The 890s decade ran from January 1, 890, to December 31, 899.

Millennium: 1st millennium
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Events

890

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
BritainEdit

891

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
Emirate of CórdobaEdit
Arabian Empire (Caliphate)Edit
JapanEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

892

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
BritainEdit
Arabian EmpireEdit
AsiaEdit

893

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
BritainEdit
Arabian EmpireEdit
EurasiaEdit
  • March 23893 Ardabil earthquake. Several earthquake catalogues and historical sources describe this earthquake as a destructive earthquake that struck the city of Ardabil, Iran. The magnitude is unknown, but the death toll was reported to be very large. The USGS, in their "List of Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths", give an estimate that 150,000 were killed, which would make it the ninth deadliest earthquake in history.[17]
  • December 28 – An earthquake destroys the city of Dvin in Armenia.

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

894

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
BritainEdit
  • The Vikings in Northumbria and East Anglia swear allegiance and hand over hostages to King Alfred the Great, but promptly break their truce by attacking the south-west of England. A Viking force returns from Exeter and sails along the coast, in an attempt to plunder Chichester. They are defeated by the Saxon garrison, losing many ships and men.[22]
  • King Anarawd of Gwynedd's shaky alliance with the Vikings collapses. His kingdom is ravaged by the Norsemen. Anarawd is forced to ask for help from Alfred the Great and submits to his overlordship. Alfred imposes oppressive terms and forces Anarawd's confirmation in the Christian Church, with Alfred as 'godfather'.
  • Autumn – Battle of Benfleet: Danish Viking forces retire to Essex, after being deprived of food by Alfred the Great (see 893). They draw their longships up the Thames and into the Lea, entrenching themselves at Benfleet.[23]
JapanEdit

895

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • The Magyars are expelled from southern Russia, and settle in the Carpathian Basin, under the leadership of Árpád (The traditional date of 896 held during the 20th century has proved to be erroneous). Emperor Leo VI (the Wise) seeks aid from the Magyars, and after crossing the Danube on Byzantine ships, they ravage Bulgarian territory.[24]
  • Simeon I (the Great), ruler (khan) of the Bulgarian Empire, seeks refuge in the fortress of Drastar, while the Magyars reach the outskirts of the capital Preslav. Facing a difficult situation with war on two fronts, Simeon calls for a truce. Leo VI sends the diplomat Leo Choirosphaktes to Bulgaria, to negotiate the terms.[25]
  • King Odo (or Eudes) takes a large army against Rheims, and forces anti-king Charles the Simple to flee to Germany. King Arnulf of Carinthia, throwing off his agreements with Odo, charges his illegitimate son Zwentibold to invade the West Frankish Kingdom, and re-install Charles on the throne.
  • May – Arnulf of Carinthia summons the Imperial Diet in his residence at Worms. Angered by the non-appearance of Charles the Simple, he again supports Odo's claim to the throne of the West Frankish Kingdom. In the same assembly, he crowns Zwentibold as king of Lotharingia.
  • Guy IV, duke of Spoleto, conquers Benevento (after the Byzantines have moved the capital of Byzantine Italy from Benevento to Bari). Guy makes himself prince, thereby uniting the two Italian states. The Byzantines attempt to retake Benevento, but are defeated by Lombard troops.
  • December – Arnulf of Carinthia invades Italy, at the head of an East Frankish expeditionary army. He arrives in Pavia and reorganizes the Lombard state. Arnulf partitions the northern part of the kingdom: the western half (March of Lombardy) and the eastern half (March of Verona).
  • Arnulf of Carinthia crosses the Po River and divides his army in two: one corps (Swabian) proceeds to Florence (via Bologna), while the other corps (Franks) moves through the Lunigiana to the precincts of Rome.
  • Spytihněv I, duke of Bohemia, together with the Slavník prince Witizla, breaks away from Great Moravia, and swears allegiance to Arnulf of Carinthia in Regensburg.
BritainEdit
Arabian EmpireEdit
MexicoEdit

By topicEdit

MusicEdit

896

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
BritainEdit
Arabian EmpireEdit
ChinaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

897

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
BritainEdit
  • English warships (nine vessels from Alfred's new fleet) intercept six Viking longships in the mouth of an unknown estuary on the south coast (possibly at Poole Harbour) in Dorset. The Danes are blockaded, and three ships attempt to break through the English lines. Lashing the Viking boats to their own, the English crew board the enemy's vessels and kill everyone on board. Some ships manage to escape, two of the other three boats are driven against the Sussex coast. The shipwrecked sailors are brought before King Alfred the Great at Winchester and hanged. Just one Viking ship returns to East Anglia.[34]
Arabian EmpireEdit
JapanEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
  • January – The Cadaver Synod: Lambert II orders Stephen VI to exhume the nine-month-old cadaver of former pope Formosus, to redress him in papal robes, and have him put on trial while seated in a chair at St. Peter's. Formosus is 'convicted' of several crimes, his fingers of consecration are cut off, and the body is stripped of his vestments.
  • August – Stephen VI is removed from office, imprisoned and strangled in his cell. He is succeeded by Romanus as the 114th pope of the Catholic Church.
  • December – Romanus is deposed and succeeded by Theodore II as the 115th pope of Rome, but dies twenty days later.

898

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EuropeEdit
BritainEdit

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ReligionEdit

899

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
  • Summer – King Arnulf of Carinthia enlists the support of the Magyars to raid northern Italy. They overrun the Lombard plain all the way to Pavia. King Berengar I assembles a large army against the Magyars and confronts them near the Adda River. Daunted at the strong force, Árpád (head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes) offers to make peace and restore much of what they've taken, if they are permitted to leave Italy unmolested. Berengar refuses and the Magyars withdraw to the Brenta River. Árpád renews his offer, offering to leave all his booty and even some hostages. Again Berengar refuses, and awaits their crossing of the Brenta River for a final battle.
  • Battle of the Brenta: The Magyar forces, consisting of 5,000 men, take a circuitous route through the mountains, crossing the Brenta River and proceed south to fall upon the encamped Lombard army (15,000 men) at Cartigliano. The Magyars massacre much of Berengar's unprepared army. He himself manages to escape to Pavia, changing his dress with the clothing of one of his soldiers. Árpád renews the offensive and heads across Lombardy, pillaging the countryside around Treviso, Vicenza, Bergamo and other towns all the way to Vercelli. He turns south and heads down the Aemilian Road, sacking Reggio Emilia, Modena and Bologna.[38]
  • December 8 – Arnulf of Carinthia dies from paralysis following a stroke and is entombed in St. Emmeram's Abbey at Regensburg (Bavaria). He is succeeded by his 6-year-old son Louis III (the Child) as ruler of the East Frankish Kingdom. Arnulf's counselor Hatto I, archbishop of Mainz, becomes regent and guardian of the young king. Louis (possibly at the instigation of Hatto) claims Lotharingia from his half-brother Zwentibold and with the support of the East-Frankish nobles he provokes a civil war. The Lombard throne is left temporarily vacant.
  • Winter – The Magyars turn back north towards the shores of the Venetian Lagoon. They pillage Chioggia and Pellestrina, and advance towards Malamocco. Their advance into the lagoon is checked by the assembly of the Venetian fleet under doge Pietro Tribuno, which defeats the Magyar's river-crossing vessels at Albiola, causing them to pull back. This close-call with the Magyars prompts the Venetians to initiate the fortification of the Rialto and the building of protective chains over the Grand Canal.
BritainEdit
Arabian EmpireEdit

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ReligionEdit

Significant peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ St Oswald's Priory, English Heritage.
  2. ^ Mann III, p. 377.
  3. ^ Kreutz 1996, pp. 63–66.
  4. ^ Kristó 1996, p. 175.
  5. ^ Kirschbaum 2005, p. 29.
  6. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, p. 120. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  7. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, p. 121. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  8. ^ Amari 1854, p. 429.
  9. ^ Lee Hyun-hee, Park Sung-soo, Yoon Nae-hyun, translated by The Academy of Korean Studies, New History of Korea pp. 263–265, Jimoondang, Paju, 2005. ISBN 89-88095-85-5.
  10. ^ Fine, John V. A. Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
  11. ^ Michel Parisse, "Lotharingia", The New Cambridge Medieval History, III: c. 900–c. 1024, ed. Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 313–315.
  12. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, pp. 124–125. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  13. ^ John Haywood (1995). Historical Atlas of the Vikings, pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0-140-51328-8.
  14. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, pp. 128–130. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  15. ^ John Haywood (1995). Historical Atlas of the Vikings, pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-0-140-51328-8.
  16. ^ Bianquis 1998, pp. 105–106.
  17. ^ "Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 1 September 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  18. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
  19. ^ John V.A. Fine, Jr. (1991). A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-472-08149-3.
  20. ^ Lajos Gubcsi (2011), Hungary in the Carpathian Basin, p. 7. ISBN 978-963-327-515-3.
  21. ^ Longworth, Philip (1997), The making of Eastern Europe: from prehistory to postcommunism (1997 ed.), Palgrave Macmillan, p. 321, ISBN 0-312-17445-4
  22. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, p. 132. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  23. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, p. 134. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  24. ^ Fine, John V. A. Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
  25. ^ JFine, John V. A. Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
  26. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  27. ^ Reuter, Timothy (trans.) The Annals of Fulda Archived February 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. (Manchester Medieval series, Ninth-Century Histories, Volume II.) Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992.
  28. ^ Fine, John V. A. Jr. (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p. 139. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
  29. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 317. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
  30. ^ Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages, p. 24.
  31. ^ Fine 1991, p. 141.
  32. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, p. 139. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  33. ^ Kennedy, Hugh N. (1993). "al-Muʿtaḍid Bi'llāh". In Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. & Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VII: Mif–Naz. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 759–760. ISBN 978-90-04-09419-2.
  34. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  35. ^ Madelung, W. (2004). "al-Ḥādī Ila 'l-Ḥaḳḳ". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. & Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume XII: Supplement. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 334–335. ISBN 978-90-04-13974-9.
  36. ^ Michel Parisse, "Lotharingia", The New Cambridge Medieval History, III: c. 900–c. 1024, ed. Timothy Reuter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 313–15.
  37. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, p. 142. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  38. ^ AF(B), 900 (p. 141 and n4), with a loss of 20,000 men and many bishops. Corroborated by Liutprand, Antapodosis.
  39. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, pp. 142–143. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.

SourcesEdit