1308

(Redirected from AD 1308)

Year 1308 (MCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1308 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1308
MCCCVIII
Ab urbe condita2061
Armenian calendar757
ԹՎ ՉԾԷ
Assyrian calendar6058
Balinese saka calendar1229–1230
Bengali calendar715
Berber calendar2258
English Regnal yearEdw. 2 – 2 Edw. 2
Buddhist calendar1852
Burmese calendar670
Byzantine calendar6816–6817
Chinese calendar丁未年 (Fire Goat)
4004 or 3944
    — to —
戊申年 (Earth Monkey)
4005 or 3945
Coptic calendar1024–1025
Discordian calendar2474
Ethiopian calendar1300–1301
Hebrew calendar5068–5069
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1364–1365
 - Shaka Samvat1229–1230
 - Kali Yuga4408–4409
Holocene calendar11308
Igbo calendar308–309
Iranian calendar686–687
Islamic calendar707–708
Japanese calendarTokuji 3 / Enkyō 1
(延慶元年)
Javanese calendar1219–1220
Julian calendar1308
MCCCVIII
Korean calendar3641
Minguo calendar604 before ROC
民前604年
Nanakshahi calendar−160
Thai solar calendar1850–1851
Tibetan calendar阴火羊年
(female Fire-Goat)
1434 or 1053 or 281
    — to —
阳土猴年
(male Earth-Monkey)
1435 or 1054 or 282
Edward II cavorting with his favourite Piers Gaveston (left) by Marcus Stone.

EventsEdit

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit

  • November 13 – The Teutonic Knights capture Gdańsk by treachery – while a Brandenburger force of 100 knights and 200 followers led by Heinrich von Plötzke and Günther von Schwarzburg, disputed king of Germany, lay siege to the city. The garrison of Gdańsk castle is too weak to defend itself against the Brandenburgers. Meanwhile, Władysław I Łokietek (Elbow-High), Polish ruler of Gdańsk Pomerania, is unable to send reinforcements. The citizens call upon the Teutonic Knights for military help and offer to pay their costs. The arrival of the knights, lead the Brandenburgers to beat a hasty retreat. In an act of supreme treachery, the Teutonic Knights attack the city they have come to save. The houses of both Polish and German are burnt and destroyed. Many people are slaughtered without mercy, including women and children who have sought sanctuary in churches. Within a year, the German Crusaders occupy the whole of Eastern Pomerania and consolidate their power at the Baltic Sea.[1]
  • November 27
  • December – Władysław I Łokietek (Elbow-High) imprisons Jan Muskata, bishop of Kraków. In response, Polish and German citizens revolted against his rule in Kraków (as in all Poland's cities at this time). Władysław in a delicate position responds with force and arrests the revolt's leaders. He ties them to horses and drags them through the city streets.
  • December 19Treaty of Alcalá de Henares: King Ferdinand IV (the summoned) and James II (the Just) sign an alliance in the Monastery of Santa María de Huerta. Ferdinand agrees to join James in making war by sea and by land against Granada. He also promises to give up one-sixth of Granada to Aragon, and grants him the Province of Almería.[4]
  • Sultan Mesud II, Seljuk vassal of the Mongol Ilkhanate, is murdered after a 5-year reign. During his rule, he exercises no real authority and becomes the last ruler. Ending the Sultanate of Rum after 230 years.[5]
  • King Philip IV (the Fair) purchases Hôtel de Nesle in Paris and builds one of the earliest indoor tennis courts there.[6]

EnglandEdit

  • January 25 – King Edward II marries the 13-year-old Isabella of France, daughter of King Philip IV (the Fair). The marriage takes place at Boulogne and Edward leaves his friend and favourite, Piers Gaveston, as regent in his absence. Isabella's wardrobe indicates her wealth and style – she has dresses of silk, velvet, taffeta and cloth along with numerous furs; she has over 72 headdresses and coifs. Isabella brings with her two gold crowns, gold and silver dinnerware and 419 yards of linen. Meanwhile, Edward alienates the nobles by placing Gaveston in such a powerful position, who react by signing the Boulogne agreement on January 31.[7][8]
  • February 25 – Edward II is crowned at Westminster Abbey under the guidance of Henry Woodlock, bishop of Winchester. During the ceremony, Piers Gaveston is given the honour of carrying the crown. At the banquet that followed, Edward spends more time with Gaveston than with his wife Isabella of France. Isabella's family, who have travelled with her from France, leave to report back to Philip IV of Edward's favouritism for Gaveston over Isabella. As part of the coronation, Edward swears an oath to uphold "the rightful laws and customs which the community of the realm shall have chosen".[9][10]
  • May 23Battle of Inverurie: Scottish forces led by King Robert I (the Bruce) defeat the rival Scots under John Comyn at Oldmeldrum. During the battle, Robert repulses a surprise attack on his camp, and counter-attacks the Scots of Clan Cumming (or Comyn). John flees to seek refuge at the English court and is well-received by Edward II, who appoints him as Lord Warden of the Marches. Meanwhile, Robert orders his forces to burn the farms, houses and strongholds associated with Clan Cumming in north-east Scotland. The Earldom of Buchan will never again rise for Clan Cumming.[11]
  • June 25 – Piers Gaveston is exiled for the second time by the Parliament, due to possible corruption and exploited personal gains. As compensation for the loss of the Earldom of Cornwall, which is another condition of his exile, Gaveston is granted land worth 3,000 marks annually in Gascony. Further to this, he is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland – so that a certain amount of honour can be maintained despite the humiliation of the exile. Gaveston is also threatened with ex-communication by Pope Clement V. Edward II accompanies him to Bristol, from where he sets sail for Ireland.[12][13]
  • Summer – Battle of the Pass of Brander: Scottish forces under King Robert I (the Bruce) defeat the rival Scots of the Clan MacDougall, kinsmen of John Comyn III (the Red). During the battle, Robert orders to bypass the Pass of Brander. He sends James Douglas (the Black) with a party of archers to take up positions above the pass to avoid an ambush. Robert breaks through the MacDougalls blockade and defeats them at the Bridge of Awe. The MacDougalls are chased westwards across the River Awe to Dunstaffnage. The Lord of Argyll surrenders and does homage to Robert.[14][15]
  • The Harrying of Buchan (also known as the Herschip), Scottish forces under Edward Bruce devastate the lands of John Comyn, and his supporters following the victory at Inverurie. Meanwhile, Robert I (the Bruce) takes Aberdeen, conquers Galloway and threatens northern Scotland.

AfricaEdit

AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Cities and TownsEdit

LiteratureEdit

BirthsEdit

DeathsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brzezinski, Richard (1998). History of Poland: The Piast Dynasty, p. 24. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
  2. ^ Jones, Michael (2000). The New Cambridge Medieval History, p. 530. Vol. VI: c. 1300–1415. Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 154. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  4. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 122. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  5. ^ John Joseph Saunders (1971). The History of the Mongol Conquests, p. 79. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  6. ^ Bernard Grun, (1991). The Timetables of History, p. 185. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
  7. ^ Weir, Alison (2006). Queen Isabella: She-Wolf of France, Queen of England, p. 25. London: Pimlico Books. ISBN 978-0-7126-4194-4.
  8. ^ Castor, Helen (2011). She-Wolves: The Woman Who Ruled England Before Elizabeth, p. 227. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-5712-3706-7.
  9. ^ Haines, Roy Martin (2003). King Edward II: His Life, his reign and its aftermath, 1284–1330, pp. 56–58. Montreal, Canada and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-3157-4.
  10. ^ Philips, Seymour (2011). Edward II, pp. 140–141. New Haven, CT & London. UK: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-17802-9.
  11. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2002). Osprey: Bannockburn 1314 – Robert Bruce's great victory, p. 15. ISBN 1-85532-609-4.
  12. ^ Maddicot, J. R. (1970). Thomas of Lancaster, 1307–1322, p. 73. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821837-1.
  13. ^ Hamilton, J. S. (1988). Piers Gaveston, Earl of Cornwall, 1307–1312: Politics and Patronage in the Reign of Edward II, p. 53. Detroit; London: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2008-2.
  14. ^ Barbour, John. The Bruce, translation by A. A. H. Douglas, 1964.
  15. ^ Fordun, John of, Chronicles of the Scottish Nation, ed. W. F. Skene, 1972.
  16. ^ Abraham Eraly (2015). The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate, p. 178. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-93-5118-658-8.
  17. ^ Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, p. 198. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.