Prince Napoléon Bonaparte
Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte (9 September 1822 – 17 March 1891), usually called Napoléon-Jérôme Bonaparte or Jérôme Bonaparte, was the second son of Jerome, King of Westphalia and his second wife Catharina of Württemberg. An oustpoken liberal, he became the de facto head of the House of Bonaparte from 1879 to his death. He wasn't considered a legitimate pretender to the throne by many Bonapartists, due to his father's previous marriage without divorce. They instead preferred his son Victor. From the 1880s he was one of the stronger supporters of General Georges Boulanger, together with other monarchist forces.
|Minister of Algerian and Colonial Affairs|
24 June 1858 – 24 March 1859
|Preceded by||Ferdinand Hamelin|
|Succeeded by||Prosper de Chasseloup-Laubat|
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
6 March 1876 – 28 October 1877
|Member of the Senate|
25 December 1852 – 4 September 1870
|Member of the National Assembly|
25 April 1848 – 2 December 1851
|Born||9 September 1822|
|Died||17 March 1891 (aged 68)|
|Resting place||Basilica of Superga, Turin|
Maria Clotilde of Savoy
(m. 1859; died 1911)
|Children||Victor, Prince Napoléon|
Maria Letizia, Duchess of Aosta
|Parents||Jerome, King of Westphalia and Catharina of Württemberg|
|Allegiance||Second French Empire|
|Years of service||1854–1855|
As well as bearing the title of Prince Napoléon, given him by his cousin Emperor Napoleon III in 1852, he was also 3rd Prince of Montfort, 1st Count of Meudon and Count of Moncalieri, following his marriage with Maria Clotilde of Savoy in 1859. His popular nickname, Plon-Plon, stemmed from his difficulty in pronouncing his own name while still a child.
Born at Trieste in the Austrian Empire (today Italy), and known as "Prince Napoléon", "Prince Jérôme Napoléon, or by the sobriquet of "Plon-Plon", he was a close advisor to his first cousin, Napoleon III of France, and in particular was seen as a leading advocate of French intervention in Italy on behalf of Camillo di Cavour and the Italian nationalists.
An anti-clerical liberal, he led that faction at court and tried to influence the Emperor to anti-clerical policies, against the contrary influence of the Emperor's wife, the Empress Eugenie, a devout Catholic and a conservative, and the patroness of those who wanted French troops to protect the Pope's sovereignty in Rome. The Emperor was to navigate between the two influences throughout his reign.
When his cousin became President in 1848, Napoleon was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain. He later served in a military capacity as general of a division in the Crimean War, as Governor of Algeria, and as a corps commander in the French Army of Italy in 1859. His curious nickname, "Plon-Plon", derives from his pronunciation of his name when he was a child, while the nickname "Craint-Plomb" ("Afraid-of-Lead") was given to him by the army due to his absence from the Battle of Solferino.
When Napoléon Eugène, Prince Imperial died in 1879, Prince Napoleon became, genealogically, the most senior member of the Bonaparte family, but the Prince Imperial's will excluded him from the succession, nominating Prince Napoleon's son Napoléon Victor Jérôme Frédéric Bonaparte as the new head of the family. As a result, Prince Napoleon and his son quarrelled for the remainder of Prince Napoleon's life.
Prince Napoléon died in Rome in 1891, aged 68. Prince (Jérôme) Napoléon, upon being banished from France by the 1886 law exiling heads of the nation's former ruling dynasties, settled at Prangins on the shores of Lake Geneva, in Vaud, Switzerland where, during the Second Empire, he had acquired a piece of property. The assets he left his heir were extremely modest: Besides the Villa Prangins and the adjoining estate of 75 hectares, estimated at 800,000 francs of the time, approximately 130 million of France's old francs, they were limited to a portfolio valued at 1,000,000 (1891) francs, about 160 million old francs.
He and Maria Clotilde had three children:
|Victor, Prince Napoléon||1862||1926||married Princess Clémentine of Belgium, a daughter of Leopold II of Belgium.|
|Louis Bonaparte||1864||1932||Russian Lieutenant General and Governor of Erivan|
|Maria Letizia Bonaparte||1866||1926||who in 1888 became the second wife of her maternal uncle Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (1845–1890), who had, from 1870 until 1873, reigned as King of Spain.|
- Second French Empire: Grand Cross, Legion d'Honneur, 3 January 1853
- Belgium: Grand Cordon, Royal Order of Leopold I, 1854
- United Kingdom: Honorary Grand Cross (military), Order of the Bath, 5 September 1855
- Denmark: Knight, Order of the Elephant, 24 September 1856
References in popular fictionEdit
- Prince Napoléon takes a leading role in Robert Goddard's novel Painting the Darkness. References are made to his role in the Crimean War and his son's succession to the Bonapartist claim over him.
- Prince Napoléon is a minor character in Donald Serrell Thomas's Sherlock Holmes novel Death on a Pale Horse (2013); Holmes and Dr. Watson are tasked with escorting him on a state visit to England as a possible claimant to the French throne after the assassination of his relative Napoléon, Prince Imperial in 1879.
- Treccani (ed.). Bonaparte, Napoleone Giuseppe Carlo Paolo, detto il principe Girolamo, soprannominato Plon Plon (in Italian).
- Freifeld, Alice (2000). Woodrow Wilson Center Press (ed.). Nationalism and the Crowd in Liberal Hungary, 1848-1914. p. 251.
- Steele, E.D. (1991). CUP Archive (ed.). Palmerston and Liberalism, 1855-1865. p. 270.
- Laetitia de Witt, Le prince Victor Napoléon 1862-1926, Fayard, Paris, 2007, p. 9.
- Barjot, Jean-Pierre Chaline & André Encrevé, La France au xixe siècle 1814-1914.
- "Article 6 of consulting of December 25, 1852". Digithèque de matériaux juridiques et politiques (in French).
- Joseph Valynseele (1967). Les Prétendants aux Trônes d'Europe. France: Saintard de la Rochelle. p. 179.
- Walker, Christopher (1980). Armenia: A Survival of a Nation, Chapter 3. Librairie Au Service de la Culture. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-312-04944-7.
- Base léonore.
- Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer, Volume 1 /Ferdinand Veldekens
- Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 191
- Sveriges och Norges statskalender. Liberförlag. 1874. pp. 468, 703.
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 465. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
- Berthet-Leleux, François (1932) Le vrai prince Napoléon--Jérôme
- Flammarion, Gaston (1939) Un neveu de Napoléon Ier, le prince Napoléon (Jérôme) 1822-1891
- Edgar Holt, Plon-Plon: The Life of Prince Napoleon (London: Michael Joseph, 1973).
Media related to Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte at Wikimedia Commons
Prince Napoléon BonaparteBorn: 9 September 1822 Died: 17 March 1891
|Titles in pretence|
|Jérôme I||— TITULAR —
King of Westphalia
24 June 1860 - 17 March 1891
Reason for succession failure:
Kingdom dissolved in 1813