the Skin. PlayStation 2. Scene: Closing credits.
  35. ^ "Tara Platt Voice Work". Anime News Network. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  36. ^ "Pachi-slot Biohazard: Complete Coverage". Capcom. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  37. ^ Capcom (November 13, 2007). Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. Wii. Scene: Closing credits.
  38. ^ Capcom (March 5, 2009). Resident Evil 5. PlayStation 3. Scene: Closing credits.
  39. ^ Capcom (February 15, 2011). Marvel vs. Capcom 3: Fate of Two Worlds. Scene: closing credits, 2:44 in, Voice Talent.
  40. ^ a b c Capcom (January 26, 2012). Resident Evil: Revelations. Nintendo 3DS.
  41. ^ Slant Six Games/Capcom (March 20, 2012). Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City. PlayStation 3. Scene: Closing credits.
  42. ^ Sources for Atsuko Yuya providing the voice of Jill Valentine in Japanese versions of the Resident Evil games:
  43. ^ "Sienna Guillory". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved July 26, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  44. ^ Reynolds, Simon (March 22, 2011). "Sienna Guillory returns for 'Resident Evil 5'". Digital Spy. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Miller, Zachary (January 29, 2012). "Resident Evil: The Story So Far". Nintendo World Report. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  46. ^ a b c d e Capcom (March 5, 2009). Resident Evil 5. PlayStation 3. Capcom.
  47. ^ Denick 2013, pp. 2–3.
  48. ^ Crowley 2014, p. 36.
  49. ^ Denick 2013, p. 3.
  50. ^ a b Waples 2007, p. 124.
  51. ^ Androvich 1999, p. 20.
  52. ^ "Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles Archives Transcript – "Files and Items"". Capcom (official in-game story log). Archived from the original on November 9, 2017. Retrieved November 8, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  53. ^ Alexandra, Heather (October 25, 2017). "Resident Evil 3's Nemesis Is Still Terrifying". Kotaku. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  54. ^ Waples 2007, p. 16.
  55. ^ Capcom (November 13, 2007). Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles. Wii. Scene: Umbrella's End.
  56. ^ Geyser 2013, p. 63.
  57. ^ Reed, Kristan (February 18, 2010). "Resident Evil 5: Lost in Nightmares". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  58. ^ Reed, Kristan (March 3, 2010). "Resident Evil 5: Desperate Escape". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on February 21, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  59. ^ a b Dobbs, Sarah (August 14, 2012). "Looking back at Resident Evil: Apocalypse". Den of Geek. Dennis Publishing. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  60. ^ Resident Evil: Apocalypse (Motion picture). 2004.
  61. ^ Resident Evil: Afterlife (Motion picture). 2010.
  62. ^ Resident Evil: Retribution (Motion picture). 2012.
  63. ^ Paul W. S. Anderson (2012). Resident Evil: Retribution (Resident Evil: Retribution Blu-ray, Resident Stuntman).
  64. ^ Thurman, Trace (December 23, 2017). "Does 'Resident Evil: The Final Chapter' Contain the Biggest Plot Hole(s) of 2017?". Bloody Disgusting. Archived from the original on July 20, 2019. Retrieved August 29, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  65. ^ Walkuski, Eric (January 5, 2017). "Milla Jovocich talks Resident Evil: The Final Chapter, ending the franchise". JoBlo.com. Archived from the original on November 9, 2017. Retrieved August 29, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  66. ^ Drake, Audrey (February 10, 2012). "Resident Evil: Operation Raccoon City's Multiplayer Woes". IGN. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  67. ^ Sources for Jill Valentine appearing in numerous Resident Evil mobile games:
  68. ^ Sources for Valentine appearing in numerous Marvel Vs Capcom games:
  69. ^ Sources for Valentine appearing in numerous Project X Zone games:
  70. ^ "25 clever character cameos you may have missed". GamesRadar+. October 14, 2015. p. 1. Archived from the original on October 13, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  71. ^ "Capcom lets you choose who loves Golf". Engadget. February 10, 2008. Archived from the original on August 11, 2019. Retrieved July 29, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  72. ^ "Capcom Characters Come Together in the Ultimate Card Battle 'Teppen'". Yahoo! Finance. Verizon Media. August 9, 2019. Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved August 10, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  73. ^ "I've got two big bags of old Japan..." GameSpot. July 23, 2006. Archived from the original on July 24, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  74. ^ Walker, Ian (November 27, 2018). "Cammy Is Finally Getting Pants In Street Fighter V". Kotaku. Archived from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  75. ^ Perry 2012a; Shirley 2012
  76. ^ Perry 2012b.
  77. ^ Perry 2012a, pp. 7, 31.
  78. ^ Sources for Valentine appearing in comic books:
  79. ^ "Resident Evil Deck Building Game". Bandai. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  80. ^ Sources for Jill Valentine-related action figures and figurines:
  81. ^ Sources for actors portraying Valentine appearing at numerous attractions:
  82. ^ Reeves, Ben (September 28, 2012). "We Survived A Visit To Japan's Resident Evil Restaurant". Game Informer. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  83. ^ "Top 50 video game characters of all time announced in Guinness World Records 2011 Gamer's Edition". Gamasutra. February 16, 2011. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  84. ^ a b c Knight, Rich; Turner, Gus (August 23, 2013). "The Best Video Game Mascots of All Time". Complex. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  85. ^ Loveridge, Sam (August 8, 2016). "Most iconic female game characters of all time, ranked". Digital Spy. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  86. ^ "10 of the Best Female Protagonists in Gaming". GamesTM. No. 133. March 14, 2013. p. 149.
  87. ^ Rougeau, Michael (March 4, 2013). "50 Greatest Heroines In Video Game History". Complex. Archived from the original on March 10, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  88. ^ Ewalt, David M. (August 31, 2013). "Are These The Top Women Game Characters of All Time?". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  89. ^ a b Crigger, Lara (May 8, 2007). "Resident Evil's Second Sex". The Escapist. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  90. ^ Platz 2014, pp. 124.
  91. ^ Perron 2018, p. 109.
  92. ^ MacCallum-Stewart 2019, p. 255.
  93. ^ Ruberg, Bonnie (November 1, 2005). "Women Monsters and Monstrous Women". The Escapist. p. 1. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  94. ^ Elston, Brett (December 14, 2007). "Game babes: A history (part 4)". GamesRadar+. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  95. ^ Brock, André (September 2011). "When Keeping it Real Goes Wrong: Resident Evil 5, Racial Representation, and Gamers". Games and Culture. 6 (5): 429–452. doi:10.1177/1555412011402676. ISSN 1555-4120.
  96. ^ Vincent, Brittany (October 1, 2012). "The 25 Most A**-Kicking Video Game Duos". Complex. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  97. ^ a b Harper, Stephen (2007). "'I could kiss you, you bitch': race, gender, and sexuality in Resident Evil and Resident Evil 2: Apocalypse". Jump Cut. Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  98. ^ Sources which have included Valentine in lists based on sex appeal:
  99. ^ Foiles, Lisa (January 19, 2011). "Top 5 Hottest Blonde Chicks". The Escapist. Archived from the original on January 3, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  100. ^ Warn, Sarah (October 15, 2010). "25 Hottest Female Video Game Characters (page 4 of 4)". AfterEllen.com. Lesbian Nation. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2019. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  101. ^ Gray, Kate (January 21, 2015). "Let me get something off my chest about boob physics in video games". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 24, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  102. ^ Grimes 2003, pp. 7, 8.
  103. ^ Trépanier-Jobin & Bonenfant 2017, p. 39.
  104. ^ Grimes 2003, p. 11.
  105. ^ Sources for critical consensus of the Resident Evil film series:
  106. ^ Clarke, Frederick S. (2005). "Resident Evil: Apocalypse". Cinefantastique. 37: 63.; Katsaridou 2017
  107. ^ a b "Game Babes: Featurette on the emergence of female action stars in film". Resident Evil: Apocalypse (DVD commentary). Milla Jovovich, Sienna Guillory, Alexander Witt, Paul W. S. Anderson. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 2004. 4547 4620444–8 8.CS1 maint: others (link)
  108. ^ a b "Writer and Producer Commentary". Resident Evil: Apocalypse (DVD commentary). Paul W. S. Anderson, Jeremy Bolt. Los Angeles: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. 2004. 4547 4620444–8 8.CS1 maint: others (link)
  109. ^ Mackey, Bob (2008). "Top 5 Worst Dressed Videogame Characters". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  110. ^ a b MacCallum-Stewart 2019, p. 262.
  111. ^ a b McDonell, Jess (January 28, 2013). "Gaming Meme History: Jill Sandwich". GameSpot. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  112. ^ Woo, Ryan, Ryan (January 18, 2012). "The 50 Best Video Game Easter Eggs". Complex. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  113. ^ Schott, Gareth (July 2010). "Dawn of the Digital Dead: The Zombie as Interactive Social Satire in American Popular Culture". Australasian Journal of American Studies. 29 (1): 61–75. ISSN 1838-9554. JSTOR 41054186. For example, the mall shop 'Jill's Sandwiches' in Dead Rising might be considered a reference to the line, 'you were almost a Jill sandwich' in Resident Evil.
  114. ^ Baez, Dominic (June 9, 2017). "She was almost a Claire sandwich". The Register-Guard. Archived from the original on April 22, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  115. ^ Clements, Ryan; Drake, Audrey (August 29, 2012). "The Most Absurd Resident Evil Quotes". IGN. Archived from the original on November 2, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  116. ^ Famularo, Jessica (January 19, 2017). "The Silliest 'Resident Evil' Moments". Inverse. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  117. ^ de Rochefort, Simone (September 6, 2017). "Revisiting Resident Evil's most powerful scene". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  118. ^ Cowan, Danny (October 21, 2015). "Resident Evil HD Mod Masterfully Unlocks 1996 Dialog Recordings". Digital Trends. Archived from the original on February 19, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

Works citedEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit