The Abbasid dynasty or Abbasids (Arabic: بنو العباس, romanized: Banu Abbas) were an Arab clan descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, that became the ruling family of the Caliphate, and thus the supreme heads of the Islamic world between 750 and 1258. The Abbasid Caliphate is divided into three main periods: Early Abbasid era (750–861), Middle Abbasid era (861–936) and Later Abbasid era (936–1258). The cadet branch of dynasty also ruled as ceremonial rulers for the Mamluk Sultanate (1261–1517).
|Parent family||Banu Abbas of the Banu Hashim, (Quraysh)|
|Place of origin||Mecca, Arabia|
The Abbasids descended from Abd Allah ibn Abbas, one of Muhammad's companions (as well as his uncle) and one of the early Qur'an scholars. Therefore, their roots trace back to Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf and also Adnan in the following line: Abd Allah ibn Al-‘Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ay ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn An-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaima ibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma'add ibn Adnan.
- Abu'l-Abbas al-Saffah, the first caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate
- Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur, the second Abbasid Caliph
- Al-Mahdi third Abbasid caliph (r. October 775 – 24 July 785) was the most influential Abbasid Caliph. He also promoted Art and science in the Islamic Caliphate.
- Al-Hadi, (r. 785–786) was an Abbasid caliph. He very open to the people of his empire and allowed citizens to visit him in the palace at Baghdad to address him. As such, he was considered an enlightened ruler.
- Harun al-Rashid, fifth Abbasid caliph (r. 786–809) rule is traditionally regarded to be the height of Islamic Golden Age's power. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom") in Baghdad and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a world center of knowledge, culture and trade.
- Al-Amin, (r. 809–813) sixth Abbasid caliph, son of Harun al-Rashid and Zubaidah.
- Al-Ma'mun, (r. 813–833) was an Abbasid caliph, he was well educated and with a considerable interest in scholarship, al-Ma'mun promoted the Translation Movement, he was also an astronomer.
- Al-Mu'tasim, (833–842) was an Abbasid caliph, patron of the art and a powerful military leader.
- Al-Wathiq, (r. 842–847) was an Abbasid caliph, he was well educated and with a considerable interest in scholarship.
- Al-Mutawakkil, (r. 847–861) was the tenth Abbasid caliph, under his reign the Abbasid Empire reached its territorial height.
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The Paternal Ancestral Lineage of Prophet Muhammad
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