Open main menu

Wikipedia β

The Boeing 737 MAX is an American narrow-body aircraft series being developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes as the fourth generation of the Boeing 737, succeeding the Boeing 737 Next Generation. The program was launched on August 30, 2011.[8] The first flight was on January 29, 2016.[1] It gained FAA certification on March 9, 2017.[9] First delivery was a MAX 8 on May 16, 2017 to Malindo Air,[10] which debuted it on May 22, 2017.[2]

Boeing 737 MAX
Boeing 737-8 MAX N8704Q rotated.jpg
Boeing 737 MAX during a flight display
Role Narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner
National origin United States
Manufacturer Boeing Commercial Airplanes
First flight January 29, 2016[1]
Introduction May 22, 2017 with Malindo Air[2]
Status In service
Produced 2014–present[3]
Number built 4 MAX 8,[4] 1 MAX 9 prototypes[5]
Program cost airframe only: $1-1.8 billion, including engine development: $2-3bn[6]
Unit cost
737-7: US$90.2 million[7]
737-8: US$110.0 million[7]
737MAX-200: US$112.9 million[7]
737-9: US$116.6 million[7]
Developed from Boeing 737 Next Generation

The 737 MAX is based on earlier 737 designs but re-engined with more efficient CFM International LEAP-1B along with aerodynamic improvements, most notably split-tip winglets, and airframe modifications. It is offered in three lengths, the 737 MAX 7, MAX 8 and MAX 9 replacing the 737-700, -800 and -900, typically offering 138 to 220 seats and a 3,515 to 3,825 nmi (6,510 to 7,084 km) range. Through April 2017, it received 3,714 firm orders.[11]

Contents

DevelopmentEdit

BackgroundEdit

In 2006, Boeing started considering the replacement of the 737 with a "clean-sheet" design that could follow the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.[12] In June 2010, a decision on this replacement was postponed into 2011.[13]

On December 1, 2010, Boeing's competitor, Airbus, launched the Airbus A320neo family to improve fuel burn and operating efficiency with new engines : the CFM International LEAP and Pratt & Whitney PW1000G.[14] The A320neo gathered 667 commitments at the June 2011 Paris Air Show for a 1,029 units backlog since its launch, making it the best selling airliner of commercial aviation.[15]

On July 20, 2011, American Airlines announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets including 130 A320ceos and 130 A320neos, and intended to order 100 re-engined 737 with CFM LEAPs, pending Boeing confirmation.[16] The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into a re-engined 737.[17]

Program launchEdit

On August 30, 2011, Boeing's board of directors approved the launch of the re-engined 737, expecting a 16% lower fuel burn than the Airbus A320ceo and 4% lower than the A320neo.[8] Studies for additional drag reduction were being performed as of 2011, including revised tail cone, natural laminar flow nacelle, and hybrid laminar flow vertical stabilizer.[18] Boeing abandoned the development of a new design.[19] Boeing expects the 737 MAX to meet or exceed the range of the Airbus A320neo.[20] Firm configuration for the 737 MAX was scheduled for 2013.[21]

In March 2010, the estimated cost to re-engine the 737 by Mike Bair, Boeing Commercial Airplanes' vice president of business strategy & marketing, would be $2bn-$3bn including the CFM engine development and during Boeing Q2 2011 earnings call, former CFO James Bell said the development cost for the airframe only would be 10%-15% of the cost of a new program estimated at $10-$12 billion at the time [$1-1.8 billion] - while Bernstein Research on 23 January 2012 concluded this will be twice that of the Airbus A320neo.[6]

Fuel consumption is reduced by 14% from the 737NG.[22] In November 2014, Boeing Chief Executive Officer Jim McNerney said the 737 will be replaced by a new airplane by 2030, slightly bigger and with new engines but keeping its general configuration, probably a composite airplane.[23]

ProductionEdit

 
Boeing 737 MAX roll-out in December 2015, featuring the first 737 MAX 8

On August 13, 2015 the first 737 MAX fuselage completed assembly at Spirit Aerosystems in Wichita, Kansas, for a test aircraft and eventually be delivered to launch customer Southwest Airlines.[24] On December 8, 2015, the first 737 MAX, a -8 named "Spirit of Renton", was rolled out at the Boeing Renton Factory.[25][26] The first flight took place on January 29, 2016, nearly 49 years after the maiden flight of the 737 on April 9, 1967[1]

As GKN could not produce the titanium honeycomb inner walls for the thrust reversers fast enough, Boeing switched to a composite part produced by Spirit to deliver 47 MAXs per month in 2017. Spirit supplies 70% of the 737 airframe including the fuselage, thrust reverser, engine pylons, nacelle and wing leading edges.[27] A new spar assembly line with robotic drilling machines should increase throughput by 33%, following the Electroimpact automated panel assembly line which sped up the wing lower skin assembly by 35%.[28]

IntroductionEdit

The 737 MAX gained FAA certification on March 8, 2017.[9] It was approved by the EASA on March 27, 2017.[29]

Boeing plans to increase its 737 monthly production rate from 42 in 2017 to 57 by 2019.[30] Boeing aims to match the 99.7% dispatch reliability of the NG.[31]

After completing 2,000 test flight hours and 180-minute ETOPS testing requiring 3,000 simulated flight cycles in April 2017, CFM International notified Boeing of a possible manufacturing quality issue with low pressure turbine (LPT) discs in LEAP-1B engines.[32] Boeing suspended the 737 MAX flights on May 4[10] and resumed flights on May 12.[33]

The first delivered was a MAX 8 to Malindo Air on May 16, 2017, a subsidiary of Lion Air, which debuted it on May 22, 2017.[2] Boeing plans to deliver at least 50 to 75 aircraft in 2017, 10-15% of the more than 500 737s to be delivered in the year. Southwest Airlines, the launch customer, plans to take delivery of its first one in the fall.[10]

DesignEdit

EnginesEdit

 
LEAP mockup

The Leap-1B is 10-12% more efficient than the previous 156 cm (61 in) CFM56-7B of the 737NG.[34] The 18-blade, woven carbon-fiber fan enable a 9:1 bypass ratio from 5.1 with the previous 24-blade titanium fan for a 40% smaller noise footprint.[22] The two-shaft design have a low-pressure section comprising the fan and three booster driven by five axial turbine stages and a high-pressure section with a 10-stage axial compressor driven by a two-stage turbine.[22] The 41:1 overall pressure ratio from 28:1 and advanced hot-section materials enabling higher operating temperatures permit a 15% reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption along 20% lower carbon emissions, 50% lower nitrogen-oxide emissions, but each weighs 849 lb (385 kg) more at 6,129 lb (2,780 kg).[22]

In August 2011, Boeing had to choose between 66 in (168 cm) or 68 in (173 cm) fan diameters necessitating few landing gear changes to maintain a 17 in (43 cm) ground clearance beneath them and Boeing Commercial Airplanes chief executive officer Jim Albaugh stated "with a bigger fan you get more efficiency because of the bypass ratio [but also] more weight and more drag", with more airframe changes.[35] The smaller Leap-1B engine will weigh less and have a lower frontal area but a lower bypass ratio leading to a higher thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) than the 78 in (200 cm) Leap-1A of the A320neo.[citation needed]

In November 2011, Boeing selected the larger fan diameter, needing to lengthen the nose landing gear by 6–8 in (15–20 cm).[36][37] In May 2012, Boeing further enlarged the fan to 69.4 in (176 cm), paired with a smaller engine core within minor design changes before the mid-2013 final configuration.[38]

The nacelle will feature chevrons for noise reduction like the 787.[39] A new bleed air digital regulator will improve its reliability.[40] The larger engine is cantilevered ahead of and slightly above the wing, and the laminar flow engine nacelle lipskin is a GKN Aerospace one-piece, spun-formed aluminum sheet inspired by the 787.[28]

Aerodynamic improvementsEdit

 
Boeing's new "split tip" winglet on the 737 MAX

The split tip wingtip device is designed to maximize lift while staying in the same ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code letter C gates as current 737s : it traces its design to the McDonnell Douglas MD-12 1990s twin-deck concept, proposed for similar gate restrictions before the Boeing merger.[41] It should deliver at least 1.5% improvements in fuel economy or even more if the proposed laminar flow surface treatment meets expectations : a MAX 8 with 162 passengers on a 3,000 nmi (5,600 km) mission will have up to a 1.8% better fuel burn than a blended-winglet-equipped aircraft and even 1% over 500 nmi (930 km) at Mach 0.79.[41]

The new winglet is 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m) high.[28] Other improvements include a re-contoured tail cone, revised auxiliary power unit inlet and exhaust, aft-body vortex generators removal and other small aerodynamic improvements.[22] Aviation Partners offers a similar "Split-Tip Scimitar" winglet for previous 737NGs.[42] It resembles a three-way hybrid between a blended winglet, wingtip fence, and raked wingtip.

Structural changes and other improvementsEdit

The 8 in (20 cm) taller nose-gear strut keep the same 17 in (43 cm) ground clearance of the engine nacelles.[22] New struts and nacelles for the heavier engines add bulk, the main landing gear and supporting structure are beefier, and fuselage skins are thicker in some places for a 6,500 lb (2,900 kg) MAX 8 empty aircraft weight.[22] To preserve fuel and payload capacity, its maximum takeoff weight is 7,000 lb (3,200 kg) heavier.[22]

Rockwell Collins will supply four 15.1-inch (380 mm) landscape liquid crystal displays (LCD), as used on the 787 Dreamliner, to improve pilots' situational awareness and efficiency.[43] Boeing plans no major modifications for the 737 MAX flight deck, as it wants to maintain commonality with the 737 Next Generation family. Boeing Commercial Airplanes CEO Jim Albaugh said in 2011 that adding more fly-by-wire control systems would be "very minimal".[44] Most of the systems are carried from the 737NG for a short differences-training course to upgrade flight crews.[22]

The 737 MAX extended spoilers are fly-by-wire controlled.[28] As production standard, the 737 MAX will feature the Boeing Sky Interior with overhead bins and LED lighting based on the Boeing 787's interior.[45]

VariantsEdit

The -700, -800 and -900ER, the most widespread versions of the previous 737NG,[11] are respectively replaced by the 737 MAX 7, MAX 8 and MAX 9.[46]

737 MAX 7Edit

Originally based on the 737-700, Boeing announced the redesign of the MAX 7 derived from the MAX 8 at the July 2016 Farnborough Air Show, accommodating two more seat rows than the 737-700 for 138 seats, up 12 seats.[47][48] The redesign uses the 737-8 wing and landing gear; a pair of overwing exits rather than the single-door configuration; a 46-inch-longer aft fuselage and a 30-inch-longer forward fuselage; structural re-gauging and strengthening; and systems and interior modifications to accommodate the longer length.[49] Boeing plans to improve its range from 3,850 nmi (4,430 mi; 7,130 km) to 3,915 nmi (4,505 mi; 7,251 km) after 2021.[50]

737 MAX 8Edit

 
A top view of the MAX 8 showing double overwing exits

The first variant developed in the 737 MAX series, the MAX 8 will replace the 737-800 with a longer fuselage than the MAX 7. Boeing plans to improve its range from 3,515 nmi (4,045 mi; 6,510 km) to 3,610 nmi (4,150 mi; 6,690 km) after 2021.[50] On July 23, 2013, Boeing completed the firm configuration for the 737 MAX 8.[51] The Max 8 has a lighter empty weight and higher maximum takeoff weight than the A320neo.[22] Its first commercial flight was operated by Malindo Air on May 22, 2017 between Kuala Lumpur and Singapore as Flight OD803.[2]

737 MAX 200Edit

In September 2014, Boeing launched a high density version of the 737 MAX 8, the 737 MAX 200, named for seating for up to 200 passengers in a single-class high-density configuration with slimline seats; an extra exit door is required because of the higher passenger capacity. Boeing states that this version will be 20% more cost efficient per seat than current 737 models, and will be the most efficient narrow-body on the market when delivered, including 5% lower operating costs than the 737 MAX 8.[52][53] Three of eight galley trolleys are removed to accommodate more passenger space.[54] A 100 aircraft order with Ryanair was completed on December 1, 2014.[55]

Proposed 737-8ERXEdit

Airlines have been shown a 737-8ERX concept based on the 737 MAX 8 with a higher 194,700 lb (88.3 t) maximum take-off weight using wings, landing gear and central section from the MAX 9 to provide a longer range of 4,000 nautical miles (4,600 mi; 7,400 km) with seating for 150, closer to the Airbus A321LR.[56]

737 MAX 9Edit

 
737 MAX 9 first flight

The 737 MAX 9 will replace the 737-900 with a longer fuselage than the MAX 8. Boeing plans to improve its range from 3,510 nmi (4,040 mi; 6,500 km) to 3,605 nmi (4,149 mi; 6,676 km) after 2021.[50] Lion Air is the launch customer with an order for 201 in February 2012.[28] It made its roll-out on March 7, and first flew on 13 April 2017.[57] It took off at Renton Municipal Airport and landed at Boeing Field after a 2h 42min flight, and is due to enter service in 2018.[58]

737 MAX 10XEdit

 
737 MAX 10X rendering

To compete with the Airbus A321neo, loyal customers like Korean Air pressed Boeing to develop a larger variant than the -9 which Boeing revealed studies of in early 2016.[59] As the MAX 9 has been outsold five-to-one, the proposed MAX 10 included a larger engine, stronger wing, and telescoping landing gear in mid-2016.[60] In September 2016, it was reported that the variant would be simpler and lower-risk with a modest stretch of 6–7 ft (1.83–2.13 m) for a length of 143–144 ft (43.6–43.9 m), seating 12-18 more passengers for 192-198 in dual class or 226-232 in single class, needing an uprated 31,000 lbf (140 kN) CFM LEAP-1B that could be available by 2019 or 2020 and would likely require a simple landing gear modification to move the rotation point slightly aft.[61]

In October 2016, Boeing's board granted authority to offer the stretched variant with two extra fuselage sections forward and aft with a 3,100 nautical miles (3,600 mi; 5,700 km) range reduced from 3,300 nautical miles (3,800 mi; 6,100 km) of the -9.[59] In early 2017, Boeing showed a 66 in (1.7 m) stretch to 143 feet (44 m), enabling seating for 230 in a single class or 189 in two-class capacity, compared to 193 in two-class seating for the A321neo. The modest stretch of the MAX 10 enables the aircraft to retain the existing wing and CFM Leap 1B engine from the MAX 9 with a trailing-link main landing gear as the only major change.[62] Boeing 737 MAX Vice President and General Manager Keith Leverkuhn says the design has to be frozen in 2018 for a 2020 introduction.[59]

Boeing prospects 737-900 operators and 737 Max 9 customers like United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Alaska Airlines, Air Canada, Lion Air, and Chinese airlines will be interested in the new variant.[63] Boeing predicts a 5% lower trip cost and seat cost compared to the A321neo.[64] Air Lease Corporation wants it a year sooner; its CEO John Pleuger stated "It would have been better to get the first airplane in March 2019, but I don't think that's possible".[65] AerCap CEO Aengus Kelly is cautious and said the -9 and -10 "will cannibalize each other".[59] As it progress towards a telescopic semi-levered main landing gear design like the B777 and B787-10, Boeing anticipates a launch at the June 2017 Paris Airshow for a total market of 1,000 planes.[66]

Boeing Business JetEdit

The BBJ MAX 8 and BBJ MAX 9 are proposed business jets variants of the Boeing 737 MAX 8 and 9 with new CFM LEAP-1B engines and advanced winglets providing 13% better fuel burn than the Boeing Business Jet; the BBJ MAX 8 will have a 6,325 nmi (7,279 mi; 11,714 km) range and the BBJ MAX 9 a 6,255 nmi (7,198 mi; 11,584 km) range.[67] The BBJ MAX 7 was unveiled in October 2016 with a 7,000 nmi (8,100 mi; 13,000 km) range and 10% lower operating costs than the original BBJ while being larger.[68]

Orders and deliveriesEdit

Initially, the customers for the 737 MAX were not disclosed, except for American Airlines. On November 17, 2011, Boeing released the names of two other customers – Lion Air and SMBC Aviation Capital. At that time, Boeing reported 700 commitments from 9 customers for the 737 MAX.[69][70] On December 13, 2011, Southwest Airlines ordered 150 737 MAX aircraft with 150 options.[71]

By December 2011, Boeing had 948 commitments and firm orders from 13 customers for the 737 MAX.[72] On September 8, 2014, Ryanair signed an agreement with Boeing to purchase up to 200 new Boeing 737 MAX 200 "gamechanger" aircraft - comprising 100 firm orders and 100 options.[73] In January 2017, aircraft leasing company GECAS ordered 75 more 737 MAX 8 airliners.[74]

Through April 2017, the 737 MAX has 3,714 firm orders.[11] The first new series aircraft, a MAX 8, was delivered to Malindo Air on May 16, 2017.[10]

Boeing 737 MAX orders and deliveries by year
Total 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Orders 737 MAX 3,714 109 540 409 890 708 908 150
Total 3,714 109 540 409 890 708 908 150
Deliveries 737 MAX 7
737 MAX 8
737 MAX 9
Total

Orders and deliveries through April 30, 2017.[11]

SpecificationsEdit

737 MAX Brochure[75]
737 MAX 7 737 MAX 8 / MAX 200 737 MAX 9
Seating [76] 138 (2-class) to 172 max 162 (12F + 150Y)[75] to 200 max 180 (12F + 168Y)[75] to 220 max
Seat pitch 29 in (74 cm) in high density, 31–32 in (79–81 cm) in economy, 36 in (91 cm) in first class
Cargo capacity 1,543 cu ft (43.7 m3) 1,814 cu ft (51.4 m3)
Length[76] 116 ft 9 in (35.6 m)[49] 129 ft 8 in (39.5 m) 138 ft 4 in (42.2 m)
Wingspan 117 ft 10 in (35.9 m)
Wing Area 1,370 sq ft (127 m2) [9]
Overall height[76] 40 ft 4 in (12.3 m)
Maximum takeoff weight[76] 177,000 lb (80,286 kg)[49] 181,200 lb (82,191 kg) 194,700 lb (88,314 kg)
Maximum landing weight 145,600 lb (66,043 kg)[49] 152,800 lb (69,309 kg) 163,900 lb (74,344 kg)
Maximum zero fuel weight 138,700 lb (62,913 kg)[49] 145,400 lb (65,952 kg) 156,500 lb (70,987 kg)
Fuel capacity 6,853 US gal (25,941 L)
Engine (× 2) CFM International LEAP-1B
Fan diameter 69 inches (175 cm)[77]
Thrust (× 2) 26,786–29,317 lbf (119–130 kN)[9]
Cruising speed Mach 0.79 (523 kn; 968 km/h)[78]
Range (2-class)[76] 3,825 nmi (4,402 mi; 7,084 km) 3,515 nmi (4,045 mi; 6,510 km)
MAX 200: 2,700 nmi (3,107 mi; 5,000 km)[79]
3,515 nmi (4,045 mi; 6,510 km)
Ceiling 41,000 ft (12,000 m)[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Boeing's 737 MAX takes wing with new engines, high hopes". The Seattle Times. January 29, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Malindo operates world's first 737 Max flight". FlightGlobal. May 22, 2017. 
  3. ^ "Production begins on first 737 MAX parts". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. October 13, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Boeing 737 MAX 8 Earns FAA Certification" (Press release). Boeing. March 9, 2017. 
  5. ^ "Boeing Completes Successful First Flight of 737 MAX 9" (Press release). Boeing. April 13, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b Scott Hamilton (27 Jan 2012). "Boeing disputes 737 Max development cost report". Air Transport Intelligence. Flight Global. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Jet Prices". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Retrieved October 3, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Boeing Launches 737 New Engine Family with Commitments for 496 Airplanes from Five Airlines". Boeing. August 30, 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A16WE" (PDF). FAA. March 8, 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d Stephen Trimble (16 May 2017). "Boeing delivers first 737 Max". Flightglobal. 
  11. ^ a b c d "Boeing Commercial Airplanes – Orders and Deliveries – 737 Model Summary". Boeing. April 2017. 
  12. ^ "Boeing firms up 737 replacement studies by appointing team". Flight International. March 3, 2006. 
  13. ^ Scott Hamilton (June 24, 2010). "737 decision may slip to 2011: Credit Suisse". Flightglobal. 
  14. ^ "Airbus offers new fuel saving engine options for A320 Family" (Press release). Airbus. December 1, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Airbus with new order record at Paris Air Show 2011" (Press release). Airbus. June 23, 2011. 
  16. ^ "AMR Corporation Announces Largest Aircraft Order in History With Boeing and Airbus" (Press release). American Airlines. July 20, 2011. 
  17. ^ "American Orders 460 Narrow Jets from Boeing and Airbus". The New York Times. July 20, 2011. 
  18. ^ Ostrower, Jon (August 30, 2011). "More details emerge on configuration of re-engined 737". Flight International. Retrieved September 5, 2011. 
  19. ^ Niall O'Keeffe (September 12, 2011). "Caution welcomed: Boeing's 737 Max". Flight International. 
  20. ^ Ostrower, Jon (February 19, 2012). "Boeing says 737 MAX to meet or exceed A320neo range". Flightglobal. 
  21. ^ Jon Ostrower (November 7, 2011). "Boeing completes initial review of 737 MAX configuration". Air Transport Intelligence. Flight Global. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fred George (May 12, 2017). "Pilot Report: Flying the 737-8, Boeing's New Narrowbody Breadwinner". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  23. ^ "Boeing plans to develop new airplane to replace 737 MAX by 2030". Reuters. Nov 5, 2014. 
  24. ^ Jerry Siebenmark (13 August 2015). "Spirit AeroSystems completes first Boeing 737 MAX fuselage". Wichita Eagle. 
  25. ^ Dominic Gates (December 8, 2015). "Boeing unveils the first 737 MAX and its new production line". The Seattle Times. 
  26. ^ Daniel DeMay (December 8, 2015). "Photos: Boeing rolls out new 737 MAX 8 airplane". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 
  27. ^ Stephen Trimble (Dec 1, 2016). "First redesigned thrust reverser delivered for 737 Max". Flight Global. 
  28. ^ a b c d e Guy Norris (Feb 15, 2017). "In Pictures: First Boeing 737-9 Noses Toward Rollout". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  29. ^ "Type Certificate Data Sheet No.: IM.A.120" (PDF). EASA. March 27, 2017. 
  30. ^ Stephen Trimble (Apr 10, 2017). "Boeing prepares for unprecedented 737 Max ramp-up". Flight Global. 
  31. ^ Greg Waldron (13 Apr 2017). "Boeing optimistic for early 737 Max dispatch reliability". Flight Global. 
  32. ^ Aaron Karp (May 10, 2017). "Boeing suspends 737 MAX flights, cites 'potential' CFM LEAP-1B issue". Air Transport World. Aviation Week Network. 
  33. ^ Stephen Trimble (12 May 2017). "Boeing resumes 737 Max 8 test flights". Flight Global. 
  34. ^ Ostrower, Jon (August 30, 2011). "More details emerge on configuration of re-engined 737". Flight International. 
  35. ^ Jon Ostrower (August 31, 2011). "Boeing narrows 737 MAX engine fan size options to two". Air Transport Intelligence News. 
  36. ^ "Boeing reveals 737 Max configuration details". Flight International. November 3, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Boeing Cites 600 Commitments For 737 MAX". Reuters. November 3, 2011. 
  38. ^ Jon Ostrower (May 17, 2012). "Boeing Tweaks Engine for New 737 MAX" . The Wall Street Journal. 
  39. ^ Gregory Polek (November 13, 2011). "Boeing Takes Minimalist Approach to 737 MAX". Aviation International News. 
  40. ^ "Boeing locks in 737 Max 8 configuration". Flight Global. July 23, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b Guy Norris (Dec 2, 2013). "Laminar Flow Boosts 737 MAX Long-Range Performance". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  42. ^ Stephen Trimble (August 10, 2012). "Aviation Partners, Boeing split opinions on 737 wing-tips". Flight Global. 
  43. ^ Rockwell Collins (November 15, 2012). "Rockwell Collins wins Boeing 737 MAX contract for large-format flight displays". 
  44. ^ https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/boeing-aims-to-minimise-737-max-changes-361440/
  45. ^ "Boeing Introduces 737 MAX With Launch of New Aircraft Family". Boeing. August 30, 2011. 
  46. ^ Jon Ostrower (August 30, 2011). "Boeing designates 737 MAX family". Air Transport Intelligence. 
  47. ^ "Farnborough: Boeing's Execution on 737 MAX Sparkles as MAX 7.5 and MAX 10X Loom". Airways Magazine. July 10, 2016. 
  48. ^ "Boeing confirms 737 Max 7 redesign". Flight Global. 11 July 2016. 
  49. ^ a b c d e "Boeing Upscales 737-700". Aviation International News. July 12, 2016. 
  50. ^ a b c "Boeing plans performance upgrade for 737 Max after 2021". FlightGlobal. October 31, 2016. 
  51. ^ "Boeing Completes 737 MAX 8 Firm Configuration". Boeing, July 23, 2013.
  52. ^ "Boeing Launches 737 MAX 200 with Ryanair" (Press release). Boeing. September 8, 2014. 
  53. ^ Gates, Dominic (September 8, 2014). "Ryanair makes big order for 737 MAX jets that can carry 200". The Seattle Times. 
  54. ^ "UPDATE 5-Ryanair buys 100 Boeing 737 MAX jets, sees fare price war". Reuters. September 8, 2014. 
  55. ^ "Ryanair, Boeing Finalize Max 200 Deal". Aviation International News. December 1, 2014. 
  56. ^ "Boeing showing 737-8ERX concept in response to A321LR". Leeham News. 12 Mar 2015. 
  57. ^ "Boeing's 737 MAX 9 takes off on first flight". Seattle Times. Apr 13, 2017. 
  58. ^ "Boeing completes 737 Max 9 maiden flight". Flight Global. 13 Apr 2017. 
  59. ^ a b c d Jens Flottau (Mar 10, 2017). "Customers Press Boeing To Launch New Midsize Widebody Aircraft Soon". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  60. ^ Stephen Trimble (July 4, 2016). "Farnborough: Proposed stretch of 737 Max 9 possible, but challenging". Flight Global. 
  61. ^ Guy Norris (September 30, 2016). "Simpler 737-10X, New Midsize Airplane Both 'Doable'". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  62. ^ Guy Norris (Jan 10, 2017). "Boeing Defines Final 737 MAX Stretch Offering". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 
  63. ^ Jon Ostrower (January 12, 2017). "Boeing chases airlines for stretch 737". CNN. 
  64. ^ Randy Tinseth (6 March 2017). "MAX 10X". Boeing. 
  65. ^ Julie Johnsson (7 March 2017). "Boeing's Longest 737 Max Can't Debut Too Soon for One Buyer". Bloomberg. 
  66. ^ Tim Hepher (Apr 25, 2017). "Exclusive: Boeing near decision to launch 737-10 jet - sources". Reuters. 
  67. ^ "Boeing Business Jets to Offer the BBJ MAX" (Press release). Boeing. October 29, 2012. 
  68. ^ "Boeing Business Jets Unveils BBJ MAX 7" (Press release). Boeing. October 31, 2016. 
  69. ^ "Lion Air commits to up to 380 Boeing 737s". November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  70. ^ "ACG Becomes third identified 737 MAX customer". November 17, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  71. ^ Bader, Tim (December 13, 2011). "Boeing 737 MAX Logs First Firm Order from Launch Customer Southwest Airlines". Boeing. Retrieved December 26, 2011. 
  72. ^ "737 MAX commitments top 948". Retrieved December 15, 2011. 
  73. ^ "Ryanair places $22bn order with Boeing, buys up to 200 new aircraft". Independent.ie. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  74. ^ "Boeing, GECAS Announce Order for 75 737 MAXs". Boeing. January 4, 2017. Retrieved January 4, 2017. 
  75. ^ a b c "737 MAX Airport Compatibility Brochure" (PDF). Boeing. March 2014. 
  76. ^ a b c d e "Boeing 737 MAX characteristics". Boeing. 
  77. ^ "LEAP Brochure" (PDF). CFM International. 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. 
  78. ^ "737MAX and the MD-12". Aviation Week. Dec 9, 2013. 
  79. ^ "Boeing Revises "Obsolete" Performance Assumptions (2015)" Flight Global.com.

External linksEdit