Open main menu

Wikipedia β

The House of Bonaparte is an imperial and royal European dynasty founded in 1804 by Napoleon I, a French military leader who had risen to notability out of the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his coup d'état of November 1799. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, extending the power of the dynasty.

House of Bonaparte
Arms of the French Empire2.svg
Country French Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Naples
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Titles Emperor of the French
Emperor in Elba
King of Italy
King of Spain
King of Holland
King of Westphalia
King of Naples
King of Rome (courtesy title only)
Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Founded 1804
Founder Napoleon I, Emperor of the French
Final ruler Napoleon III, Emperor of the French
Current head Disputed:
Charles, Prince Napoléon or
Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon
Dissolution 1815: Bourbon Restoration
1870: Defeat in Franco-Prussian War
Ethnicity Corsican (originally Italian)
later French
Cadet branches Prince Canino Line (extinct)
Prince Napoléon Line

The House of Bonaparte formed the Imperial House of France during the French Empire, together with some non-Bonaparte family members. In addition to holding the title of Emperor of the French, the Bonaparte dynasty held various other titles and territories during the Napoleonic Wars, including their ancestral Kingdom of Italy, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Westphalia, the Kingdom of Holland, and the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty held power for around a decade until the Napoleonic Wars began to take their toll. Making very powerful enemies, such as Austria, Britain, Russia, and Prussia, as well as royalist (particularly Bourbon) restorational movements in France, Spain, the Two Sicilies, and Sardinia, the dynasty eventually collapsed due to the final defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the restoration of former dynasties by the Congress of Vienna.

During the reign of Napoleon I, the Imperial Family consisted of the Emperor's immediate relations – his wife, son, siblings, and some other close relatives, namely Joachim Murat, Joseph Fesch, and Eugène de Beauharnais.

Between the years 1852 and 1870 there was a Second French Empire, when a member of the Bonaparte dynasty again ruled France: Napoleon III, the son of Louis Bonaparte. However, during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 the dynasty was again ousted from the Imperial Throne. Since that time there has been a series of pretenders. Supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists. Current head Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon, has a Bourbon mother.

Contents

Italian originsEdit

The Bonaparte (originally Buonaparte) family were patricians in the Italian towns of Sarzana, San Miniato and Florence. The name derives from Italian, buona, "good" and parte, "part" or "side".

Gianfaldo Buonaparte was the first known Buonaparte at Sarzana around 1200. His descendant Giovanni Buonaparte in 1397 married Isabella Calandrini, a cousin of later cardinal Filippo Calandrini. Giovanni became mayor of Sarzana and was named commissioner of the Lunigiana by Giovanni Maria Visconti in 1408. Their great-grandson Francesco Buonaparte was an equestrian mercenary at the service of the Genoese Bank of Saint George. In 1490 he went to the island of Corsica which was controlled by the bank. In 1493 he married the daughter of Guido da Castelletto, representative of the Bank of Saint George in Ajaccio, Corsica. Most of their descendants during subsequent generations were members of the Ajaccio town council. Napoleons father Carlo Buonaparte received a patent of nobility by the King of France in 1771.

There also existed a Buonaparte family in Florence, however its eventual relation with the Sarzana and San Miniato families is unknown. Jacopo Buonaparte of San Miniato was a friend and advisor to Medici Pope Clement VII. Jacopo was also a witness to and wrote an account of the sack of Rome, which is one of the most important historical documents recounting that event.[1] Two of Jacopo's nephews, Pier Antonio Buonaparte and Giovanni Buonaparte, however, took part in the 1527 Medici rebellion, after which they were banished from Florence and later were restored by Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence. Jacopo's brother Benedetto Buonaparte maintained political neutrality.[2] The San Miniato branch extinguished with Jacopo in 1550. The last member of the Florence family was a canon named Gregorio Bonaparte, who died in 1803, leaving Napoleon as heir.[3]

A Buonaparte tomb lies in the Church of San Francesco in San Miniato, another in Ajaccio, the Chapelle Impériale, built by Napoleon III. in 1857.

Imperial House of FranceEdit

 
Napoleon Crossing the Alps (1801), by Jacques-Louis David.
 
Imperial coat of arms
 
The Four Napoleons

Napoleon is the most prominent name associated with the Bonaparte family because he conquered much of the Western world during the early part of the 19th century. He was elected as First Consul of France on 10 November 1799 with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, and president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud. He was crowned Emperor of the French and ruled from 1804–1814, 1815.

Following his conquest of most of Western Europe, Napoleon I made his elder brother Joseph (1768–1844) king first of Naples (1806–1808) and then of Spain (1808–1813), his younger brother Louis (1778–1846) King of Holland (1806–1810) (subsequently forcing his abdication after his failure to subordinate Dutch interests to those of France) and his youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860) King of Westphalia, the short-lived realm created from some of the states of northwestern Germany (1807–1813).

Napoleon's son Napoléon François Charles Joseph (1811–1832) was created King of Rome (1811–1814) and was later styled Napoléon II by loyalists of the dynasty, though he only ruled for two weeks after his father's abdication. Louis-Napoléon (1808–1873), son of Louis, was President of France in 1848–1852 and Emperor in 1852–1870, reigning as Napoleon III; his son, Napoléon, Prince Imperial (1856–1879) died fighting the Zulus in Natal, today the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. With his death, the family lost much of its remaining political appeal, though claimants continue to assert their right to the imperial title. A political movement for Corsican independence surfaced in the 1990s which included a Bonapartist restoration in its programme.

Crowns held by the familyEdit

Emperors of the FrenchEdit

Kings of HollandEdit

  • Louis I (1806–1810)
  • Louis II (1810), also Grand Duke of Berg (1809–1813)

King of NaplesEdit

King of WestphaliaEdit

King of SpainEdit

Grand Duchess of TuscanyEdit

List of Heads of the House of Bonaparte (since 1852)Edit

Disputed since 1997:

The family treeEdit

Carlo-Maria (Ajaccio, 1746–Montpellier, 1785) married Maria Letizia Ramolino (Ajaccio, 1750–Rome, 1836) in 1764. He was a minor official in the local courts. They had eight children:

  1. Joseph Bonaparte (Corte, 1768–Florence, 1844), King of Naples, then King of Spain, married Julie Clary, sister of Napoleon's childhood sweetheart, Désirée, who was to become the wife of General Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (later Charles XIV, King of Sweden)
  2. Napoléon (I) Bonaparte (1769–1821) Emperor of the French
  3. Lucien Bonaparte (1775–1840) Roman Prince of Canino and Musignano
  4. Maria-Anna Elisa Bonaparte (1777–1820), Grand-Duchess of Tuscany, married Félix Baciocchi Levoy, Prince of Lucca
    • Marie-Laetitia Bonaparte Baciocchi Levoy
  5. Louis Bonaparte (1778–1846), King of Holland, married Hortense de Beauharnais, Napoleon's stepdaughter
  6. Maria Paola or Marie Pauline Bonaparte (1780–1825) Princess and Duchess of Guastalla, married in 1797 to French General Charles Leclerc and later married Camillo Borghese, 6th Prince of Sulmona.
  7. Maria Annunziata Caroline Bonaparte (1782–1839) married Joachim Murat, Marshal of France, Grand Duke of Berg, then King of Naples
  8. Jérôme Bonaparte (1784–1860), King of Westphalia


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Carlo Buonaparte
(1746–1785)
 
Letizia Ramolino
(1750–1836)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5
 
4
 
6
 
7
 
 
 
 
 
8
 
Lucien Bonaparte
(1775–1840)
m.(2) Alexandrine de Bleschamp
 
 
Joseph Bonaparte
(1768–1844)
m. Julie Clary
 
Marie Louise of Austria
(1791–1847)
 
Napoléon I
(1769–1821)
 
Joséphine de Beauharnais
(1763–1814)
 
Alexandre de Beauharnais
(1760–1794)
 
 
 
 
 
Elisa Bonaparte
(1777–1820)
m. Félix Baciocchi
 
Pauline Bonaparte
(1780–1825)
m.(1) Charles Leclerc
m.(2) Camillo Borghese
 
Caroline Bonaparte
(1782–1839)
m. Joachim Murat
 
Betsy Patterson
(1785–1879)
 
Jérôme Bonaparte
(1784–1860)
 
Catharina of Württemberg
(1783–1835)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon II
(1811–1832)
 
 
Eugène de Beauharnais
(1781–1824)
m. Augusta of Bavaria
 
Hortense de Beauharnais
(1783–1837)
 
Louis Bonaparte
(1778–1846)
 
4 children
 
 
 
 
 
Achille Murat
(1801–1847)
m. Catherine Willis Gray
 
 
Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte
(1805–1870)
m. Susan May Williams
 
Jérôme Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1814–1847)
 
Mathilde Bonaparte
(1820–1904)
m. Anatoly Demidov, Prince of San Donato
 
Prince Napoléon Bonaparte
(1822–1891)
m. Marie Clothilde of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte
(1803–1857)
 
Zénaïde Bonaparte
(1801–1854)
 
Julie Joséphine Bonaparte
(b.&d. 1796)
 
Charlotte Bonaparte
(1802–1839)
 
Napoléon Louis Bonaparte
(1804–1831)
 
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1802–1807)
 
Napoléon III
(1808–1873)
m.Eugénie de Montijo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II
(1830–1893)
m. Caroline Edgar
 
Charles Bonaparte
(1851–1921)
m. Ellen Channing Day
 
Napoléon V Victor
(1862–1926)
m. Clémentine of Belgium
 
Napoléon Louis Joseph Jérôme Bonaparte
(1864–1932)
 
Maria Letizia Bonaparte
(1866–1926)
m. Amadeo of Savoy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joseph Lucien Bonaparte
(1824–1865)
 
Lucien Cardinal Bonaparte
(1828–1895)
 
Napoléon Charles Bonaparte
(1839–1899)
 
10 others
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon IV Eugène
(1856–1879)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marie Clotilde Bonaparte
(1912–1996)
 
Napoléon VI Louis
(1914–1997)
m. Alix de Foresta
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zénaïde Bonaparte
(1860–1862)
 
Mary Bonaparte
(1870–1947)
 
Eugénie Bonaparte
(1872–1949)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Napoléon VII Charles
(b. 1950)
 
Catherine Elisabeth Bonaparte
(b. 1950)
 
Laure Clémentine Bonaparte
(b. 1952)
 
Jérôme Xavier Bonaparte
(b. 1957)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Caroline Bonaparte
(b. 1980)
 
Jean-Christophe Napoléon
(b. 1986)
 
Sophie Cathérine Bonaparte
(b. 1992)

Bonaparte armsEdit

The arms of the Bonaparte family were: Gules two bends sinister between two mullets or. In 1804 Napoleon I changed the arms to Azure an imperial eagle or. The change applied to all members of his family except for his brother Lucien and his nephew, the son from Jerome's first marriage.

DNA researchEdit

According to a studies by G.Lucotte and his coauthors based on DNA research since 2011, Napoleon Bonaparte belonged to Y-DNA (direct male ancestry) haplogroup E1b1b1c1* (E-M34*). This haplogroup, rare in Europe, has its highest concentration in Ethiopia and in the Near East (Jordan, Yemen). According to the authors of the study, "Probably Napoléon also knew his remote oriental patrilineal origins, because Francesco Buonaparte (the Giovanni son), who was a mercenary under the orders of the Genoa Republic in Ajaccio in 1490, was nicknamed The Maure of Sarzane " The latest study identifies the common Bonaparte DNA markers from Carlo (Charles) Bonaparte to 3 living descendants.[4][5]

Lucotte et al. published in October 2013 the extended Y-STR of Napoleon I based on descendant testing, and the descendants were E-M34, just like the emperor's beard hair tested a year before. The persons tested were the patrilineal descendants of Jérome Bonaparte, one of Napoleon's brothers, and of Alexandre Colonna-Walewski, Napoleon's illegitimate son with Marie Walewska. These three tests all yielded the same Y-STR haplotype (109 markers) confirming with 100% certainty that the first Emperor of the French belonged to the M34 branch of haplogroup E1b1b.

Living membersEdit

 
Jérôme Bonaparte, founder of the legitimate line

The headship of the family is in dispute between Charles, Prince Napoléon, born 1950, great-great-grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte by his second marriage; and his son Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon (born 1986) who was appointed heir in the will of his grandfather Louis, Prince Napoléon.[6] The only other male member of the family is Charles's recently married brother, Prince Jérôme Napoléon (born 1957). There are no other legitimate descendants in the male line from Napoleon I or his brothers. There are, however, numerous descendants of Napoleon's illegitimate, but recognized son Alexandre Colonna-Walewski from his union with Marie, Countess Walewski. A descendant of Napoleon's sister Caroline Bonaparte is the actor René Auberjonois. Recent DNA matches with living descendants of Jerome and Count Walewski have confirmed the existence of descendants of Lucien Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, namely the Clovis family.[5]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jacopo Bonaparte: Sac de Rome. Écrit EN 1527 par Jacques Bonaparte. Témoin oculaire, hrsgg. by Bonaparte, Napoléon Louis, Florenz 1850
  2. ^ Drake, Joshua F. (October 2005). "The partbooks of a Florentine ex-patriate: new light on Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Ms. Magl. XIX 164–7". Early Music. 33 (4): 639–646. doi:10.1093/em/cah154. 
  3. ^ Burke, Sir Bernard (1869). Vicissitudes of Families. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dye. 
  4. ^ Lucotte, Gerard; Thomasset, Thierry; Hrechdakian, Peter (2011). "Haplogroup of the Y Chromosome of Napoléon the First". Journal of Molecular Biology Research. 1 (1). doi:10.5539/jmbr.v1n1p12. 
  5. ^ a b Lucotte, Gerard; Hrechdakian, Peter (2015). "New Advances Reconstructing the Y Chromosome Haplotype of Napoleon the First Based on Three of his Living Descendants". Journal of Molecular Biology Research. 5 (1). doi:10.5539/jmbr.v5n1p1. 
  6. ^ Herbert, Susannah (12 March 1997). "Father and son in battle for the Napoléonic succession". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 4 June 2007. 

External linksEdit

House of Bonaparte
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Ruling House of the French Empire
1804–1814
Succeeded by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as King of France
Vacant
Title last held by
House of Orléans
Ruled as King of the French
Ruling House of the French Empire
1852–1870
Empire Abolished
Third French Republic Declared
Preceded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as Nominal King of Italy
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Italy
1805–1814
Succeeded by
House of Habsburg
Ruled as King of Lombardy-Venetia
Preceded by
House of Bourbon
Ruled as Kings of Spain and Naples
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Naples
1806–1808
Succeeded by
House of Murat
(In Naples
Reverted to Spanish Bourbons in 1815)

House of Bourbon
(In Spain)
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Spain
1808–1813
Preceded by
New Creation
Succeeded the Batavian Republic
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Holland
1806–1810
Kingdom Abolished
Part of the French Empire
Kingdom of the Netherlands created in 1815
Preceded by
New Creation
Formed from the territories ceded by Prussia in Peace of Tilsit
Ruling House of the Kingdom of Westphalia
1807–1813
Kingdom Abolished
Dissolved after Battle of Leipzig
Status quo of 1806 restored