A miniskirt (sometimes hyphenated as mini-skirt, separated as mini skirt, or sometimes shortened to simply mini) is a skirt with its hemline well above the knees, generally at mid-thigh level, normally no longer than 10 cm (4 in) below the buttocks;[1] and a dress with such a hemline is called a minidress or a miniskirt dress. A micro-miniskirt or microskirt is a miniskirt with its hemline at the upper thigh, at or just below crotch or underwear level.

Woman wearing a red miniskirt

Short skirts have existed for a long time, though they were generally not called "mini" or recognised as a fashion trend until the 1960s. Instances of clothing resembling miniskirts have been identified by archaeologists and historians as far back as c. 1390–1370 BCE. In the early 20th century, the dancer Josephine Baker's banana skirt that she wore for her mid-1920s performances in the Folies Bergère was subsequently likened to a miniskirt. Extremely short skirts became a staple of 20th-century science fiction, particularly in 1940s pulp artwork, such as that by Earle K. Bergey, who depicted futuristic women in a "stereotyped combination" of metallic miniskirt, bra and boots.

Hemlines were just above the knee in 1961, and gradually climbed upward over the next few years. By 1966, some designs had the hem at the upper thigh. Stockings with suspenders (garters) were not considered practical with miniskirts and were replaced with coloured tights. The popular acceptance of miniskirts peaked in the "Swinging London" of the 1960s, and has continued to be commonplace, particularly among younger women and teenage girls. Before that time, short skirts were only seen in sport and dance clothing, such as skirts worn by female tennis players, figure skaters, cheerleaders, and dancers.

Several designers have been credited with the invention of the 1960s miniskirt, most significantly the London-based designer Mary Quant and the Parisian André Courrèges.

Pre-1960Edit

 
Duan Qun Miao women, Qing Dynasty China. University of Calgary collection.

While very short skirts have existed for a long time, they were generally not called "mini" until the 1960s. Figurines produced by the Vinča culture (c. 5700–4500 BCE) have been interpreted by archaeologists as representing women in miniskirt-like garments.[2] One of the oldest surviving garments resembling a miniskirt is the short woollen skirt with bronze ornaments worn by the Egtved Girl for her burial in the Nordic Bronze Age (c. 1390–1370 BCE).[3][4]

One of the earliest known cultures where women regularly wore clothing resembling miniskirts was a subgroup of the Miao people of China, the Duan Qun Miao (Chinese: 短裙苗; pinyin: duǎn qún miáo, literally "short skirt Miao").[5] In albums produced during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) from the early eighteenth century onwards to illustrate the various types of Miao, the Duan Qun Miao women were depicted wearing "mini skirts that barely cover the buttocks."[5] At least one of the "One Hundred Miao Pictures" albums contains a poem that specifically describes how the women's short skirts and navel-baring styles were an identifier for this particular group.[6][7]

The dancer Josephine Baker's banana skirt that she wore for her mid-1920s performances in the Folies Bergère was subsequently likened to a miniskirt.[8][9]

Prior to the 1960s during the 20th century, any woman who was not a stage performer or showgirl like Josephine Baker or, after the 1920s, any woman who was not an athlete or competitive dancer could not wear skirts above her knees as part of her everyday clothing and be socially accepted. During the 1950s, even the skirts of cheerleaders and many ballerinas fell to the calf. Women were taught to keep their knees covered, to seat themselves in ways that kept the legs together, etc, to avoid being thought sexually promiscuous.[10]

Mid-20th century science fictionEdit

Extremely short skirts became a staple of 20th-century science fiction, particularly in 1940s pulp artwork such as that by Earle K. Bergey who depicted futuristic women in a "stereotyped combination" of metallic miniskirt, bra and boots.[11][12] The "sci-fi miniskirt" was seen in genre films and television programmes as well as on comic book covers.[11] The very short skirts worn by regular female characters Carol and Tonga (played by Virginia Hewitt and Nina Bara) in the 1950–55 television series Space Patrol have been suggested as probably the first 'micro-minis' to have been seen on American television.[11] It was later seen as remarkable that only one formal complaint relating to the skirts could be recalled, and that by an ad agency in relation to an upwards shot of Carol climbing a ladder.[11] Hewitt pointed out that even though the complainant claimed they could see up her skirt, her matching tights rendered her effectively clothed from neck to ankle.[11] Otherwise, Space Patrol was applauded for being wholesome and family-friendly, even though the women's short skirts would have been unacceptable in other contexts.[11] Although the 30th-century women in Space Patrol were empowered, experts in their field, and largely treated as equals, "it was the skirts that fuelled indelible memories."[13] The Space Patrol skirts were not the shortest to be broadcast at the time – the German-made American 1954 series Flash Gordon showed Dale Arden (played by Irene Champlin) in an even shorter skirt.[14]

 
The Space Patrol cast

1960sEdit

The manager of an unnamed shop in London's Oxford Street began experimenting in 1960 with skirt hemlines an inch above the knees of window mannequins, and noted how positively his customers responded.[15] Extremely short skirts, some as much as eight inches above the knee, were observed in Britain in the summer of 1962.[16] The young women who wore these short skirts were called "Ya-Ya girls", a term derived from "yeah, yeah" which was a popular catcall at the time.[16] One retailer noted that the fashion for layered net crinoline petticoats raised the hems of short skirts even higher.[16] The earliest known reference to the miniskirt is in a humorous 1962 article datelined Mexico City and describing the "mini-skirt" or "Ya-Ya" as a controversial item of clothing that was the latest thing on the production line there. The article characterized the miniskirt as stopping eight inches above the knee. It referred to a writing by a psychiatrist, whose name it did not provide, who had argued that the miniskirt was a youthful protest of international threats to peace. Much of the article described the reactions of men, who were said to favor the fashion on young women to whom they were unrelated, but to oppose it on their own wives and fiancées.[17] In the world of high fashion, Yves Saint Laurent showed a thigh-length black ciré smock top over thigh-high, low-heeled black alligator boots in 1963, but no one referred to it as a mini.[18]

Only a very few of the avant-garde, almost entirely in the UK, wore such lengths in the beginning years of the decade, however.[19][20] The standard hemline for public and designer garments in the early sixties was mid-knee, just covering the knee.[21] It would gradually climb upward over the next few years, fully baring the knees of mainstream models in 1964, when both André Courrèges[22] and Mary Quant[23][24] showed above-the-knee lengths. The following year, skirts continued to rise as British miniskirts were officially introduced to the US in a New York show whose models' thigh-high skirts stopped traffic.[25] By 1966, many designs had the hem at the upper thigh.[26] Stockings with suspenders (American English: "garters") were not considered practical with miniskirts and were replaced with coloured tights.[27] Legs could also be covered with knee-high socks or various heights of boots, lower-calf-height in 1964-65, knee-heights throughout the period, over-the-knee and thigh-high boots more 1967-69, and even boot-hose, tights incorporating a shoe sole and heel to form a waist-high boot, often in stretch vinyl. Sandal straps might crisscross or otherwise rise up the leg, even as high as the thigh, and body paints were offered for a time to add color to the leg in more individualized ways than wearing tights. Towards the end of the 1960s, an even shorter version, called the microskirt or micro-mini, emerged.[28][29]

The shape of miniskirts in the 1960s was distinctive. They were not the squeezingly tight skirts designed to show off every curve that 1950s sheath skirts had been, nor were they shortened versions of the tightly belted, petticoat-bolstered 1950s circle skirt. They were simply-constructed, uninhibiting, slightly flared A-line shapes, with some straight and tapered forms seen in the early years of their existence.[30] This shape was seen as deriving from two forms of the 1950s: (1) the chemise dress/sack dress,[31][32][33] a waistless, tapered column that became the shift dress in the early sixties when it began to be made straight or slightly flared rather than tapered,[34][35][36] and (2) the A-line trapeze dresses popularized by Yves Saint Laurent in 1958, with their geometric triangular shaping.[37] In silhouette, the minidresses of the mid-1960s were basically abbreviated versions[38] of the shift dress and trapeze dress,[39][40] with Mary Quant and other British designers also showing minidresses that resembled elongated rugby jerseys, body-skimming but not tight. When skirts alone, they tended to sit on the hips rather than cinching the waist. The fashionable forms of the microminis of the later 1960s were also not tight, often looking somewhat tunic-like and in fabrics like Qiana. In addition, sixties miniskirts were not worn with high heels but with flats or low heels,[41][42][43] for a natural stance, a natural stride, and to enhance the fashionable child-like look of the time,[44][45][46] seen as a reaction to 1950s come-hither artifice like needle heels, constrained waists, padded busts, and movement-inhibiting skirts. The designer Mary Quant was quoted as saying that "short short skirts" indicated youthfulness, which was seen as desirable, fashion-wise.[16]

In the UK, by shortening the skirts to less than 24 inches (610 mm) they were classed as children's garments rather than adult clothes. Children's clothing was not subject to purchase tax whereas adult clothing was.[47] The avoidance of tax meant that the price was correspondingly less.[48][49]

During the late 1960s, as most skirts got shorter and shorter, designers began presenting a few alternatives. Calf-length midi-skirts were introduced in 1966-67, and floor-length maxi-skirts appeared around the same time, after being seen on hippies first around 1965-66. Like with miniskirts, these were overwhelmingly casual in feel and simply constructed to a two-straight-side-seams A-line shape. During this time, the term midi-skirt was not applied to 1930s calf-length skirts nor to 1950s calf-length skirts, and the term maxi-skirt was not applied to floor-length ballgowns of past eras, as it would be decades later, but only to these casual, simply-cut sixties styles. Women welcomed these new styles but didn't necessarily wear them, feeling societal pressure to shorten their skirts instead.[50]

As designers attempted to drive women into midi skirts in 1969 and 1970, women responded by ignoring them, continuing to wear minis and microminis and, even more, moving into the trousers that had been endorsed by Yves Saint Laurent in 1968, a trend that would dominate the 1970s.

Designer claimsEdit

Mary Quant wearing a minidress (1966)
A Mary Quant minidress from 1969

Several designers have been credited with the invention of the 1960s miniskirt, most significantly the London-based designer Mary Quant and the Parisian André Courrèges. Although Quant reportedly named the skirt after her favourite make of car, the Mini,[51][52] there is no consensus as to who designed it first. Valerie Steele has noted that the claim that Quant was first is more convincingly supported by evidence than the equivalent Courrèges claim.[53] However, the contemporary fashion journalist Marit Allen, who edited the influential "Young Ideas" pages for UK Vogue, firmly stated that the British designer John Bates was the first to offer fashionable miniskirts.[54] Other designers, including Pierre Cardin and Yves Saint Laurent, had also been raising hemlines at the same time.[55]

Mary Quant

The miniskirt is one of the garments most widely associated with Mary Quant.[56] Quant herself is ambivalent about the claim that she invented the miniskirt, stating that her customers should take credit, as she herself wore very short skirts, and they requested even shorter hemlines for themselves.[57] Regardless of whether or not Quant invented the miniskirt, it is widely agreed that she was one of its highest-profile champions.[53][55][58] Contrary to obvious and popular belief, Quant named the garment after the Mini Cooper, a favorite car of hers, stating that the car and the skirt were both "optimistic, exuberant, young, flirty", and complemented each other.[51][59]

Quant had started experimenting with shorter skirts in the late 1950s, when she started making her own designs up to stock her boutique on the King's Road.[57] Among her inspirations was the memory of seeing a young tap-dancer wearing a "tiny skirt over thick black tights", influencing her designs for young, active women who did not wish to resemble their mothers.[51][57] In addition to the miniskirt, Quant is often credited with inventing the coloured and patterned tights that tended to accompany the garment, although their creation is also attributed to the Spanish couturier Cristóbal Balenciaga who offered harlequin-patterned tights in 1962[60][61] or to Bates.[62]

In 2009, a Mary Quant minidress was among the 10 British "design classics" featured on a series of Royal Mail stamps, alongside the Tube map, the Spitfire, and the red telephone box.[51]

André Courrèges

Courrèges explicitly claimed that he invented the mini, and accused Quant of only "commercialising" it.[53] He presented short skirts measuring four inches above the knee in January 1965 for that year's Spring/Summer collection,[55] although some sources claim that Courrèges had been designing miniskirts as early as 1961, the year he launched his couture house.[53] The collection, which also included trouser suits and cut-out backs and midriffs, was designed for a new type of athletic, active young woman.[55] Courrèges had presented "above-the-knee" skirts in his August 1964 haute couture presentation which was proclaimed the "best show seen so far" for that season by The New York Times.[63] The Courrèges look, featuring a knit bodystocking with a gabardine miniskirt slung around the hips, was widely copied and plagiarised, much to the designer's chagrin, and it would be 1967 before he again held a press showing for his work.[55] Steele has described Courrèges's work as a "brilliant couture version of youth fashion" whose sophistication far outshone Quant's work, although she champions the Quant claim.[53] Others, such as Jess Cartner-Morley of The Guardian explicitly credit him, rather than Quant, as the miniskirt's creator.[60]

John Bates and others
 
John Bates minidress, 1965. Originally designed for Diana Rigg as Emma Peel in The Avengers.[64]

The idea that John Bates, rather than Quant or Courrèges, innovated the miniskirt had an influential champion in Marit Allen, who as editor of the influential "Young Ideas" pages for UK Vogue, kept track of up-and-coming young designers.[54] In 1966 she chose Bates to design her mini-length wedding outfit in white gabardine and silver PVC.[54] In January 1965 Bates's "skimp dress" with its "short-short skirt" was featured in Vogue, and would later be chosen as the Dress of the Year.[65][66][67] Bates was also famous for having designed mini-coats and dresses and other outfits for Emma Peel (played by Diana Rigg) in the TV series The Avengers, although the manufacturers blocked his request for patterned tights to enable Emma Peel to fight in skirts if necessary.[54][62]

An alternative origin story for the miniskirt came from Barbara Hulanicki of the London boutique Biba, who recalled that in 1966 she received a delivery of stretchy jersey skirts that had shrunk drastically in transit. Much to her surprise, the ten-inch long garments rapidly sold out.[68]

In 1967 Rudi Gernreich was among the first American designers to offer miniskirts, in the face of strongly worded censure and criticism from American couturiers James Galanos and Norman Norell.[69] Criticism of the miniskirt also came from the Paris couturier Coco Chanel, who declared the style "disgusting" despite being herself famed for supporting shorter skirts in the 1920s.[53]

ReceptionEdit

 
1969 Mary Quant minidress worn with tights and roll-on girdle.

Owing to Quant's position in the heart of fashionable "Swinging London", the miniskirt was able to spread beyond a simple street fashion into a major international trend. The style came into prominence when Jean Shrimpton wore a short white shift dress, made by Colin Rolfe, on 30 October 1965 at Derby Day, first day of the annual Melbourne Cup Carnival in Australia, where it caused a sensation. According to Shrimpton, who claimed that the brevity of the skirt was due mainly to Rolfe's having insufficient material, the ensuing controversy was as much as anything to do with her having dispensed with a hat and gloves, seen as essential accessories in such a conservative society.[70][71]

Upper garments, such as rugby shirts, were sometimes adapted as mini-dresses. With the rise in hemlines, the wearing of tights or pantyhose, in place of stockings, became more common. Some European countries banned mini-skirts from being worn in public, claiming they were an invitation to rapists. In response, Quant retorted that there was clearly no understanding of the tights worn underneath.[72]

The response to the miniskirt was particularly harsh in Africa, where many state governments saw them as an un-African garment and part of the corrupting influence of the West.[73] Young city-dwelling African women who wore Western clothing such as the miniskirt were particularly at risk of attack based on their clothing, although Robert Ross notes that gender roles and politics were also a key factor.[73] The urban woman earning her own living and independence was seen as a threat to masculine authority, particularly if she wore clothing seen as un-African.[73] Short skirts were seen as indicating that their wearer was a prostitute, and by conflation, a witch who drained male-dominated society of its vitality and energy.[73] In addition to prostitutes and witches, miniskirts also became associated with secretaries, schoolgirls and undergraduates, and young women with "sugar daddies" as lovers or boyfriends.[74] Andrew M. Ivaska has noted that these various tropes boiled down to a basic fear of female power, fear that a woman would use her education or sexual power to control men and/or achieve her own independence, and that the miniskirt therefore became a tangible object of these fears.[74]

In 1968 the Youth League of Tanzania's ruling TANU party launched Operation Vijana.[73] Organised and run by young men, Vijana was a morality campaign targeting indecent clothing, which led to attacks on women with at least one stoning reportedly triggered by the victim's miniskirt.[73] Gangs of youths patrolled bus stations and streets looking for women dressed "inappropriately", and dealing out physical attacks and beatings.[74] In Ethiopia, an attack on women wearing miniskirts triggered a riot of leftist students in which a hundred cars were set on fire and fifty people injured.[73]

Kamuzu Banda, president of Malawi, described miniskirts as a "diabolic fashion which must disappear from the country once and for all."[73] It is also reported that Kenneth Kaunda, president of Zambia, cited apartheid and the miniskirt as his two primary hates.[73] By the mid-1970s the Zanzibar revolutionary party had forbidden both women and men from wearing a long list of garments, hairstyles and cosmetics, including miniskirts.[73]

Post-1960sEdit

1970sEdit

From 1969 onwards, the fashion industry largely returned to longer skirts such as the midi and the maxi.[75] Journalist Christopher Booker gave two reasons for this reaction: firstly, that "there was almost nowhere else to go ... the mini-skirts could go no higher"; and secondly, in his view, "dressed up in mini-skirts and shiny PVC macs, given such impersonal names as 'dolly birds', girls had been transformed into throwaway plastic objects".[76] This lengthening of hemlines coincided with the growth of the feminist movement. However, in the 1960s the mini had been regarded as a symbol of liberation, and it was worn by some, such as Germaine Greer and, in the following decade, Gloria Steinem.[77] Greer herself wrote in 1969 that:

The women kept on dancing while their long skirts crept up, and their girdles dissolved, and their nipples burst through like hyacinth tips and their clothes withered away to the mere wisps and ghosts of draperies to adorn and glorify ...[78]

Although they mostly disappeared from mainstream fashion by the mid-70s,[79] prompting the leading designer of the time, Yves Saint Laurent, to say, "I don't think short skirts will ever come back,"[80] miniskirts never entirely went away, with women having to be pressured by the fashion industry to abandon above-the-knee skirts as late as 1974[81][82] and even some mainstream designers like Halston[83][84] and Kenzo[85] offering a few mini-tunics and mini-blousons among the standard calf-length dirndl skirts of the mid-seventies Big Look period.[86][87][88][89] In these occasional high-fashion versions of the mid-seventies, mini was taken to mean any length above the knee.[90] These were never broadly taken up by the general public,[91] which was still gravitating toward below-the-knee dirndls, but were occasionally seen on the fashion-forward.

Around 1976, punks began including among their array of clothes intended to shock very short miniskirts in materials like black leather, rubber, PVC,[92] and even trash bag plastic, the unfashionable length shocking almost as much as the aggressive materials. Punks of this period also introduced the wearing of miniskirts with then-very-out-of-style high-heeled, late-1950s pumps, which they got at thrift shops, a combination not worn in the 1960s and unthinkable during the 1950s. Though not at all mainstream, these punk looks would influence bands that came after them into wearing more sixties-looking miniskirts again, as evidenced by Deborah Harry of the group Blondie, Kate Pierson and Cindy Wilson of the group The B-52's, Fay Fife of The Revillos, Rhoda Dakar of The Bodysnatchers, Siouxsie Sioux of the group Siouxsie And The Banshees, and the group The Slits, who often wore miniskirts during the "new wave" era of the late 70s. Some of these performers were part of a few sixties-revival subcultures that came in the wake of punk and included Mod revival and ska revival, both of whose female adherents sought out authentic-looking early miniskirts as part of their sixties-revival look. The song "(I Don't Want to Go to) Chelsea" (1978), by new wave artist Elvis Costello, contains the line in the chorus: "There's no place here for the mini-skirt waddle."[93]

During the seventies, when males and females typically wore identical denim cutoff shorts instead of miniskirts if they wanted short lengths, the female cast members of the US TV show Hee Haw, known as the "Hee Haw Honeys", always wore country-style minidresses even during the miniskirt's fashion hiatus in the late 70s and early 80s; and as mentioned above, female tennis players, figure skaters, cheerleaders, and dancers also wore short skirts.

Toward the end of the seventies, in 1978 and '79, some of the above-the-knee skirt looks that would become associated with the eighties began to be introduced,[94][95][96] including the flounced, hip-yoked style debuted by Norma Kamali and Perry Ellis in 1979 and called rah-rah skirts in the UK[97][98] and the tight, above-the-knee sheath skirt, with even Yves Saint Laurent showing some above-the-knee lengths.[99] The sixties-revival subcultures emanating from the UK seemed to reach the high fashion world somewhat in 1979,[100] as a few Paris catwalks presented styles for spring 1980 seemingly pulled right out of the sixties, including miniskirts inspired by Courrèges, Rabanne, and Gernreich.[101][102] At this point, these styles were still considered avant-garde, though,[103] and a variety of mostly longer skirts were worn by the public, with the full, calf-length forms that had dominated the mid-seventies still prevalent but beginning to be made slimmer, slightly shorter,[104] more brightly colored, and often slit. The mainstream return of the miniskirt wouldn't come until the 1980s.

 
Rah rah skirt (2007 revival by Jean-Charles de Castelbajac)

1980s and 1990sEdit

A variety of lengths and skirt shapes were shown by designers and worn by the public in the eighties, with miniskirts being among them, in greater variety of silhouette than in the sixties.

As the decade dawned in 1980, designers continued their efforts, begun in 1978,[105] to get women into shorter skirts[106] after they had put women in calf-length skirts during the mid-seventies. Above-the-knee skirts were part of this.[107] For spring of 1980, several miniskirts shown by designers seemed lifted almost straight out of the sixties, part of a sixties-revival wave that included geometric prints and lots of black and white checkerboards, a trend that spanned 1979 and 1980.[108] Some minidresses from the end of the seventies and early eighties looked like (and sometimes were) elongated sweatshirts, with a sweatshirt-like band of ribbing causing a puff above the hem.[109][110][111] By the end of the year, Norma Kamali had presented sweatshirt-fabric versions of the already-influential[112] flounced, hip-yoked, above-the-knee skirts she had introduced in 1979, called rah-rah skirts in the UK,[113] which would become mainstream popular in 1981. By 1983, narrow miniskirts had become popular in casual, jeans-cut blue denim.[114] Most of the mass-market versions of these casual miniskirts were no shorter than the lower thigh, many just above the knee but still called mini at the time, after almost a decade when skirts had covered the knees.

These casual miniskirts were worn both bare-legged and with opaque, colored tights and flat shoes or short boots,[115][116] like in the sixties. A punk influence was sometimes seen in the wearing of miniskirts with combat boots or other aggressive-looking footwear.[117] Unlike the sixties, a variety of shapes was shown by designers. Kamali's flounced "rah-rahs" had a very different shape than the minis of the sixties.

Simultaneously, designers had begun showing at the end of the seventies and continued to show in the eighties revivals of skirt shapes from the 1940s and '50s, from slim pencil skirts to tight sheath skirts to trumpet skirts to tulip skirts to bubble/puffball skirts, in all kinds of fabrics, now sometimes shown in above-the-knee lengths.[118] This contributed yet greater variety to the miniskirts of the eighties, as did the trend, unfashionable during the sixties, of wearing high heels with miniskirts, usually somewhat fifties-looking spike-heeled pumps.[119] Skin-tight mini-length sheath skirts worn with high-heeled pumps were a style not seen before in polite society.

Though designers were including these above-the-knee skirts in the first couple of years of the decade, they were still considered avant-garde and weren't seen much on the streets, with most women preferring longer-length skirts and trousers.[120][121][122] The more casual early eighties miniskirts were intended for and taken up by mostly young women; there was no sixties-like phenomenon of women of all ages feeling pressured to shorten all of their hems in order to conform to the times.[123] Still, when older women did want to wear above-the-knee skirts in the early eighties, designers had made them available in the newly shortened forties- and fifties-revival styles mentioned above, things like shirred taffeta sheath dresses with structured fifties bodices and puffed sleeves adding width at the shoulder. When women in the eighties did wear miniskirts, they were just one among many options, not de rigueur.[124][125]

In the spring of 1982 (as featured in the June issue of Time Magazine that year), short skirts began to re-emerge more strongly among the public,[126] notably in the form of Norma Kamali's "rah-rahs", which were modeled on those worn by female cheerleaders at sporting and other events.

Aside from Norma Kamali, other notable miniskirt designers to mention for this period include Kenzo, Yves Saint Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld, and Stephen Sprouse. Kenzo had been almost the only high-fashion champion of miniskirts during the nadir of the miniskirt in the mid-seventies. Some of his mini styles from that period would be prophetic for the eighties and he continued them,[127] while also showing more structured, tighter ones, including some with trumpet seaming. By contrast, Yves Saint Laurent had declared during the mid-seventies that he didn't think short skirts would ever come back, but he led the way in the move to above-the-knee skirts at the end of the seventies and was among several designers known for slim, black leather miniskirts in the first half of the eighties,[128] showing them as just one of a great variety of other skirt and pant lengths and shapes. Karl Lagerfeld had also shown very short skirts at the end of the seventies, as well as contributing to the variety in shape, particularly slim, ruffle-tiered microminis and highly structured, curvy suits with tight, above-the-knee skirts, often shown with big shoulder pads. In 1983, he would take over the house of Chanel and show a few minis and microminis, some very tight, among a variety of other lengths and styles, especially surprising because Chanel herself had hated the miniskirts of the sixties, considering the knees an ugly part of the body. Stephen Sprouse showed his first collections in 1983 and specialized in sixties revival, including trapeze minidresses in blacks and searing sixties brights, even fluorescents, with cutaway shoulders or halter necks covered in pailettes or graffiti prints, some even with peace sign cutouts. A difference from the sixties, though, was that, in his early collections, he presented these dresses with matching but eighties-style pumps with sharply tapered toes and high, tapered heels instead of sixties flats. Even the potentially era-appropriate boot-hose he showed had the same type of eighties toe and heel.

Eighties shoulder pads could be a feature of these mini-length garments, with many of Norma Kamali's popular, sweatshirt-fabric rah-rah dresses featuring enormous shoulder pads, many Paris designers' above-the-knee dresses also featuring shoulder pads,[129] and even sixties-revivalist Stephen Sprouse sometimes covering his minidresses with greatcoats that had eighties-broad shoulders.

During the mid-eighties, designers continued to experiment with shortening heavily-constructed historical dress styles, the most surprising example coming from former punk designer Vivienne Westwood. In 1985, British designer Westwood offered her first "mini-crini", an abbreviated version of the Victorian crinoline.[130] Its mini-length, bouffant silhouette inspired the puffball skirts widely presented by more established designers such as Christian Lacroix.[131][132] In 1989, Westwood's mini-crini was described as having combined two conflicting ideals – the crinoline, representing a "mythology of restriction and encumbrance in woman's dress", and the "equally dubious mythology of liberation" associated with the miniskirt.[133]

Also in 1986, Azzedine Alaïa began presenting mini and micromini versions of his extremely tight dress designs, his anatomical seaming and occasional sheer fabrics leaving little to the imagination and creating a prurient effect that would never have been seen in sixties miniskirts. His late eighties miniskirts, though, included some that resembled flippy skater skirts and others that were grass-like raffia so short they barely covered the wearer. His earlier fitted, curve-accenting skirts, usually in a just-above-the-knee length that sometimes rose to the lower thigh, would be very influential in the second half of the decade, spawning imitations by companies like North Beach Leather and Body Glove.

Skin-tight minidresses in stretch jerseys and other body-hugging fabrics, often with pronounced shoulders, had been seen off and on throughout the decade and would become a familiar eighties dress style by 1986, part of a trend of the decade dubbed body-conscious or bodycon. These were basically less heavily constructed versions of the 1950s sheath dress but with more pronounced shoulders. Skin-tight dresses of this sort were offered in a range of lengths from calf to micromini, as seen in the group of Alaïa dresses worn by the models in the video for Robert Palmer's hit 1986 song "Addicted to Love." The mini-length ones became a familiar sight and versions of them were shown by a number of designers, with Patrick Kelly's being memorable. These differed from the minis of the sixties not only in their tight fit, often prominent shoulders, and the high heels worn with them, but also in the type of bodies they were seen on, now voluptuous and/or muscular rather than thin and child-like.

Meanwhile, women on the street were wearing skirts and pants that ranged from ankle to mid-thigh in length, in a variety of shapes, with most adult women settling on just-below-the-knee for their skirts.

For fall of 1987, designers would unite around showing mini lengths, a great many of them the fitted, even tight, abbreviated versions of the 1950s sheath skirt that had been scattered throughout collections since the beginning of the decade, this time, following Alaïa, with additional stretch. Many shapes were shown, though, including a plethora of the broad-shouldered tailored suits popular throughout the decade but now usually with slightly narrower shoulders and with truncated skirts of various forms. Some were influenced by early 1960s Balenciaga, others by 1950s cocktail dresses, and others by 1940s and '50s ballgown bodices, a style shown throughout Ungaro's spring 1988 collection in lengths so short some fashion writers likened them to 1950s bathing suits. Though a very few designers showed these mini lengths with flats or low heels like in the sixties, most showed them with the high spike heels of standard eighties pumps, some now even more 1950s-looking. Some designers revived the sixties over-the-knee boot with the new lengths, now sometimes with high eighties spike heels as well as flat soles.

These miniskirt styles so flooded the market in 1987 that newspaper articles appeared on how or whether to wear the new miniskirted suits to the office and whether to get plastic surgery on the knees to make them more presentable. Though this big 1987-88 miniskirt push by designers did not result in everyone shortening their skirts as it had in the sixties – variety was the rule now and most women throughout the decade continued to wear skirts that just covered their knees, it did succeed in making miniskirts more acceptable among the general public, and they would remain so for many years thereafter.

From the 1980s, many women began to incorporate the miniskirt into their business attire, a trend which grew during the remainder of the century. The titular character of the 1990s television program Ally McBeal, a lawyer portrayed by Calista Flockhart, has been credited with popularising micro-skirts.[134]

Anna Sui microskirt with matching underwear, 2011
Japanese kogal schoolgirl including short skirt

The very short skirt is an element of Japanese school uniform, which since the 1990s has been exploited by young women who are part of the kogal (or gyaru) subculture as part of their look.[135][136]

2000s and 2010sEdit

In the early 2000s, micro-minis were once again revived.[28] In 2003, Tom Ford, at that time described as one of the few designers able to effortlessly dictate changes in fashion, stated that micro-skirts would be the height of fashion for Spring/Summer 2003.[137] For fashionable wear, early 21st century microskirts were often worn with leggings or tights in order to avoid revealing too much.[134] At this time, an even briefer version of the micro-mini emerged, creating a garment sometimes described as a "belt-skirt".

 
Pop group Girls' Generation in various styles of mini- and micro-mini dresses. South Korea, 2012.

A BBC article in 2014 wrote that miniskirts remained as contemporary a garment as ever, retaining their associations with youth.[51] In an early 2010s study the department store Debenhams found that women continued buying miniskirts up to the age of 40, whilst 1983 studies showed that 33 years old was when the average woman had stopped buying them.[51] Debenham's report concluded that by the 2020s, miniskirts would be seen as a wardrobe staple for British women in their 40s and early 50s.[51]

Despite this, in the early 21st century, miniskirts are still seen as controversial, and remain subject to bans and regulation.[51] Valerie Steele told the BBC in 2014 that even though miniskirts no longer had the power to shock in most Western cultures, she would hesitate to wear one in most parts of the world.[51] She described the garment as symbolic of looking forward to future freedom and backwards to a "much more restricted past" and noted that international rises in extreme conservatism and religious fundamentalism had led to an anti-women backlash, some of which was shown through censure and criticism of women wearing "immodest" clothing.[51] In 2010, the mayor of Castellammare di Stabia in Italy ordered that police fine women for wearing "very short" miniskirts.[51][138] In the 2000s, a ban on miniskirts at a teacher's college in Kemerovo was claimed by lawyers to be against the terms of equality and human rights as laid out by the Russian constitution, whilst in Chile, the women's minister, Carolina Schmidt, described a regional governor's ban on public employees wearing minis and strapless tops as "absolute nonsense" and challenged their right to regulate other people's clothing.[138] In July 2010, Southampton city council also tried to regulate their female employees's wardrobes, telling them to avoid miniskirts and dress "appropriately."[138]

Miniskirts regularly appear in Africa as part of controversies, something that has continued since the 1960s.[139] In the early 21st century alone, instances have included a proposed ban on miniskirts in Uganda justified by claiming that they were a dangerous distraction to drivers and would cause road accidents, and in 2004, a leaflet campaign in Mombasa instructed women to dress modestly and "shun miniskirts", leading to the Kenyan government denying that they wanted a ban.[138] Since the 1990s, women perceived to be "indecently dressed" might be stripped in public often by gangs of men, but sometimes by other women.[139] These acts took place in Kenya, Zambia and elsewhere, including incidents in Johannesburg in 2008 and 2011 which led to similar attacks in various states including Sudan, Malawi, Zimbabwe and elsewhere.[139] The President of Malawi, Bingu wa Mutharika, was forced to make a statement in 2012 after male gangs forcibly stripped women in Lilongwe and Mzuzu.[139] By this point, "miniskirt protests" regularly followed these acts of violence, with the protesters defiantly wearing miniskirts.[139] In late February 2010, a group of about 200 Ugandan women demonstrated against a so-called "miniskirt law", an anti-pornography legislation which specifically forbade women to dress "in a manner designed to sexually excite", or from wearing clothing that revealed their thighs and/or other body parts.[138] Uganda revisited their proposed ban in 2013, with Simon Lokodo, Minister of Ethics and Integrity, proposing another anti-pornography bill which would outlaw revealing "intimate parts", defined as "anything above the knee", and vowing that women who wore miniskirts would be arrested.[140] While most of these proposed bans come from male politicians, in 2009 Joice Mujuru, Zimbabwe's Vice President, had to deal with rumours that she intended to ban miniskirts and trousers for women.[139] In Africa, one of the main issues with the miniskirt since the 1960s is that it is seen as representative of protest against predominantly male authority, an accusation also applied to trousers for women which are perceived as blurring the gender divide.[73][74][139]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  19. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1957-1967". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 238. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. ...[T]he mini skirt...was born on the streets among art students and Mods.
  20. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1957-1967". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 240. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. ...[T]he mini...had been creeping up art students' legs since 1959.
  21. ^ Manchester, William (2 March 1975). "Style is the Changing Woman". The New York Times: 240. Retrieved 1 December 2021. Styles were set by the young Mrs. Kennedy—the pillboxes, the shoes with very pointed toes and very slender heels, the hair length just below the ears and softly curled or bouffant. Skirts were a little below the knee...
  22. ^ Howell, Georgina (1978). "1964". In Vogue: Sixty Years of Celebrities and Fashion from British Vogue. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 284. ISBN 0-14-00-4955-X. Courrèges...skirts are the shortest in Paris – above the knee...From now on sixties fashion will revolve round bare knees...
  23. ^ Manchester, William (2 March 1975). "Style is the Changing Woman". The New York Times: 240. Retrieved 1 December 2021. In 1964,...Mary Quant created the miniskirt in London.
  24. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1957-1967". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 241. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. The mini and the Beatles made their impact on America simultaneously in 1964 and were inextricably linked....[I]t seemed that...American youth had embraced London as the world's fashion capital and Quant as its best-known designer.
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  44. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1957-1967". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 241. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. The fashion was to look as child-like as possible – coltish, long legs, flat torso and attention focused on a big baby-eyed head.
  45. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1957-1967". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 244. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Courrèges's 'Space Age' collection of 1964 combined...Parisian traditions...with London's daring young styles. Using ice pinks and blues against stark white, his garments were cut into simple shapes outlined in welted seams...childlike in their short, shift-shape simplicity and worn with...flat toddler sandals.
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  80. ^ Dorsey, Hebe (27 January 1977). "From Paris, Skirting the Issue with Ruffles and Flourishes". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[Saint Laurent] added, 'I don't think short skirts will ever come back'.
  81. ^ Morris, Bernadine (11 November 1974). "On 7th Avenue Halston Dares to Bare the Knee". The New York Times: 24. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[T]he miniskirt is...still prevalent...today too, according to store executives from all over the country...'I'm having a hard time getting my secretary out of short dresses as it is,' said the fashion director of a large store in the Southwest.
  82. ^ Klemesrud, Judy (25 June 1974). "Mini Still Reigns, But Are Its Days Numbered?". The New York Times: 33. Retrieved 4 April 2022. It is supposed to be so out of style, so passé. Everybody who is anybody supposedly wears her skirts below the knees and longer...Take a walk any day...between 44th and 57th Streets. You will see so many miniskirts that you will wonder if all those 'savvy' fashion experts have been holed up in some cave in Samoa....The majority of women are in pants, of course. But most of the skirts on the younger women are minis — not those extreme microminis that barely covered the panty line circa 1969 but the old familiar minis about four or five inches above the knees.
  83. ^ Morris, Bernadine (11 November 1974). "On 7th Avenue Halston Dares to Bare the Knee". The New York Times: 24. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Halston was...promulgating a knee‐baring fashion he called 'the skimp.'...[I]t bears an ineluctable resemblance to the miniskirt of yore....The endorsement of kneebaring skirts by a designer of Halston's stature could only confuse customers who were gradually being convinced they should hide their knees, most retailers agreed.
  84. ^ Morris, Bernadine (17 June 1977). "From Halston, a Reprise of the Tunic". The New York Times: A24. Retrieved 4 April 2022. [Halston's] mannequins almost always wore heavy knitted tights with short tunic tops....Back in 1974 when Halston had another go at reviving short skirts, he called them 'the skimp' and likened them to Florentine tunics.
  85. ^ Dorsey, Hebe (14 November 1976). "Fashion". The New York Times: 239. Retrieved 4 April 2022. The hottest news from the Paris spring prêt‐à‐porter collections is the mini. And the man who put it back in the spotlight is Kenzo....There were short skirts with balloon tops, caught under a low belt; some skirts then swirled out, but others, neat and tapered, were just little wraparounds.
  86. ^ Morris, Bernadine (6 April 1977). "Mini Skirts Make Maximum Impact in Paris". The New York Times: 66. Retrieved 4 April 2022. The short skirt story is gaining momentum in fashion here. It began a year ago on the runways of such designers of ready‐to‐wear clothes as Kenzo and lesser lights, including Ter & Bantine. Bulky sweaters that cupped the buttocks and brief, knitted dresses were shown over knitted tights...
  87. ^ Morris, Bernadine (3 May 1977). "Hemmed Up". The New York Times: 52. Retrieved 24 March 2022. The word 'miniskirt' is never invoked. 'Tunic' is actually more appropriate for the new short styles, many of which can be worn over pants or skirts as well as tights.
  88. ^ Morris, Bernadine (28 November 1976). "Paris Report". The New York Times: 237. Retrieved 10 March 2022. [The mini']s most dramatic form is the voluminous smock that Kenzo devised, always belted at the hips. But other designers showed shirts as dresses...
  89. ^ Hyde, Nina S. (9 October 1977). "Fashion Notes". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 March 2022. ...[S]ome will top their leg covers with mini tunics or big bubble sweaters, and that's all.
  90. ^ Morris, Bernadine (6 April 1977). "Mini Skirts Make Maximum Impact in Paris". The New York Times: 66. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Most designers were careful to present clothes in at least three different lengths: above the knee, or mini; calf length, or standard, and somewhere around the lower part of the calf or the top of the ankles...
  91. ^ Morris, Bernadine (16 April 1978). "Message is Clear, but How Will It Be Received?". The New York Times: 70. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Two years ago [1976] Paris designers made a concerted effort to bring back knee‐baring clothes and it went practically unnoticed.
  92. ^ Hyde, Nina (21 April 1981). "The Mini Revival: Options for a New Age". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. In London the black plastic mini has been part of the punk uniform...for the past four years [1977-1981].
  93. ^ "Elvis Costello – Chelsea". genius.com. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  94. ^ Morris, Bernadine (16 April 1978). "The Message is Clear, but How Will It Be Received". The New York Times: 70. Retrieved 4 April 2022. It may be that there is a latent desire for miniskirts and padded shoulders....The way most store people see [miniskirts]...is under a tie‐on longer skirt that can be removed for dancing.
  95. ^ Hyde, Nina S. (16 October 1979). "Skirting the Mini". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. In the past week of showings of ready-to-wear for next spring, [fashion buyers] had seen lots of short, short skirts....Karl Lagerfeld, who designs for Chloe, showed the shortest miniskirts....[H]is minis with padded shoulders...are a breed apart....His minis...were served up in three categories: a single layer that barely covered the fanny, and double-tiered and triple-tiered skirts that still stopped above the knee.
  96. ^ Morris, Bernadine (19 October 1979). "At Paris Showings, Both Creativity and Confusion". The New York Times: A20. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Along with Claude Montana, [Thierry Mugler] is the favorite of the avant‐garde. Both were leaders of the outer‐space brigade and the return to the 1960's miniskirted look. They were not alone....Lagerfeld favored an abbreviated skirt that was little more than a ruffle around the hips, and a brief one at that.
  97. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1979". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 367. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Norma Kamali...and Perry Ellis introduced the short rah-rah skirt, worn with short-sleeved jumpers, knee-high socks and pedal pushers.
  98. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1980". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 371. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Kenzo, Chloé and others now showed pretty, floral printed-cotton versions of the rah-rah introduced by Kamali and Ellis in 1979.
  99. ^ Morris, Bernadine (16 April 1978). "The Message is Clear, but How Will It Be Received?". The New York Times: 70. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[T]his time the chief proponent [of knee-baring skirts] — an occasional version is offered by other houses — is Yves Saint Laurent.
  100. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1980". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 373. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Op art returned to London's streets, coinciding with a musical revival led by [ska revival bands] The Specials and Madness...
  101. ^ Dullea, Georgia (22 October 1979). "Fashion Revivals: Are the 1980's Really Ready for the 1960's?". The New York Times: B6. Retrieved 4 April 2022. The 1980's, to judge by the recent goings‐on in Milan and Paris, are opening with a rerun of the 60's.
  102. ^ Hyde, Nina S. (13 October 1979). "Knee Highs". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Some Paris designers have taken...a backward glace at the 1960s. What they have come up with for the opening ready-to-wear showings of 1980's hot-weather fashions are skinny miniskirts and other styles spun off from the 1960s fashions of Courreges, Rudi Grenreich and Paco Rabanne....France Andrevie...must have researched the short-cropped, tube-shaped dresses of Rudi Gernreich, the minis of Courreges and the vinyl and metallic hinged designs of Paco Rabanne...
  103. ^ Morris, Bernadine (14 September 1979). "It Was Givenchy's Hour Again". The New York Times: 6. Retrieved 18 March 2022. Only one dress was greeted with dead silence: a printed satin, shirred up the center, that bared the knees. It was the length that was distracting. The audience didn't know what to make of it.
  104. ^ Dullea, Georgia (22 October 1979). "Fashion Revivals: Are the 1980's Really Ready for the 1960's?". The New York Times: B6. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Miniskirts on the runway are fashion's way of making a little noise. The idea, as one Seventh Avenue observer put it, is that 'women will be so horrified that they will accept knee‐length skirts, which they have been resisting.' Already some women are weakening....'A few inches shorter,' they say, cautiously, 'but below the knee'.
  105. ^ Morris, Bernadine (17 February 1981). "Hemlines: Trend is Down, but Anything is Acceptable". The New York Times: B10. Retrieved 4 April 2022. About three years ago [1978], the direction reversed and designers began shortening skirts - to just below the knee, to the middle of the knee and even clearing the knee.
  106. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1980". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 371. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Skirts grew shorter and shorter...
  107. ^ Morris, Bernadine (17 February 1981). "Hemlines: Trend is Down, but Anything is Acceptable". The New York Times: B10. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Many French designers, including Karl Lagerfeld at Chloe, Dorothee Bis and Kenzo, broke the knee barrier and showed minis in their [1980-81] collections...
  108. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1980". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 373. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Op art returned to London's streets...Cubist prints, Mondrian patterns, geometrics, triangles, harlequin and radio-wave prints decorated summer shifts, T-shirts and jackets.
  109. ^ Hyde, Nina (18 August 1980). "The Sweat Shirt Swath". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. The sweat shirt extends to a skimp dress...
  110. ^ Hyde, Nina (21 April 1981). "The Mini Revival: Options for a New Age". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. The mini revival...stirred more than a year ago [early 1980] when...big, sweatery mini-dresses were picked up by kids who wore them with thick, colorful pantyhose.
  111. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1980". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. pp. 370–371. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Montana's taupe knitted wool [thigh-length] dresses and 'orbital' hats. [The dresses have pronounced shoulder pads and a sweatshirt-like hem band that gives a slight bubble or blouson effect.]
  112. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1980". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 371. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Kenzo, Chloé and others now showed pretty, floral printed-cotton versions of the rah-rah introduced by Kamali and [Perry] Ellis in 1979.
  113. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1980". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 371. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Norma Kamali launched her 'sweats' collection: rah-rah skirts, leggings and jogging suits cut in grey and brightly coloured cotton sweatshirting. The tops often had huge, American-footballer shoulder pads. These low-priced co-ordinates were copied worldwide.
  114. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...Dana Seymour, 20,...like[s] the Jag jean miniskirt she was wearing while shopping...
  115. ^ Hyde, Nina (21 April 1981). "The Mini Revival: Options for a New Age". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. The 1981 mini...is being worn...with tights and flats or flat boots...[T]he miniskirt worn with romantic blouses with full sleeves and soft crushed boots...
  116. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Vickie Fitzgerald, 18, occasionally wears a mini...For now, she wears tights, but expects that once she has a tan she'll go barelegged.
  117. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Sahara Woodell, 18,...was wearing a lace-trimmed cotton miniskirt with a jean jacket and combat boots.
  118. ^ Morris, Bernadine (17 February 1981). "Hemlines: Trend is Down, but Anything is Acceptable". The New York Times: B10. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...Marc Bohan...has included above-the-knee party dresses in his collections for Christian Dior for several seasons.
  119. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Farah Naim, 18,...was wearing a black leather zip-front miniskirt (from Commander Salamander), dark hose and salmon-pink satin bridesmaid's pumps from a thrift shop.
  120. ^ Morris, Bernadine (17 February 1981). "Hemlines: Trend is Down, but Anything is Acceptable". The New York Times: B10. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[S]aid Marc Bohan...[of] Christian Dior, 'Women don't seem to be too eager to rush into short skirts'.
  121. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Sahara Woodell, 18,...said she could never wear a mini when she was a student at Springfield High School [1978-82]. 'I was the only one wearing them and I'd get hassled by the teachers and the boys'.
  122. ^ Cohen, Joyce (11 October 1981). "A Higher Grade of Campus Dress". The New York Times: 32. Retrieved 4 April 2022. 'There are two mini-skirts on campus, and I own one of them,' said Cecelia Manning, a Yale senior...
  123. ^ Hyde, Nina (21 April 1981). "The Mini Revival: Options for a New Age". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Now the mini separates the young from the old...'With the young, the mini is almost a norm,' suggests Catherine di Montezemolo, Lord & Taylor vice president.
  124. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Sasha Cutter, 13,...was wearing a Kamali Rah-Rah skirt in sweat-shirt fabric with a Polo sweater over her leotard. She's just as happy in a long Lauren prairie skirt, she said, or jeans....Having the miniskirt as an option is one of the big contrasts with the late 1960s, when minis were de rigueur and lots of grown women as well as kids followed the fashion and shortened their hems several inches above the knee.
  125. ^ Hyde, Nina (21 April 1981). "The Mini Revival: Options for a New Age". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. And it is an optional item to suit one's mood, to be worn alternately with pants, which can be any length or shape, or a long folkloric skirt....[U]nlike before, the mini is only part of the high fashion wardrobe...[O]bserves Bernie Ozer, of Associated Merchandising Corp. 'It is strictly an alternative, strictly for the younger woman or a rare older woman who wants to show off her good legs. There is no suggestion that everyone has to wear one'.
  126. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. It is hardly the rage it is in London, or the prevailing mode as in Milan. But the priority is about the same as in Paris. With many young women,...the mini is back.
  127. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. Kenzo from Paris and Kamali from New York have popularized the flounced-skirt variety...
  128. ^ Hyde, Nina (10 May 1982). "Miniskirts: The Height of Fashion". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2022. ...[T]he tight, black leather skirt is a spinoff from Yves Saint Laurent...
  129. ^ Morris, Bernadine (4 August 1981). "Couture: Styles of Splendor". The New York Times: C6. Retrieved 1 December 2021. Saint Laurent...bares the knees and pads his shoulders...
  130. ^ Staff writer. "Vivienne Westwood designs". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  131. ^ Cicolini, Alice; British Council (2000). Inside out: underwear and style in the UK. Black Dog. ISBN 9781901033274.
  132. ^ Evans, Caroline (2004). "Cultural Capital 1976–2000". In Breward, Christopher; Ehrman, Edwina; Evans, Caroline (eds.). The London look : fashion from street to catwalk. New Haven: Yale University Press / Museum of London. p. 149. ISBN 9780300103991.
  133. ^ Evans, Caroline; Thornton, Minna (1989). Women and Fashion: A New Look. London: Quartet Books. pp. 148–150. ISBN 9780704326910.
  134. ^ a b Standring, Chris (2 March 2015). "Top Trends: Spring's long skirts flatter every body". Edmonton Journal. Postmedia Network Inc. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  135. ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (22 October 2011). "Japan's schoolgirls set the trend". The Independent. Archived from the original on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  136. ^ Miller, Laura (2012). "Youth fashion and beautification". In Mathews, Gordon; White, Bruce (eds.). Japan's Changing Generations: Are Young People Creating a New Society?. Routledge. pp. 87–88. ISBN 9781134353897.
  137. ^ Staff writer (29 September 2002). "Gucci Spring/Summer 2003 Ready-To-Wear". Vogue. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
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