List of Indian independence activists

  (Redirected from Freedom fighters of India)

This is a list of individuals who notably campaigned against or are considered to have campaigned against colonial rule on the Indian sub-continent.

The Indian independence movement consisted of efforts by individuals and organizations from a wide spectrum of society to obtain political independence from the British, French and Portuguese rule through the use of a many of methods.

Post-independence, the term "freedom fighter" was officially recognized by the Indian government for those who took part in the movement; people in this category (which can also include dependent family members)[1] receive pensions and other benefits such as special railway counters.[2]

List of Indian freedom fightersEdit

Name Activity
Accamma Cherian An activist, she was named acting president of the Travancore State Congress while the leadership were jailed.
Adoor R. Parameswaran Pillai An activist, he led the Kadakkal Revolt in Kerala. He was declared as the first democratic minister ("Janakiya Manthri") of Kerala during this revolt was arrested and kept in jail for 141 days before presenting to the court.[3]
Ahmadullah Shah He led in various battles including the Battle of Chinhat, the Siege of Lucknow, the Capture of Lucknow, and the Chapati Movement.
Alekh Patra A nationalist, he was jailed for burning a police station.
Alluri Sitarama Raju He led the Rampa Rebellion of 1922
Ambika Chakrabarty A revolutionary, he took part in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Amarendranath Chatterjee A revolutionary, he raised funds and took part in the Indo-German Conspiracy.
Anant Laxman Kanhere A revolutionary assassin, he was executed for the murder of oppressive British officer A. M. T. Jackson.
Ananta Singh A revolutionary, he participated in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Annie Mascarene An activist and politician, she was arrested several times while campaigning for independence.
Aruna Asaf Ali An educator and activist who is widely remembered for hoisting the INC flag during the Quit India Movement, 1942.
Asaf Ali A nationalist, he campaigned for independence.
Ashfaqulla Khan A founding member of the HRA, he was executed for taking part in the Kakori conspiracy.
Atulkrishna Ghosh A revolutionary, he took part in the Indo-German Conspiracy.
B. R. Ambedkar Politician who campaigned and negotiated for independence, and was pivotal in formation of the Indian Constitution.
Badal Gupta A revolutionary, he died in an attack on police at Writers' Building.
Bagha Jatin A founding member of Anushilan Samiti, convicted in the Howrah-Sibpur conspiracy case and a participant in the Indo-German Conspiracy.
Baikuntha Shukla A revolutionary, he was executed for murdering a government witness.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak [The Father of Indian Unrest] A staunch nationalist, he campaigned for complete Swaraj (self-rule).
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee A nationalist, he wrote Vande Mataram which inspired many activists and became the national song of India.
Barindra Kumar Ghosh A revolutionary organizer, he was convicted in the Alipore bomb case.
Basawon Singh An activist, he was convicted in the Lahore Conspiracy Case trial.
Batukeshwar Dutt A revolutionary fighting against the inhumane and tyrannic British rule, he threw a bomb in the Central Assembly in 1929.
Benoy Basu A revolutionary, he died following an attack on police at Writers' Building.
Bhagat Singh A socialist revolutionary who worked with several revolutionary organisations and became prominent in the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA).
Bhagwati Charan Vohra A revolutionary ideologue and bomb-maker, he wrote the article "The Philosophy of Bomb".
Bhavabhushan Mitra Ghadar Mutiny[citation needed]
Bhikaiji Cama Bhikaiji Cama was born in Bombay (now Mumbai) in a large, affluent Parsi Zoroastrian family.[4] While in London recovering from the plague, she met Dadabhai Naoroji, then president of the British Committee of the Indian National Congress, and for whom she came to work as private secretary. Together with Naoroji and Singh Rewabhai Rana, Cama supported the founding of Varma's Indian Home Rule Society in February 1905. She was denied re-entry to India after refusing to sign a statement pledging she would not participate in nationalist activities and, while in exile, Cama wrote, published (in the Netherlands and Switzerland) and distributed revolutionary literature for the movement, including Bande Mataram (founded in response to the Crown ban on the poem Vande Mataram) and later Madan's Talwar (in response to the execution of Madan Lal Dhingra).[5] These weeklies were smuggled into India through the French colony of Pondichéry.[citation needed] On 22 August 1907, Cama attended the second Socialist Congress at Stuttgart, Germany, where she described the devastating effects of a famine that had struck the Indian subcontinent. In her appeal for human rights, equality and for autonomy from Great Britain, she unfurled what she called the "Flag of Indian Independence".[n 1]
Bhupendranath Datta A revolutionary, he was editor of newspaper Jugantar Patrika.
Bhupendra Kumar Datta A revolutionary, editor of the publications of Anushilan Samiti.
Bina Das A revolutionary, she attempted to assassinate Bengal Governor Stanley Jackson.
Binod Bihari Chowdhury A revolutionary, he took part in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Bipin Chandra Pal A staunch nationalist, he was a founding member of the swadeshi movement and campaigned for complete Swaraj Swadeshi movement.
Chandra Shekhar Azad When the HRA leadership were arrested following the Kakori train robbery, he reorganized the group and operated it until his death.
Chittaranjan Das He founded the Swaraj Party and became the leader of the Non-cooperation Movement in Bengal.
Chowdary Satyanarayana He was an Indian freedom fighter, anti-colonial nationalist, politician, legislature in Andhra Pradesh Assembly (1955–62, 1967–72) and a human rights activist.
Dadabhai Naoroji Known as the Grand Old Man of India, Dadabhai Naoroji was born in Navsari, Gujarat within a Parsi Zoroastrian family. He was an Indian political leader, merchant, scholar and writer who was a Liberal Party Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895 and the first Asian to be a British MP, other than the Anglo-Indian MP David Ochterlony Dyce Sombre, who was disenfranchised for corruption after nine months in office. Naoroji is renowned for his work in the Indian National Congress, of which he was one of the founding members and thrice — in 1886, 1893, and 1906 — elected president. Dadabhai Naoroji is regarded as one of the most important Indians during the birth of the nascent independence movement. In his writings, he came to the conclusion that the exertion of foreign rule over India was not favourable for the nation, and that independence (or at the very least, responsible government) would be the better path for India.
Dhan Singh Gurjar He was the police chief of Meerut, who participated in the 1857 rebellion and led initial actions against the British East India Company in Meerut.
Dheeran Chinnamalai An indigenous governor, he took part in guerrilla warfare against the British East India Company.
Dinesh Gupta A revolutionary, he was executed following an attack on police at Writers' Building.
Durgawati Devi A revolutionary, she helped operate a bomb factory.
Feroze Gandhi Born Feroze Jehangir Gandhi within the Parsi Zoroastrian community, Feroze was an Indian freedom fighter, politician and journalist. He published the newspapers The National Herald and The Navjivan. Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, Feroz changed the spelling of his surname from "Ghandy" to "Gandhi" after joining the Indian Independence movement. He was imprisoned in 1930, along with Lal Bahadur Shastri (the 2nd Prime Minister of India), head of Allahabad District Congress Committee, and lodged in Faizabad Jail for nineteen months. Soon after his release, he was involved with the agrarian no-rent campaign in the United Province (now Uttar Pradesh) and was imprisoned twice, in 1932 and 1933, while working closely with Nehru. Feroze served as a member of the provincial parliament between 1950 and 1952, and later a member of the Lok Sabha, the Lower House of India's parliament. His wife, Indira Gandhi (daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru), and their elder son Rajiv were both Prime Ministers of India.
Ganesh Damodar Savarkar Founder of the Abhinav Bharat Society. He led an armed movement against the British colonial government in India, he was sentenced to transportation for life as a result. Was the brother of Veer Savarkar.
Ganesh Ghosh A revolutionary, he participated in the Chittagong armoury raid.
George Joseph (Kerala) An activist, he led the non-cooperation movement in Madurai.
Seth Harchandrai Vishandas A Sindhi politician and influential mayor of Karachi, he fought for Muslim-Hindu unity and the independence movement, particularly in opposing the Simon Commission of 1912. He died while travelling (against doctor's advice) to vote for its boycott.
Hemchandra Kanungo A nationalist, convicted in the Alipore bomb case.
Hemu Kalani A student revolutionary who was executed for attempted rail sabotage.
Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi He founded the Khaksar Movement in British India.
Jatindra Nath Das An activist and revolutionary, he died during a hunger strike while awaiting trial for the Lahore conspiracy case.
Jawahar Lal Nehru An activist, he campaigned for independence and became India's first prime minister.
Jayi Rajaguru A prominent figure of the Indian independence movement in the state of Odisha.
Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee A revolutionary, he was imprisoned for the Kakori conspiracy.
Kali Charan Banerjee A Bengali Christian politician, he regularly addressed the Indian National Congress annual sessions in moulding the policy of national movement.[relevant?]
Kalpana Datta Involved in the Indian Independence Movement; also part of the Chittagong armoury raid planning.
Kamarajar He was a freedom fighter and after independence he became as chief minister of Tamil Nadu and his rule for 9 years was the golden rule of Tamil Nadu.
Kartar Singh Sarabha A revolutionary, he helped with the Ghadar Party paper and the attempted Ghadar Mutiny.
Kazi Nazrul Islam A nationalist, he called for revolution in his poetic works and publications.
Khudiram Bose One of the youngest revolutionary martyrs, he was executed following an attempted assassination bombing which accidentally killed two innocents instead of the then oppressive Viceroy of Bengal .
Kittur Chennamma An Indian freedom fighter and rani of the Kittur, a former princely state in Karnataka. She led an armed force against the British East India Company in 1824 in defiance of the doctrine of lapse in an attempt to maintain Indian control over the region, but was defeated in the third war and died in prison.
Komaram Bheem A tribal leader, he fought for the liberation of Hyderabad.
Krishnaji Gopal Karve A revolutionary, he was executed as an accomplice to the murder of A. M. T. Jackson.
Babu Kunwar Singh A Rajput military commander in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Kushal Konwar An organizer of the Quit India movement, he was judged the mastermind of a troop train derailment and hanged.
Lala Lajpat Rai A staunch nationalist, he was a founding member of the swadeshi movement and campaigned for complete Swaraj Swadeshi movement.
Maulvi Liaquat Ali A leader of the Sepoy Mutiny, he captured Khusro Bagh in Allahabad and declared the independence of India.
Lokenath Bal A revolutionary, he participated in the Chittagong armoury raid.
Madan Lal Dhingra An activist and revolutionary fighting against the inhumane and tyrannic British rule, he assassinated British official Curzon Wyllie.
Madhusudan Das A leader from the Christian community in Odisha, popularly known as "Utkal Gourab". He was the first graduate and advocate of Odisha.[relevant?]
Mahmud Hasan Deobandi He and his students launched the Silk Letter Movement and laid the foundation of Jamia Millia Islamia on 29 October 1920.[6]
Mangal Pandey He rebelled against his British Indian army commanders and was executed.
Manmath Nath Gupta A member of the HRA, he took part in the Kakori conspiracy.
Maruthu Pandiyar The brothers Periya and Chinna Marudhu were Tamil Nadu chieftains said to have invented the valari.[7] They were the first to issue a proclamation against the British.[8][unreliable source?][dubious ]
Matangini Hazra An activist with the Quit India Movement, she was fatally shot by British Indian police.
Maveeran Alagumuthu Kone He is the First Freedom Fighter from Kattalankulam in Thoothukudi District, was an early Chieftain and freedom fighter against the British presence in Tamil Nadu. Born into a yadav community family, he became a military leader in the town of Ettayapuram, and was defeated in battle there against the British and Maruthanayagam's forces. He was executed in 1759

In his memory, the government of Tamil Nadu conducts a Pooja ceremony every year on 11 July. A documentary film based on his life was released in 2012.

Mazhar Nanautawi He was among the founding figures of Mazahir Uloom. He participated in the Battle of Shamli.[9]
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Father of the Nation, he was the preeminent leader of nonviolent civil disobedience and led the final struggle of India to independence.
Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi The founder of Darul Uloom Deoband, he participated in the Battle of Shamli.[9]
Mithuben Petit Hailing from the Parsi Zoroastrian community, Mithuben Petit was a female activist in the Indian independence movement,[10][11] who famously participated in Mahatma Gandhi's Dandi March.[12][13] Petit along with Mahatma Gandhi's wife, Kasturba Gandhi, and Sarojini Naidu played a major part in the Salt March,[14] with Kasturba Gandhi beginning the march at Sabarmati, Sarojini Naidu lifting the salt for the first time at Dandi on 6 April 1930 and Petit standing behind Mahatma Gandhi when he repeated the violation at Bhimrad on 9 April 1930. The march was one of the most important event in the Indian independence movement.[10] In a time when women were required to take a back seat (due to the patriarchal culture at that time in India), Petit was one of the three women who played a pivotal role in the march and the civil disobedience against tax on salt.[14] Petit participated in the Bardoli Satyagraha of 1928 which was a no-tax campaign against the British Raj where she worked under the guidance of Sardar Patel.[15]
Mufti Abdul Razzaq He participated in the freedom struggle taking part in a fight against Britsh colonialists near Bhopal's Qazi camp.[16]
Pazhassi Raja He used guerrilla warfare to fight the British in the Cotiote War (Kottayathu war, 1793–1805) to preserve the independence of his kingdom. He was killed at Mavila Thodu at the present Kerala-Karnataka border.[17]
Prabhavati Devi A Gandhian leader, she was the wife of activist Jayaprakash Narayan.
Prafulla Chaki A revolutionary, he killed two innocents in a mistargetted assassination bombing.
Pritilata Waddedar A Bengali revolutionary, she led the attack on the European Club in Pahartali and committed suicide to avoid capture.
Raja Nahar Singh A Great Jat Ruler of the princely state of Ballabhgarh, he had secured the road from Delhi Gate (Delhi) to Bhadrapur (Bharatpur), as well as drove the British away from the parganas of Pali (Rajasthan), Palwal and Fatehpur.[18][circular reference]
Rajendra Lahiri A revolutionary, he participated in the Kakori conspiracy.
Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav A veteran freedom fighter, Shri Yadav participated in India's freedom struggle.[19]
Ram Prasad Bismil The founder of the HRA, he led the Kakori conspiracy in an attempt to raise funds for revolutionary operations.
Ramesh Chandra Jha An activist, he was a member of the Quit India movement.
Rani of Jhansi One of the Pivotal Leaders of the First war of Independence of 1857.
Rash Behari Bose A revolutionary, he helped form the Indian National Army in Imperial Japan.
Rosamma Punnoose An activist, she campaigned for independence.
Roshan Singh A revolutionary who was among those executed for the Kakori conspiracy, though he had not taken part in it.
S. Satyamurti A politician, he campaigned for independence.[20]
Sachindra Bakshi A member of the HRA, he took part in the Kakori conspiracy.
Sangolli Rayanna The army chief of Kittur, who fought the British East India Company until his death.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel The Iron man of India, he fought for independence and Unified India into one sovereign Nation .
Sarojini Naidu An activist, she called for independence in her writing and was a major figure of the civil disobedience movement.
Sah Mal A Rebel of Baraut, led 3500 local Jat peasants who fought against British soldiers of the East India Company.
Shambhu Dutt Sharma A former British Indian Army officer, he joined the Quit India Movement in 1942.
Shaukat Ali An activist and revolutionary, he campaigned for independence and supplied weapons to revolutionaries.[21]
Shivaram Rajguru A revolutionary, he was an HSRA member and assassinated a tyrannic British police officer.
Shyamji Krishna Varma A nationalist, he founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London.
Subhas Chandra Bose A nationalist, he founded the Indian Legion in Nazi Germany and revamped the Indian National Army in Imperial Japan.
Sri Aurobindo A nationalist, he was arrested for leading the Alipore bomb conspiracy.
Subodh Roy A revolutionary, he took part in the Chittagong armoury raid and later the Tebhaga movement.
Subramania Bharati A writer and activist who created many patriotic and nationalistic songs during the independence movement.
Sukhdev Thapar A revolutionary, he was a senior member of HSRA and participated in several actions before his execution.
Surendranath Tagore A nationalist, he served as treasurer of the Anushilan Samiti.
Surya Sen President of INC Chittagong Branch, he led the Chittagong armoury raid.
Sushila Chain Trehan An activist, she was a leading member of Arya Samaj and also fought for women's rights.
Swami Shraddhanand An activist, he started a protest in front of a posse of Gurkha soldiers at the Clock Tower in Chandni Chowk.[22]
Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu An Indian politician, he became known as "Andhra Kesari" (lion of Andhra) for leading protests against the Simon Commission in Madras.
Tara Rani Srivastava An activist, she was part of the Quit India movement.
Titumir A freedom fighter who led a campaign against British rule during the 19th century, he eventually built a bamboo fort in Narikelberia village which became the subject of Bengali folk legend. Titumir died of wounds following the storming of the fort by British soldiers.
Titusji An activist, he was among the 78 marchers selected by Mahatma Gandhi to take part in the 1930 Salt March.
T. V. Thomas One of the first generation trade union leaders in Kerala and was actively involved in the Indian independence movement.[relevant?]
Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar A leader of the socialist All India Forward Bloc, he was arrested and jailed by the British.
Ubaidullah Sindhi An activist, he sought independence through foreign alliance in the Silk Letter Movement.
Udham Singh A revolutionary assassin, he was executed for the Caxton Hall shooting.
Ullaskar Dutta A revolutionary bomb-maker, he was convicted in the Alipore bomb case.
Umaji Naik Khomane First Ramoshi Freedom Fighter who fought against British Council Umaji Naik also known as honorofically vishwa krantiveer narveer Raje Umaji Naik (7 September 1791 – 3 February 1832) was an Indian revolutionary who challenged the British rule in India around 1826 to 1832.He was one of the earliest freedom fighter of India.He fought against East India company and company rule
Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy He led an uprising in Andhra Pradesh in 1846 and was executed by the British.[23]
Uzair Gul Peshawari An activist, he was imprisoned for the Silk Letter Movement.[24]
V. O. Chidambaram Pillai A hardline politician of the Indian National Congress (INC), he launched the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in defiance of the British trade monopoly.[25]
Vanchinathan A revolutionary assassin, he committed suicide after killing an oppressive and tyrannical tax collector Robert Ashe.
Vasudev Balwant Phadke A Ramoshi revolutionary, he organized an insurgent group against British rule
Veerapandiya Kattabomman He refused to accept the sovereignty of the British East India Company and waged a war against the British.[7]
Veer Savarkar He was an Independence activist, politician and a Hindu Nationalist. He published books advocating complete Indian independence by revolutionary means. One of the books he published called The Indian War of Independence about the Indian rebellion of 1857. In 1910, Savarkar was arrested and ordered to be extradited to India for his connections with the revolutionary freedom group India House. He was later sentenced to a total 50 years imprisonment at the Cellular Jail

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "This flag is of India's independence. Behold, it is born. It is already sanctified by the blood of martyred Indian youth. I call upon you, gentlemen, to rise and salute the flag of Indian independence. In the name of this flag, I appeal to lovers of freedom all over the world to cooperate with this flag in freeing one-fifth of the human race."

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ PTI (18 August 2016). "Pension of freedom fighters hiked by Rs 5,000". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  2. ^ Mitchell, Lisa (2009). Language, Emotion, and Politics in South India: The Making of a Mother Tongue. Indiana University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-253-35301-6.
  3. ^ https://www.mathrubhumi.com/pathanamthitta/news/kadakkal-freedom-fighter-adoor-parameswaran-pillai-wife-passed-away-1.3517460
  4. ^ Yājñika, Acyuta; Sheth, Suchitra (2005). The Shaping of Modern Gujarat: Plurality, Hindutva, and Beyond. Penguin Books India. pp. 152–. ISBN 978-0-14-400038-8.
  5. ^ Gupta, K.; Gupta, Amita, eds. (2006), Concise Encyclopaedia of India, 3, New Delhi: Atlantic, p. 1015, ISBN 81-269-0639-1.
  6. ^ Adrawi, Asir. Hazrat Shaykh al-Hind: Hayat awr Karname [Shaykh al-Hind: Life and works] (in Urdu) (April 2012 ed.). Deoband: Shaykh al-Hind Academy, Darul Uloom Deoband.
  7. ^ a b Kumar, Madhan (2017). Thamizh Is Not Just A Language: The Valour. Educreation Publishing.
  8. ^ "The Story of Maruthu Brothers! The Leaders Of South Indian Rebellion Against The British East India Company Who Were The First To Issue Declaration Of Independence!". Post Card News: Breaking News, Exclusive Stories, History, Spirituality, Political Analysis, Economics, Nationalism, Culture, Opinion, India and World News, Indian Armed Force. 16 December 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  9. ^ a b Najmul Hasan Thanwi. Maidan-e-Shamli-o-Thana Bhawan awr Sarfaroshan-e-Islam (in Urdu). Thana Bhawan: Idara Talifat-e-Ashrafia. p. 16,17.
  10. ^ a b Mody, Nawaz B. (2000). Women in India's freedom struggle. Allied Publishers. ISBN 9788177640700.
  11. ^ Mankekar, Kamla (2002). Women pioneers in India's renaissance, as I remember her: contributions from eminent women of present-day India. National Book Trust, India. ISBN 978-81-237-3766-9.
  12. ^ "Mahatma Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu and Mithuben Petit". gandhiheritageportal.org. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  13. ^ Jain, Simmi (2003). women pioneers in India's resistance. Kalpaz Publications. ISBN 9788178351742.
  14. ^ a b "The Great Dandi March – eighty years after". thehindu.com. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  15. ^ Jain, Simmi (2003). Encyclopaedia of Indian Women Through the Ages: Period of freedom struggle. ISBN 9788178351742.[full citation needed]
  16. ^ Abdul Mabood Qasmi. Mufti Abdur Razzāq Khān, Halāt-o-Khidmāt m'a Tārīkh Tarjuma wāli Masjid [Mufti Abdur Razzāq Khān, Life and services; and the history of Tarjuma wāli Masjid] (in Urdu) (June 2010 ed.). Bhopal: Jamia Islamia Arabia. pp. 241–242.
  17. ^ S, Nileena M. (24 October 2011). "Remembering a warrior regent". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  18. ^ Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  19. ^ "Regarding Passing Away Of Shri Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav, Member 10 Th Lok ... on 2 March, 2006".
  20. ^ "S, SATYAMURTI; Indian Political Leader, 56, Long Active in Civil Disobedience". The New York Times. 28 March 1943. (subscription required)
  21. ^ Brief History of Shaukat Ali,[1], [2]
  22. ^ G.S.Chhabra (2005). Advance Study in the History of Modern India (Volume-3: 1920-1947). Lotus Press. ISBN 978-81-89093-08-2.
  23. ^ Ramachandran, D. P. (2008). Empire's First Soldiers. Lancer Publishers. p. 121. ISBN 9780979617478.
  24. ^ Muhammad Miyan Deobandi. "Mawlana Uzair Gul". Asiran-e-Malta [Prisoners of Malta] (in Urdu) (January 2002 ed.). Deoband: Naimia Book Depot. pp. 367–376.
  25. ^ Duraichi, Paul (5 September 2019). "Parturition of V.O.Chidambaram Pillai Steam Navigation Company in Indian Freedom Struggle Movement". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)