Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari

Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari (25 December 1880 – 10 May 1936) was an Indian nationalist and political leader, and former president of the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League during the Indian Independence Movement. One of the founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia University he remained its chancellor 1928 to 1936.[2][3][4]

Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari
Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari 1980 stamp of India.jpg
President of the Indian National Congress
In office
Preceded byS. Srinivasa Iyengar
Succeeded byMotilal Nehru
Chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia
In office
Preceded byHakim Ajmal Khan
Succeeded byAbdul Majeed Khwaja
President of the All-India Muslim League
In office
Preceded byHakim Ajmal Khan
Succeeded byMaulana Hasrat Mohani
Personal details
Born(1880-12-25)25 December 1880[2]
Mohammadabad, North-Western Provinces, British India
Died10 May 1936 (aged 55)
Delhi, British India
Cause of deathHeart attack
Resting placeJamia Millia Islamia
Political partyIndian National Congress
Alma materMadras Medical College (M.D, M.S)
University of Edinburgh (ChM)
OccupationPhysician, politician, activist
Known forFounder of Jamia Millia Islamia, Indian independence movement, President of the Indian National Congress, President of the All-India Muslim League

Early life and medical careerEdit

Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was born on 25 December 1880 in Yusufpur-Mohammadabad town in eastern Uttar Pradesh).[4]

Educated at the Victoria School, Ansari and his family moved to Hyderabad. Ansari obtained a medical degree from the Madras Medical College and went to England on scholarship studies.[4] He achieved the M.D. and M.S. degrees in 1905.[4] In 1910 Ansari earned a Master of Surgery (ChM) from the University of Edinburgh for his thesis Treatment of syphilis by arylarsonates with special reference to recent research.[5] He was a top-class student and worked at the London Lock Hospital and the Charing Cross Hospital in London. He was an Indian pioneer in surgery, and today there is an Ansari Ward in the Charing Cross Hospital, London,[6] in honour of his work.

From 1921 to 1935, Ansari visited Vienna, Paris, Lucerne and London to meet with famed urologists, including Robert Lichtenstern, Eugen Steinach and Serge Voronoff, some of the pioneers of grafting animal testicles onto humans. In the last decade of his life, Ansari performed over 700 such grafting operations, meticulously recording 440 of them. From these experiments he published his book Regeneration of Man, which he shared with his close friend Mahatma Gandhi.[7]

Nationalist activitiesEdit

In 1898, while a student in Madras, Ansari attended his first All India Congress Sessions, which was presided over by AnandaMohan Bose. In 1927, when the Sessions were held again in Madras, Ansari presided over the session [6]

Dr. Ansari became involved in the Indian Independence Movement during his stay in England. He moved back to Delhi and joined both the Indian Congress and the Muslim League. He played an important role in the negotiation of the 1916 Lucknow Pact and served as the Muslim League's president in 1918 and 1920.[8] He was an outspoken supporter of the Khilafat movement,[6] and led the Indian medical mission to treat the wounded Turkish soldiers during the Balkan Wars. (Syed Tanvir Wasti, The Indian Red Crescent Mission to the Balkan Wars, Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 45, No. 3, 393–406, May 2009)

Ansari served several terms as the AICC General Secretary, as well as the President of the Indian National Congress during its 1927 session.[8] As a result of in-fighting and political divisions within the League in the 1920s, and later the rise of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Muslim separatism, Ansari drew closer to Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Party. When he became the President of the Indian National Congress in 1927 on the invitation of Mahatma Gandhi, he spent all of his wealth for the Indian National Congress activities, which left him almost bankrupt. He spent his later life in writing and developing the Jamia Milia Islamia.[9]

Ansari was one of the Foundation Committee of Jamia Millia Islamia and also served as the chancellor of the Jamia Millia Islamia university in Delhi soon after the death of its primary founder, Hakim Ajmal Khan in 1927.[3]

Personal lifeEdit

Ansari lived in a palatial house, called the Darus Salaam or Abode of peace. Mahatma Gandhi was a frequent guest when he visited Delhi, and the house was a regular base for Congress political activities.

Ansari died in 1936 en route from Mussoorie to Delhi on a train due to a heart attack. He is buried within the premises of Jamia Millia Islamia, a university in Delhi.


Many members of Ansari's family remained in India after partition in 1947 and became politicians in free India. His immediate progeny and family members include:

  • Mukhtar Ansari. Named in honour of his grandfather, Mukhtar Jr. is the member of the Uttar Pradesh state legislature from the Mau constituency. He won the election in 2017 on a BSP ticket. He was the prime accused in the Krishnanand Rai murder case among other crimes, and spent 13 years in jail. He was released on 3 July 2019, after witnesses against him turned hostile.[10][11], Currently, in Banda, UP jail for other murders, extortion, racketeering and organized crime (mafia) activities
  • Sibakatullah Ansari
  • Afzal Ansari
  • Mohammad Hamid Ansari, former Vice President of India, is Ansari's grand-nephew.[6]


Ansari Road in Daryaganj, old Delhi is named after him.[6] Ansari Nagar near AIIMS, New Delhi has also been named after him.


  1. ^ "Past Chancellors' Profile". Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b Profile of Ahmed Ansari. Encyclopaedia Britannica
  3. ^ a b History and profile of Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi (vice-chancellor Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari in 1927), Retrieved 24 August 2017
  4. ^ a b c d "Dr M A Ansari (1880–1936) president, Madras, 1927". Congress Sandesh, Indian National Congress publication. Archived from the original on 7 March 2002. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
  5. ^ Ansari, M.A. (1910). Treatment of syphilis by arylarsonates with special reference to recent research. PhD thesis, Edinburgh Medical School. hdl:1842/19716.
  6. ^ a b c d e The Ansari connection. The Hindu. Updated 10 October 2016
  7. ^ Dr Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari was a freedom fighter who also grafted animal testicles onto humans. (10 May 2017). Retrieved on 12 December 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari | Indian physician and nationalist".
  9. ^ Ahamed, Syed Naseer (3 December 2017). "Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari : Great Freedom Fighter of India & "Symbol of Hindu-Muslim Unity"". Heritage Times. Retrieved 19 February 2022.