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Bibimbap[2] (/ˈbbɪmbæp/ BEE-bim-bap,[3] from Korean bibimbap [pi.bim.p͈ap̚]), sometimes anglicized as bi bim bap or bi bim bop, is a Korean dish. The word literally means "mixed rice". Bibimbap is served as a bowl of warm white rice topped with namul (sautéed and seasoned vegetables) and gochujang (chili pepper paste), soy sauce, or doenjang (a fermented soybean paste). A raw or fried egg and sliced meat (usually beef) are common additions. The hot dish is stirred together thoroughly just before eating.[4]

Bibimbap
Korean cuisine-Bibimbap-08.jpg
Dolsot-bibimbap (hot stone pot bibimbap)
Type bap
Place of origin Korea
Associated national cuisine South Korea
Variations Dolsot-bibimbap, Jeonju-bibimbap, Jinju-bibimbap, Tongyeong-bibimbap
Food energy
(per 1 serving)
150 kcal (628 kJ)[1]
Cookbook: Bibimbap  Media: Bibimbap
Korean name
Hangul 비빔밥
Hanja n/a
Revised Romanization bibimbap
McCune–Reischauer pibimpap
IPA [pi.bim.p͈ap̚]
Bibimbap

In South Korea, Jeonju, Jinju, and Tongyeong are especially famous for their versions of bibimbap.[5] In 2011, it was listed at number 40 on the World's 50 most delicious foods readers' poll compiled by CNN Travel.[6]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The name bibimbap was adopted in the early 20th century. From the Joseon Period (1392–16th century) until the 20th century, Bibimbap was called goldongban, which means rice made by mixing various types of food. This dish was traditionally eaten on the eve of the lunar new year as the people at that time felt that they had to get rid of all of the leftover side dishes before the new year. The solution to this problem was to put all of the leftovers in a bowl of rice and to mix them together.[7] Bibimbap is also thought to have been eaten by farmers during farming season as it was the easiest way to make food for a large number of people.[citation needed] Bibimbap was served to the king usually as a lunch or a between-meal snack.[8]

Bibimbap is first mentioned in the Siuijeonseo, an anonymous cookbook from the late 19th century.[9][10] There its name is given as 부븸밥 (bubuimbap).[11] Some scholars assert that bibimbap originates from the traditional practice of mixing all the food offerings made at an ancestral rite (jesa) in a bowl before partaking in it.[12]

Since the late 20th century, bibimbap has become widespread in different countries, due to its convenience of preparation. It is also served on many airlines connecting to South Korea.

PreparationEdit

 
A selection of ingredients for making bibimbap

Vegetables commonly used in bibimbap include julienned cucumber, zucchini (courgette), mu (radish), mushrooms, doraji (bellflower root), and gim, as well as spinach, soybean sprouts, and gosari (bracken fern stems). Dubu (tofu), either plain or sautéed, or a leaf of lettuce may be added, or chicken or seafood may be substituted for beef.[4] For visual appeal, the vegetables are often placed so adjacent colors complement each other. In the South Korean version, sesame oil, red pepper paste (gochujang), and sesame seeds are added.

VariationsEdit

 
Jeonju bibimbap
  • Beef tartare bibimbap (yukhoe-bibimbap)[2]
  • Freshwater snail soybean paste bibimbap (ureong-doenjang-bibimbap)[2]
  • Hot stone pot bibimbap (dolsot-bibimbap (돌솥 비빔밥))[2] is a variation of bibimbap served in a very hot dolsot (stone pot) in which a raw egg is cooked against the sides of the bowl. The bowl is so hot that anything that touches it sizzles for minutes. Before the rice is placed in the bowl, the bottom of the bowl is coated with sesame oil, making the layer of the rice touching the bowl cook to a crisp, golden brown (누릉지). This variation of bibimbap is typically served to order, with the egg and other ingredients mixed in the pot just prior to consumption.
  • Jeonju-bibimbap, with rice cooked in beef broth instead of water[13][14]
  • Jinju-bibimbap, served with raw or cooked beef[15][16]
  • Raw fish bibimbap (hoe-deopbap)[2]
  • Roe bibimbap (albap)
  • Spicy pork bibimbap (jeyuk-bibimbap)[2]
  • Sprout bibimbap (saessak-bibimbap)[2]
  • Tongyeong-bibimbap, served with seafood[15]
  • Wild vegetable bibimbap (sanchae-bibimbap)[2]

The city of Jeonju (전주), the capital of the North Jeolla Province of South Korea,[4] is famous throughout the nation for its version of bibimbap,[17] said to be based on a royal court dish of the Joseon Dynasty.[5]

A further variation of bibimbap, called hoedeopbap (회덮밥), uses a variety of raw seafood, such as tilapia, salmon, tuna or sometimes octopus, but each bowl of rice usually contains only one variety of seafood. The term hoe in the word means raw fish. The dish is popular along the coasts of Korea where fish are abundant.[citation needed][18]

There are numerous other kinds of bibimbap as well, such as sprout bibimbap, wild herb bibimbap, and brass bowl bibimbap.

SymbolismEdit

Bibimbap ingredients are rich in symbolism. Black or dark colours represent North and the kidneys – for instance, shiitake mushrooms, bracken ferns or laver. Red or orange represents South and the heart, with chilli, carrots, and jujube dates. Green represents East and the liver, with cucumber and spinach. White is West or the lungs, with foods such as bean sprouts, radish, and rice. And finally yellow represents the centre, or stomach. Foods include pumpkin, potato or egg.[19]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "bibimbap" 비빔밥 (in Korean). Korean Food Foundation. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "주요 한식명(200개) 로마자 표기 및 번역(영, 중, 일) 표준안" [Standardized Romanizations and Translations (English, Chinese, and Japanese) of (200) Major Korean Dishes] (PDF) (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2017. Lay summary. 
  3. ^ "bibimbap". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c "Organic Vegetables Bibimbap". Seoul Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Introduction to Bibimbap: From Jeonju to Jinju style[dead link]
  6. ^ Cheung, Tim (7 September 2011). "Your pick: World's 50 best foods". CNN. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  7. ^ "Rice with Leftovers (1st Lunar Month)". Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  8. ^ "Origin of Bibimbap". Bibimbap Globalization Foundation. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  9. ^ Koo Chun-sur. "Bibimbap: High-nutrition All-in-one Meal". The Korea Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. 
  10. ^ 비빔밥. Encyclopedia of Korean National Culture (Empas) (in Korean). Retrieved 6 December 2006. 
  11. ^ 전주비빔밥. Jeonbuk Food Culture Plaza (in Korean). Retrieved 6 December 2006. 
  12. ^ Choe, Sang-Hun; Torchia, Christopher. Looking for a Mr. Kim in Seoul: A Guide to Korean Expressions. Master Communications, Inc. p. 168. ISBN 9781932457032. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  13. ^ "전주-비빔밥 (全州---)". Standard Korean dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  14. ^ "What Makes Jeonju Bibimbap So Special". The Chosun Ilbo. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "Health Secret of Korea's Bibimbap, Prepared to Perfection". Korea Tourism Organization. 18 September 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2017. 
  16. ^ "진주-비빔밥 (晉州---)". Standard Korean dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  17. ^ Hong Mi-Kyung (19 May 2008). "Top 10 Korean Dishes & Restaurants". Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  18. ^ Olson, Ann (23 March 2009). "Health Benefits of Bibimbap – Korea's Best Diet Food". Health Guide Info.com. 
  19. ^ "The Beginner's Guide To Bibimbap". Sous Chef. Speciality Cooking Supplies Limited. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 

External linksEdit