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Sabarmati River

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The Sabarmati river is one of the major west-flowing rivers in India.[3] It originates in the Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan and meets the Gulf of Khambhat of Arabian Sea after travelling 371 km (231 mi) in a south-westerly direction across Rajasthan and Gujarat.[3] 48 km (30 mi) of the river length is in Rajasthan, while 323 km (201 mi) is in Gujarat.[3]

Sabarmati River
River-Sabarmati-2.jpg
Sabarmati River near Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Sabarmati River Basin.jpg
Map of the Sabarmati River watershed
Location
CountryIndia
StateGujarat, Rajasthan
CitiesAhmedabad, Gandhinagar
Physical characteristics
Source 
 ⁃ locationAravalli Range, Udaipur District, Rajasthan, India
 ⁃ elevation782 m (2,566 ft)
Mouth 
 ⁃ location
Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India
Length371 km (231 mi)[1]
Basin size30,680 km2 (11,850 sq mi)[1]
Discharge 
 ⁃ average120 m3/s (4,200 cu ft/s)
Discharge 
 ⁃ locationAhmedabad[2]
 ⁃ average33 m3/s (1,200 cu ft/s)
 ⁃ minimum0 m3/s (0 cu ft/s)
 ⁃ maximum484 m3/s (17,100 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 ⁃ leftWakal River, Harnav River, Hathmati River, Watrak River[1]
 ⁃ rightSei River[1]
Lithograph by Dutchman Philip Baldeus depicting Ahmedabad and Sabarmati river circa 1752
Sabarmati river in 1890
Watercarts in Sabarmati near Ahmedabad in 1890s
View of the Harnav, a tributary of the Sabarmati

BasinEdit

The catchment area of the Sabarmati basin is 21,674 km2 (8,368 sq mi) out of which 4,124 km2 (1,592 sq mi) lies in Rajasthan State and the remaining 18,550 km2 (7,160 sq mi) in Gujarat.[4] The basin is located in a semi-arid zone with rainfall ranging from 450 to 800 mm (18 to 31 in) in different parts of the basin.[5] The river traverses three geomorphic zones: rocky uplands, middle alluvial plains, and lower estuarine zone.[6]

The major tributaries are the Watrak, Wakal, Hathmati, Harnav, and Sei rivers.[3][4][7] Average annual water availability in the Sabarmati basin is 308 m3 (10,900 cu ft) per capita, which is significantly lower than the national average of 1,545 m3 (54,600 cu ft) per capita.[8]

The Sabarmati is a seasonal river whose flows are dominated by the monsoon, with little or no flows post-monsoon.[5] An average flow of 33 m3 (1,200 cu ft) per second was measured at Ahmedabad during the period 1968-1979.[9] Over the past century, the flood of August 1973 is considered to be the largest flood,[5] when a flow of 14,150 m3 (500,000 cu ft) per second was measured at Dharoi.[10]

HistoryEdit

One of the myths surrounding the origin of the river is that Shiva brought the goddess Ganga to Gujarat and that caused the Sabarmati to come into being.[11]

During India's independence struggle, Mahatma Gandhi established Sabarmati Ashram as his home on the banks of this river.[12]

The National Water Quality Programme led by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) positions[when?] Sabarmati River as one of the most polluted rivers in India.[13]

DamsEdit

There are several reservoirs on Sabarmati and its tributaries. The Dharoi dam is located on the main river. Hathmati dam, Harnav dam and Guhai dam are located on the tributaries meeting the main river upstream of Ahmedabad while Meshvo reservoir, Meshvo pick-up weir, Mazam dam and Watrak dam are located on tributaries meeting downstream. The Kalpasar is planned project in the Gulf of Khambhat.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Sabarmati Basin. Government of India Ministry of Water Resources. 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Sabarmati Basin Station: Ahmedabad". UNH/GRDC. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Water Year Book 2011-12: Mahi, Sabarmati & Other West Flowing Rivers (PDF). Gandhinagar: Central Water Commission. 2012. p. 14.
  4. ^ a b "Sabarmati River, India". National River Conservation Directorate.
  5. ^ a b c Sridhar, Alpa; Chamyal, L.S.; Patel, Mansi (25 August 2014). "Palaeoflood record of high-magnitude events during historical time in the Sabarmati River, Gujarat" (PDF). Current Science. 107 (4): 675–679. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  6. ^ Thokchom, Sarda; Bhattacharya, Falguni; Prasad, A. Durga; Dogra, N.N.; Rastogi, B.K. (2017). "Paleoenvironmental implications and drainage adjustment in the middle reaches of the Sabarmati river, Gujarat: Implications towards hydrological variability" (PDF). Quaternary International: 1–14. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2017.07.026. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  7. ^ Water Resources Assessment of Sabarmati River Basin, India. International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage. 2005. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  8. ^ Integrated Hydrological Data Book (PDF). New Delhi: Central Water Commission. 2016. p. 1.
  9. ^ "Sabarmati Basin, Station: Ahmedabad". UNH/GRDC Composite Runoff Fields v 1.0. UNH/GRDC. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  10. ^ Rakhecha, P.R. (2002). "The Extremes of the Extreme: Extraordinary Floods (Proceedings of a symposium held at Reykjavik, Iceland, July 2000), IAHS Publ. No. 271, 2002.". Highest floods in India (PDF). IAHS. pp. 167–172. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  11. ^ "The sacrificial maiden river". The Times of India. 2 September 2002. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016.
  12. ^ "Sabarmati Ashram History".
  13. ^ River pollution plaguing Gujarat

External linksEdit