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Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary (or higher) education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes seven levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education system (ISCED, from Level 0 (pre-primary education) through Level 6 (second stage of tertiary education)). UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.[1]


Education during childhood and early adulthood is typically provided through either a two- or three-stage system of childhood school, followed by additional stages of higher education or vocational education for those who continue their formal education:

The following table introduces the main concepts, although terms and ages may vary in different places:

Age Educational stage 2-stage system 3-stage system ISCED
4 Early childhood education Preschool Preschool 0
6 Primary education Primary school Elementary school 1
9 2
11 Middle school
13 Secondary education Secondary school
17 High school 3

For additional ISCED stages of education, see ISCED.

Alternative organizational structuresEdit

Sudbury schoolsEdit

Sudbury schools do not use formal grade levels or educational stages. Instead, students ages 4 through 18 are intermingled in a democratic educational system, relying on a series of certifications to use equipment that may require specialized knowledge or safety procedures. These certifications are not typically restricted by age, but rather by demonstrated ability.[2]

By countryEdit


In Australia, children undergo thirteen years of formal education (plus non-compulsory preschool or kindergarten), usually starting at age 4, 5 or 6, and finishing at age 16, 17 or 18. The years are numbered from "Prep/Kindergarten" to 12.

In New South Wales (NSW), Western Australia (WA), Queensland (QLD) and Victoria (VIC), primary school is Kindergarten (NSW)/Prep (Vic & Qld)/Pre-primary (WA) and Years 1–6, and secondary school, Years 7–12 (see table below).

Year Ages School
Kindergarten 3–5 Preschool
Prep/Kindergarten/Pre-primary 5–6 Primary
Grade or Year 1 6–7
Grade or Year 2 7–8
Grade or Year 3 8–9
Grade or Year 4 9–10
Grade or Year 5 10–11
Grade or Year 6 11–12
Grade or Year 7 12–13 Secondary
Grade or Year 8 13–14
Grade or Year 9 14–15
Grade or Year 10 15–16
Grade or Year 11 16–17
Grade or Year 12 17–18

In the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Tasmania (TAS), primary school is Kindergarten (ACT)/Prep (Tas) and years 1–6, secondary school is years 7–10 and college or Senior Secondary is years 11 and 12 (see table below).

Year Ages School
Pre Kindergarten 3–5 Preschool
Kindergarten/Prep 5–6 Primary
Grade or Year 1 6–7
Grade or Year 2 7–8
Grade or Year 3 8–9
Grade or Year 4 9–10
Grade or Year 5 10–11
Grade or Year 6 11–12
Grade or Year 7 12–13 Secondary
Grade or Year 8 13–14
Grade or Year 9 14–15
Grade or Year 10 15–16
Grade or Year 11 16–17 College/senior secondary
Grade or Year 12 17–18

In South Australia, primary school is Reception and Years 1–7, and secondary school is Years 8–12 (see table below).

Year Ages School
Kindergarten 3–4 Preschool
Reception 4–5 Primary
Grade or Year 1 5–6
Grade or Year 2 6–7
Grade or Year 3 7–8
Grade or Year 4 8–9
Grade or Year 5 9–10
Grade or Year 6 10–11
Grade or Year 7 11–12
Grade or Year 8 12–13 Secondary
Grade or Year 9 13–14
Grade or Year 10 14–15
Grade or Year 11 15–16
Grade or Year 12 16–17


In Belarus, education is guaranteed for everyone. Primary school lasts for 4 years, but some psycho-physically challenged children study for 5 years according to a special standard. Forms 1 to 9 are considered compulsory. After completing general basic school a person can study in a special establishment to get a job. To enter a higher educational establishment a person must complete general secondary school (all 11 forms) and pass three centralized tests.[3]

Year Ages School


1–2 Early
Детский сад


Form 1 6–7 Primary
Form 2 7–8
Form 3 8–9
Form 4 9–10
Form 5 10–11 General basic


Form 6 11–12
Form 7 12–13
Form 8 13–14
Form 9 14–15
Form 10 15–16 General secondary


Form 11 16–17


In Brazil, there are three levels of basic education: "Educação Infantil" (preschool), "Ensino Fundamental" (primary school) and "Ensino Médio" (high school), which are generally completed by age eighteen. Basic education is designed to provide the necessary minimum knowledge for the exercise of citizenship. It also serves to develop consciousness for choosing future professions. In Brazil, after the name of the grade one may use the names "série" or "ano." The educational stages in Brazil are divided as follows:

Educação Infantil (Brazil Grade) Ages Correspondent in the U.S
Creche 0–3 Day Care
Pré-Escola 4–6 Preschool
Ensino Fundamental (Brazil Grade) Ages Correspondent in the U.S
1o ano (Primeiro Ano) 6–7 first grade
2o ano (Segundo Ano) 7–8 second grade
3o ano (Terceiro Ano) 8–9 third grade
4o ano (Quarto Ano) 9–10 fourth grade
5o ano (Quinto Ano) 10–11 fifth grade
6o ano (Sexto Ano) 11–12 sixth grade
7o ano (Sétimo Ano) 12–13 seventh grade
8o ano (Oitavo Ano) 13–14 eighth grade
9o ano (Nono Ano) 14–15 ninth grade
Ensino Médio (Brazil Grade) Ages Correspondent in the U.S
1o ano (Primeiro Ano) 15–16 tenth grade
2o ano (Segundo Ano) 16–17 eleventh grade
3o ano (Terceiro Ano) 17–18 twelfth grade


In Canada, schooling officially begins at Kindergarten (or Maternelle in Quebec), followed by grades, with some variations for certain levels in certain provinces/territories. When referred to as a grade, school years are usually referred to by their cardinal number ("Grade Three").

At the post-secondary level in (Anglophone) Canada, a student is usually referred to by the year of study they are in (i.e. First Year, Second Year, etc.). If they are pursuing something higher than an undergraduate degree, the designation usually refers to what year of study they are in since entering Graduate studies (i.e. First Year Graduate Student, etc.). Any student who has completed their first year of undergraduate studies is considered to be an Upper Year Student.

Each province and territory has its own autonomous education system. As such, the name of each level of education and what year each level begins at will vary across the country (as will the curriculum itself).

Grade structure by province/territoryEdit

The following table shows how grades are organized in various provinces. Often, there will be exceptions within each province, both with terminology for groups, and which grades apply to each group.

  Elementary Junior high Senior high
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
British Columbia
(source)[not in citation given]
  Primary Secondary
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Manitoba[4]   Early years Middle years Senior years
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
New Brunswick
  Elementary Middle school High school
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Newfoundland and Labrador
  Primary Elementary Junior high Senior high
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Level I Level II Level III
Northwest Territories
  Primary Intermediate Junior secondary Senior secondary
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Nova Scotia
  Elementary Junior high Senior high
  Primary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Ontario[5] Elementary Intermediate Secondary
Junior kindergarten Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  Elementary Intermediate school Senior high
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
[citation needed]
  Primary school Secondary school College (CÉGEP)
Garderie Maternelle 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sec I Sec II Sec III Sec IV Sec V first second third
(source[permanent dead link])
  Elementary level Middle level Secondary level
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  Elementary Junior secondary Senior secondary
  Kindergarten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


In the People's Republic of China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau), the years are organized in three stages and renumbered within each stage: 6 years in elementary school (小学) years 1 to 6, then 3 years in lower secondary (初级中学, abbreviated 初中) years 7 to 9, then 3 years in higher secondary (高级中学, abbreviated 高中) years 1 to 3. The first nine years (elementary 1–6 and junior secondary 1–3) are compulsory, and the years in higher secondary school are voluntary. Completing higher secondary education or attaining an equivalent level is required before one may receive higher education (高等教育) at universities.

Year Ages Stage
Year 1 6–7 Elementary
Year 2 7–8
Year 3 8–9
Year 4 9–10
Year 5 10–11
Year 6 11–12
Year 7 12–13 Lower secondary
Year 8 13–14
Year 9 14–15
Year 10 15–16 Higher secondary
Year 11 16–17
Year 12 17–18

Hong KongEdit

The Hong Kong system was based on the United Kingdom system, with an optional year at kindergarten, six years of primary school (小學) and six years of secondary school (中學), followed by four years at university. Primary 1 – 6 (小一 – 小六) corresponds to Years 1 – 6 in the UK, and Forms 1 – 6 (中一 – 中六) correspond to Years 7 – 12. Usually students begin Primary 1 at age 5 or 6 and complete Form 6 at age 17 or 18.

In Hong Kong, international schools follow the system of the country they are based upon, for example the English Schools Foundation uses the UK year system, and the French International School of Hong Kong uses the French école, collège, lycée system. Also, the English term form followed by the English number is common usage even in otherwise Cantonese conversations.

Year Ages Stage
Primary 1 6–7 Primary
Primary 2 7–8
Primary 3 8–9
Primary 4 9–10
Primary 5 10–11
Primary 6 11–12
Form 1 12–13 Secondary
Form 2 13–14
Form 3 14–15
Form 4 15–16
Form 5 16–17
Form 6 17–18


Education is compulsory from age 6 to age 14 or 16.

At the end of the lycée cursus, is the French Baccalaureat exam. It is possible in France to fail a year, and need to resit (redoubler).

Age School Classe Cycle
2–3 École maternelle TPS: Toute petite section Cycle I : Apprentissages premiers
3–4 PS: Petite section
4–5 MS: Moyenne section
5–6 GS: Grande section Cycle II : Apprentissages fondamentaux
6–7 École élémentaire CP: Cours préparatoire
7–8 CE1: Cours élémentaire, 1ère année
8–9 CE2: Cours élémentaire, 2éme année Cycle III : Approfondissements
9–10 CM1: Cours moyen, 1ère année
10–11 CM2: Cours moyen, 2ème année
11–12 Collège Sixième
12–13 Cinquième
13–14 Quatrième
14–15 Troisième
15–16 Lycée Seconde
16–17 Première
17–18 Terminale


The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education. In this pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges,and then 3 years of graduation for a bachelor's degree. The first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges. This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.

Pre-Primary educationEdit

  • Play group (pre-nursery): At play schools, children are exposed to a lot of basic learning activities that help them to get independent faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating food themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-nursery is 2 to 3 years
  • Nursery: Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is 3 to 4 years.
  • LKG: It is also called the Junior Kindergarten (Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in LKG is 4 to 5 years.
  • UKG: It is also called the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in UKG is 5 to 6 years.

Primary educationEdit

The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old. Because education laws are given by the states, duration of primary school visit alters between the Indian states. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions.80% of all recognised schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country.

Secondary educationEdit

Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8.85 crore children according to the 2001 Census of India. The final two years of secondary is often called Higher Secondary (HS), Senior Secondary, or simply the "+2" stage. The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses.

UGC, NCERT, CBSE and ICSE directives state qualifying ages for candidates who wish to take board exams. Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams. It further states that upon successful completion of Higher Secondary, one can apply to higher education under UGC control such as Engineering, Medical, and Business Administration.


In Indonesia, children spend 12 years of formal education, but some children attend nursery playgroup (called Kelompok Belajar in 2 years) and attend kindergarten (Called Taman Kanak-Kanak in 2 years).

Age Stage School Year
2–3 Pre-school Kelompok Belajar (KB)

(Nursery Playgroup)

3–4 KB-B
4–5 Taman Kanak-kanak (TK)


5–6 TK-B
6–7 Primary School Sekolah Dasar (SD)

(Elementary School)

Kelas 1
7–8 Kelas 2
8–9 Kelas 3
9–10 Kelas 4
10–11 Kelas 5
11–12 Kelas 6
12–13 Secondary School Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP)

(Junior High School)

Kelas 7
13–14 Kelas 8
14–15 Kelas 9
15–16 Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA)

(Senior High School)

Kelas 10
16–17 Kelas 11
17–18 Kelas 12


The Iranian system has experienced several changes in the last seven to eight decades. Prior to 1940–1950, the education system had consisted of three levels, called in order: an optional year in kindergarten, six years of primary school, finally followed by six years of secondary school ending up with a diploma. After some improvements during Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, the system was changed to four consecutive periods: two optional years in kindergarten and pre-primary school, primary school consisting of 5 years, 3 years in middle school, and finally four years in high school. The system ended up by honoring a diploma in certain majors, e.g. math and physics.

Around 1996–1997, one year was reduced from the entire education system and one was honored with a diploma after three years in high school. However, if one would have liked to continue her/his education towards university degrees, one would have been required to take the last year, so called pre-university year. This year had been a requirement to participate in the Iranian University Entrance Exam for high school students. Again, around 2012, the system turned back to its previous system, consisting of two 6-year periods.

There are 2 formal stages of education in Iran: primary school (دبستان, Dabestãn) and high school (دبیرستان, Dabirestãn). The high school itself is broken into 2 parts: A and B.[further explanation needed] Preschool educations are informal, therefore Grade 1 is the first year. In Grade 1 (پایه‌ی 1, Paye 1) also known as the 1st class (کلاس اوّل, Klãs Avval), children learn the basics of reading and writing.

Stage School Age
Preschool Kindergarten 3–6
Primary school Grade 1 7
Grade 2 7–8
Grade 3 8–9
Grade 4 9–10
Grade 5 10–11
Grade 6 11–12
High school Grade 7 12-13
Grade 8 13-14
Grade 9 14-15
Grade 10 15-16
Grade 11 16-17
Grade 12 17-18


In the Republic of Ireland, there are two levels of compulsory education; primary school (ca.5–12 years of age) and secondary school (ca.12–18 years). The names of each class are as follows:

  • Junior Infants (4–5 years)
  • Senior Infants (5–6 years)
  • First Class (6–7 years)
  • Second Class (7–8 years)
  • Third Class (8–9 years)
  • Fourth Class (9–10 years)
  • Fifth Class (10–11 years)
  • Sixth Class (11–12 years)

After Sixth Class, students move to secondary school, entering;

Junior Cycle:

  • First Year (12–13 years)
  • Second Year (13–14 years)
  • Third Year (14–15 years) – Junior Certificate
  • Fourth Year [or Transition Year] (15–16 years)

Senior Cycle:

In some schools, Transition Year is compulsory, in others it is optional, and in others is not available.


In Italy, education is compulsory from the age of 6 to the age of 16. On parents' demand, children can start the Scuola primaria (see below) one year earlier.

Educazione Infantile:

  • Asilo nido: 3 months – 3 years
  • Scuola d'infanzia: 3 years – 5 years

Scuola primaria (informally: Scuola Elementare):

  • I elementare: 6–7
  • II elementare: 7–8
  • III elementare: 8–9
  • IV elementare: 9–10
  • V elementare: 10–11

Scuola secondaria di primo grado (informally: Scuola Media):

  • I media – 11–12
  • II media – 12–13
  • III media – 13–14

Scuola secondaria di secondo grado (informally: Scuola Superiore):

  • biennio
    • I superiore – 14–15
    • II superiore – 15–16
  • triennio
    • III superiore – 16–17
    • IV superiore – 17–18
    • V superiore – 18–19


In Japan, the years are organized in three stages and renumbered within each stage: 6 years in elementary school (小学校, shōgakkō) years 1 to 6, then 3 years in lower secondary (中学校, chūgakkō) years 1 to 3, then 3 years in higher secondary (高等学校, kōtōgakkō, abbreviated 高校, kōkō) years 1 to 3. The first nine years (elementary 1–6 and lower secondary 1–3) are compulsory, and the years in higher secondary school are voluntary. Completing higher secondary education or attaining an equivalent level is required before one may receive higher education at universities (大学, daigaku).

Year Ages Stage
Year 1 6–7 Elementary
Year 2 7–8
Year 3 8–9
Year 4 9–10
Year 5 10–11
Year 6 11–12
Year 1 12–13 Lower secondary
Year 2 13–14
Year 3 14–15
Year 1 15–16 Higher secondary
Year 2 16–17
Year 3 17–18


Compulsory education in Malaysia spans a period of 11 years and comprises both primary and secondary education. Kindergarten is optional.

Malaysian primary school consists of six years of education, referred to as Year 1 to Year 6 (formerly Standard 1 to Standard 6). Year 1 – 3 are classified as Level One (Tahap Satu in Malay) while Year 4 – 6 make up Level Two (Tahap Dua). Primary schooling usually begins at the age of 7 and ends at 12. Students take their first national examination, the UPSR, towards the end of the Year 6 school year. Performance in the UPSR has no effect on their resuming schooling; all students continue with their secondary education after leaving primary school.

Secondary schooling usually begins at age 13. Secondary schools offer education for a total of five years, starting with Form 1 and finishing at Form 5. Forms 1 – 3 are grouped together into the "Lower Form" and Forms 4 & 5 are considered the "Upper Form". Students in Form 3 will have to sit for their second national exam, the PT3. They are then streamed into sciences or humanities classes for the Upper Form according to their performance in this exam. At age 17 students in Form 5 sit for the final level of national examinations, the SPM (Malaysian Certificate of Education). Achieving a passing grade in the Bahasa Melayu (Malay Language) portion of the exams is compulsory; failure results in an automatic failing grade for all subjects taken in the examination and the student is held back to repeat Form 5. Completion of the examination signifies that the student has completed formal education in Malaysia; an SPM certificate remains the base requirement to secure most jobs in Malaysia.

After the SPM, students have a choice of either continuing with Form 6 (which comprises 2 years, Lower and Upper Six) or entering matriculation (pre-university programs). If they opt for Form 6, they will be required to take the STPM examination. Although generally taken by those desiring to attend public universities in Malaysia, an STPM certification is internationally recognized and may also be used, though rarely required, to enter private local universities for undergraduate courses.

Educational stages in Malaysia
Year Ages School
Kindergarten (optional) 4–6 Preschool
Tahun 1 (Year 1) 7 Tahap Satu (Level One or Lower Primary)
Tahun 2 (Year 2) 8
Tahun 3 (Year 3) 9
Tahun 4 (Year 4) 10 Tahap Dua (Level Two or Higher Primary)
Tahun 5 (Year 5) 11
Tahun 6 (Year 6) 12
Tingkatan 1 (Form 1) 13 Menengah Rendah (Lower Secondary)
Tingkatan 2 (Form 2) 14
Tingkatan 3 (Form 3) 15
Tingkatan 4 (Form 4) 16 Menengah Atas (Upper Secondary)
Tingkatan 5 (Form 5) 17
Tingkatan 6 (Form 6) (optional) 18–19 Pre-university programme


In Mexico, grades 1 through 12 can be divided into two stages: Educación Básica, and Educación Media Superior.[6] Educación Básica covers pre-primary education to the equivalent of eighth grade.[7] Educación Media Superior covers ninth through twelfth grade, and students' levels are identified by their current semester, not by their grade.[8]

Year Ages School
Educación Básica 3 – 5/6 Preescolar / Kinder
Primer grado (1o) 6/7 Primaria
Segundo grado (2o) 7/8
Tercer grado (3o) 8/9
Cuarto grado (4o) 9/10
Quinto grado (5o) 10/11
Sexto grado (6o) 11/12
Primero de secundaria 12/13 Secundaria
Segundo de secundaria 13/14
Tercero de secundaria 14/15
Educación Media Superior Primer semestre, and Segundo semestre 15/16 Bachillerato / Preparatoria
Tercer semestre, and Cuarto semestre 16/17
Quinto semestre, and Sexto semestre 17/18


In Nepal, the stages of education are primary education, secondary education, and higher secondary. Pre-primary education is also found in some areas. Generally, the pre-primary level covers nursery and kindergarten. Primary education consists of grades one through five, while lower secondary education covers grades six through eight and secondary education covers grades nine through ten. Higher secondary covers grades eleven and twelve. Students get Secondary Education Examination certificate in grade ten. According to the new Education Act, the national grade 12 Examination will result in the School Leaving Certificate (SLC).

Year Ages School
Nursery 3–4 Preschool
Kindergarten 4–6
Year 1 5–6 Primary
Year 2 6–7
Year 3 7–8
Year 4 8–9
Year 5 9–10
Year 6 10–11 Lower secondary
Year 7 11–12
Year 8 12–13
Year 9 13–14 Junior higher secondary
Year 10 14–16
Year 11 15–17 Senior higher secondary
Year 12 16–18

New ZealandEdit

In New Zealand children are required by law to attend 10 years of educational instruction, from the age of 6 to 16. The law also provides in the same legislation that all people are allowed to attend free education to the age of 18, this legislation is the Education Act 1989. Children can enroll at primary school when they turn five years old, and must be enrolled by the time they turn six years old. From years 1–6 students attend primary school. In years 7 and 8 students attend intermediate, or a joint school (years 1–8 or years 7–13). The final years of free education are spent in secondary school (years 9–13). New Zealand also has two older educational stage-numbering systems; standards 5 & 6 were largely unused with the introduction of intermediate schools in the 1950s, while "primmer" numbering was in use well into the 1970s, and some academically focused secondary schools still use "form" numbering.

Year level Ages Old systems School
0 5 (If Born After March) Primary School
1 5–6 Junior 1 Primmers 1, 2 & 3
2 6–7 Junior 2 Primmers 3 & 4
3 7–8 Standard 1
4 8–9 Standard 2
5 9–10 Standard 3
6 10–11 Standard 4
7 11-12 Form 1 Standard 5 Intermediate School (Some Primary Schools and Secondary Schools

also offer these year levels)

8 12-13 Form 2 Standard 6
9 13-14 Form 3 Secondary School
10 14-15 Form 4
11 15-16 Form 5
12 16-17 Form 6
13 17-18 Form 7


In Norway children start school at the age of six; before that kindergarten is voluntary. This school is called barneskole (childrenschool):

  • 6–7: First grade
  • 7–8: Second grade
  • 8–9: Third grade
  • 9–10: Fourth grade
  • 10–11: Fifth grade
  • 11–12: Sixth grade
  • 12–13: Seventh grade

The second school is ungdomsskole (youth-school). At this level the students are rated with grades in each subject, in addition to behavior and orderliness:

  • 13–14: Eighth grade
  • 14–15: Ninth grade
  • 15–16: Tenth grade

The last school before higher education is called videregående skole (ongoing school) and is voluntary, though most choose to attend. At this level students decide among separate career-related schools. The most popular such school is designed to prepare one for further education,[citation needed] while others prepare students for such as mechanics, electricians, cooks and so on. Educational stages in these schools begin again at "one" and are named Vg1, Vg2, Vg3 and Vg4. Some of the more practical schools last only two years, and some students may choose to attend an extra year to study higher education. The typical duration is three years, though some schools offer a four-year program to enable students to engage in more athletics or gather real work experience.

  • 16–17: Vg1
  • 17–18: Vg2
  • 18–19: Vg3
  • 19–20: Vg4


Previously in the Philippines, there are only ten years of compulsory education. School starts on the first or second week of June, while school ends in the last week of March or first week of April. There are three stages of education in the Philippines — elementary, junior high school, and senior high school. The original ten years of compulsory education, was raised to twelve years of education. This policy was implemented in June, 2012. Here is the table:

Grade Age School Stage
Kindergarten 4–6 Preschool Elementary school
Grade 1 6–7 Primary school
Grade 2 7–8
Grade 3 8–9
Grade 4 9–10
Grade 5 10–11
Grade 6 11–12
Grade 7 12–13 Secondary school Junior high school
Grade 8 13–14
Grade 9 14–15
Grade 10 15–16
Grade 11 16–17 Senior high school
Grade 12 17–18


In Russia, compulsory education lasts eight or nine years and begins the year the child turns seven (8 years) or, sometimes, six (9 years). The first stage of elementary school can last either 3 years (so called 1–3 programme for children starting at the age of 7) or 4 years (so called 1–4 programme for children starting at the age of 6). After of the first stage all pupils enter 5th grade, thus pupils that started at the age of 7 do not attend the 4th grade.

Educational stages in Russia
Year Ages School
Yasli 1–2 Early
Kindergarten 3–6 (7)
First Grade 7–8 (6–7) Elementary
Second Grade 8–9 (7–8)
Third Grade 9–10 (8–9)
Fourth grade 9–10 (only for the pupils studying by 1–4 programme)
Fifth Grade 10–11 Middle
Sixth Grade 11–12
Seventh Grade 12–13
Eighth Grade 13–14
Ninth Grade 14–15
Tenth Grade 15–16 High
Eleventh Grade 16–17

While it is not compulsory to remain in school after graduating from middle school, a student cannot progress to tertiary school without graduating from high school or vocational school.


In Singapore, compulsory education lasts ten years and begins the year the child turns seven. However, most children receive a preschool education spanning two to three years before entering primary school after which they will move on to a secondary school, where Sec 5 is only made compulsory for students who have achieved a determined score for their PSLE. For Secondary School, there are two (some) or three streamings: Express (Exp), Normal Academic (NA), and Normal Technical (NT), among which Exp and NT students study for four years while NA students need to study for five years. Depending on which stream one is in, and whether the school's scoring requirement is met, a student may be retained/transferred to NA/NT.

Educational stages in Singapore
Year Ages School
Nursery (N1/2) 3–4 Nursery Kindergarten
Kindergarten (K1/2) 5–6
Primary One 6–7 Primary
Primary Two 7–8
Primary Three 8–9
Primary Four 9–10
Primary Five 10–11
Primary Six 11–12
Secondary One [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 12–13 Secondary
Secondary Two [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 13–14
Secondary Three [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 14–15
Secondary Four [Express/Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 15–16
Secondary Five [Normal Academic (NA)/Normal Technical(NT)] 16–17
Secondary Six (Integrated Programme only) 17-18 Secondary school or College

While it is not compulsory to remain in school after graduating from secondary school, most go on to receive their tertiary education at a junior college, a polytechnic, or an institute of technical education (ITE) before moving on to university.


In Sweden children start school at the age of seven; before that preschool is voluntary. It is unusual to skip a year of "preschool class", with most children attending at age six.

  • 6–7: Preschool class (Förskoleklass)

First set of grades are called "lågstadiet" (low grades).

  • 7–8: "ettan" (First Grade)
  • 8–9: "tvåan" (Second Grade)
  • 9–10: "trean" (Third grade)

Second set of grades are called "mellanstadiet" (middle grades).

  • 10–11: "fyran" (Fourth grade)
  • 11–12: "femman" (Fifth grade)
  • 12–13: "sexan" (Sixth grade)

Third set of grades are called "högstadiet" (high grades).

  • 13–14: "sjuan" (Seventh grade)
  • 14–15: "åttan" (Eighth grade)
  • 15–16: "nian" (Ninth grade)

The last school before higher education is called "gymnasiet" (ongoing school) and is voluntary, though most choose to attend. At this level students decide among separate career-related schools. Some of the more practical schools last only two years, and some students may choose to attend an extra year to study higher education. The typical duration is three years, though some schools offer a four-year program to enable students to engage in more athletics or gather real work experience.

  • 16–17: "första ring" (First Level)
  • 17–18: "andra ring" (Second Level)
  • 18–19: "tredje ring" (Third Level)
  • 19–20: "fjärde ring" (Fourth Level)

United KingdomEdit

England and WalesEdit

In England and Wales education is divided into two stages: primary education and secondary education. Required assessment within the National Curriculum takes place in years 2 and 6 (National Curriculum assessments) and Year 11 (GCSEs). School education is generally followed by two years of further education – often in a 6th form or 6th form college and then three or four years at university by those who decide to stay in education.

Children begin school either in the school year or school term in which they reach their fifth birthday. Primary schools educate children from Reception through to Year 6, and may be subdivided into infant and junior schools. Alternatively, children may attend private prep schools.

Secondary education is compulsory to the age of 16. However, in England you will be required to return to full-time education, take on an apprenticeship or internship or work or volunteer at least 20 hours a week while part-time studying until the age of 18. Schools have various possible names, such as grammar, comprehensive and secondary schools, which may or may not indicate selective admission or tuition fees (see main article). 6th form|6th form education is not compulsory at present, and not all secondary schools have a 6th form. There are also 6th form colleges just for Year 12 and 13 students.

Some secondary schools still use the 'form' system, with Year 7 being 1st Form (or '1st year'), Year 8 being Second Form, et cetera, up until Year 12 and Year 13, which together make up the 6th Form (namely lower and upper sixth form). Some independent schools use other naming systems.

In some areas in England, a three-tier system of education is used, in which students pass through three stages: First school/Lower school (Reception to Year 3/4), Middle school (Year 4/5 to Year 7/8) and finally High or Upper School (Year 8/9–Year 13)


In Scotland, education is divided into two stages: primary education and secondary education. Primary education is delivered almost exclusively through primary schools which offer education for pupils aged between 4 and 12. Children are entitled to pre-school education from their third birthday, and must enter compulsory education from the August after their 5th birthday. There is some leeway in the starting date for pupils.[9]

Education lasts 7 years in the primary school, before pupils move to a secondary school for between 4 and 6 years, the last two being optional. There is some variation in the phasing of education in more remote areas of Scotland, where provision may be made in a through school, or in other combinations of institutes.

Numbering of years in Scottish state schools
Year Ages School
Nursery 3–4 or 3–5
Primary One 4–5 or 5–6 Primary
Primary Two 5–6 or 6–7
Primary Three 6–7 or 7–8
Primary Four 7–8 or 8–9
Primary Five 8–9 or 9–10
Primary Six 9–10 or 10–11
Primary Seven 10–11 or 11–12
First year (or S1) 11–12 or 12–13 Secondary
Second Year (or S2) 12–13 or 13–14
Third Year (or S3) 13–14 or 14–15
Fourth Year (or S4) 14–15 or 15–16
Fifth Year (or S5) 15–16 or 16–17
Sixth Year (or S6) 16–17 or 17–18

United StatesEdit

In the United States (U.S.), the grades traditionally begin at 1 and run to 12; they are referred to by ordinal number (e.g. first grade, or 3rd grade to 12th grade). An additional preceding level called kindergarten ("K") is now standard in most areas, and a further preceding level called preschool education or nursery school is not uncommon. In some parts of the state of Wisconsin, kindergarten is split further into junior and senior kindergarten.

Before the term "middle school" became much more commonly applied, grades 7–8 were placed in "junior high school" (with grade 6 in some schools).

At the secondary school level ("high school"), grades 9–12 are also known as freshman (or "first-year"), sophomore, junior, and senior. At the post-secondary level (college or university), these terms are used almost exclusively to refer to what would otherwise be grades 13–16, ending denoted as "college senior". Then come post-graduate levels.

Table US: Ages in grades
Ages Year
Elementary school
5–6 Kindergarten
6–7 First grade
7–8 Second grade
8–9 Third grade
9–10 Fourth grade
10–11 Fifth grade
Middle school
11–12 Sixth grade[10][11]
12–13 Seventh grade
13–14 Eighth grade
High school
14–15 Ninth grade (freshman)
15–16 Tenth grade (sophomore)
16–17 Eleventh grade (junior)
17–18 Twelfth grade (senior)

The Table US (at left) outlines the ages, in years, of each grade level in the US. However, students are sometimes older because of grade retention or younger because of grade skipping.

In some classes, students from various grades might attend together as a multi-grade class, to offer more variety in course subjects, rather than have only a single grade attend those classes.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ Greenberg, Michael (2007). "A Sudbury Valley Education: The View from Inside". Sudbury Valley School. Framingham, MA, USA. Retrieved 2015-07-25. How do you get access to a computer at school? There are a whole lot of kids that want to use it. What you instantly find is a culture of rules. You have to be certified to use a computer, which means someone who knows has to tell you how you turn it on, how you turn it off, all the things you have to do to not damage the machine, and you have to show them that you know how to do that before you can use the computer on your own.
  3. ^ "Республиканский Институт Контроля Знаний". Retrieved 2016-08-25.
  4. ^ "Schools in Manitoba". Manitoba Education. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  5. ^ "Education Facts: Schools and School Boards". Ontario Ministry of Education. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  6. ^ "Secretaría de Educación Pública | Gobierno |". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  7. ^ Pública, Secretaría de Educación. "Oferta Educativa para Educación Básica". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  8. ^ Pública, Secretaría de Educación. "Oferta Educativa Educación Media Superior". (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  9. ^ "Starting school for the first time". Parentzone. Archived from the original on 2008-06-12.
  10. ^ Wraga, William G.; Hlebowitsh, Peter S.; Tanner, Founding Editor; Tanner, Daniel (6 August 2012). Research Review for School Leaders. Routledge. ISBN 9781135660956 – via Google Books.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Gao, Zan; Zhang, Peng; Podlog, Leslie William (1 January 2014). "Examining elementary school children's level of enjoyment of traditional tag games vs. interactive dance games". Psychol Health Med. 19 (5): 605–613. doi:10.1080/13548506.2013.845304. PMID 24111947.

Further readingEdit