The 530s decade ran from January 1, 530, to December 31, 539.

Millennium: 1st millennium
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Events

530

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
PersiaEdit
AfricaEdit
  • King Hilderic is deposed by his cousin Gelimer after a 7-year reign. He restores Arianism as the official religion of the Vandal Kingdom, and puts his uncle along with supporters in prison.
  • Justinian I sends an embassy to Carthage to negotiate with Hilderic. He replies: “Nothing is more desirable than that a monarch should mind his own business.”
ChinaEdit

By topicEdit

ArtEdit
ReligionEdit

531

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
PersiaEdit
  • King Kavadh I, age 82, dies after a 43-year reign. Khosrau I, his favourite son, is proclaimed successor over his elder brothers.
AsiaEdit
UnidentifiedEdit

532

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

Arts and sciencesEdit
  • First year in which the Anno Domini calendar is used for numbering the years.
ReligionEdit

533

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • Spring – Vandalic War: Anti-Vandal revolt in Tripolitania and Sardinia; Gelimer, king of the Vandals, dispatches the bulk of the Vandal fleet (120 ships and 5,000 men) under his brother Tzazo to Sardinia. Byzantine forces from Cyrenaica occupy Leptis Magna and Tripolis.
  • Summer – Emperor Justinian I holds a war council in Constantinople. His advisers warn him against launching an expedition to North Africa, because of the supply-lines (1,000 miles into Vandal waters) and the huge drain on the imperial treasury. Justinian appoints Belisarius to command the Byzantine army.
  • June 21 – A Byzantine expeditionary fleet under Belisarius sails in 500 transports, escorted by 92 war vessels (dromons), manned by 20,000 seamen from Constantinople, to attack the Vandals in Africa, via Greece and Sicily. The fleet carries 10,000 infantry, about half Byzantine and half foederati, and 5,000 cavalry, consisting of 3,000 Byzantine horsemen, 1,000 foreign allies (Huns and Heruli) and 1,500 of Belisarius' retainers (bucellarii).[4] On the flagship Belisarius is accompanied by his military secretary Procopius and his wife Antonina.
  • September – Belisarius arrives at Sicily, which he uses as a staging area, with the permission of the Ostrogoth queen Amalasuntha, daughter of Theodoric the Great and regent of Italy. The Ostrogoths help him with supplies and the fleet is prepared for the final attack.
  • September 9 – The Byzantine army lands at Caput Vada (modern Tunisia). Belisarius marches his army northwards, towards Carthage (over 140 miles), following the coast, accompanied by the fleet and shadowed by Gelimer. During the march, the Vandal towns fall without a fight.[5]
  • September 13Battle of Ad Decimum: Gelimer attempts to ambush the Byzantines in a defile at the "10th milestone" from Carthage; due to inadequate coordination and the alertness of Belisarius, the attack is repulsed and the Vandals are scattered into the desert. Belisarius enters the capital and orders his soldiers not to kill or enslave the population. The fleet is stationed in the Lake of Tunis.
  • December 15Battle of Tricamarum: Gelimer assembles an army of about 50,000 men at Bulla Regia (Numidia), and advances towards Carthage. Belisarius moves out to meet the Vandals; he leads the Byzantine cavalry (5,000 men) into battle. Without waiting for his infantry to come up, he charges, despite odds of almost 10-to-1, and throws Gelimer in confusion. Belisarius captures the Vandal camp by storm. Tzazo is killed in an all-cavalry fight, and Gelimer is forced to seek refuge in the mountains of Tunis with the Berbers.
  • December 16 – The Digesta or Pandectae, a collection of jurist writings and other sources, is completed (see Corpus Juris Civilis).
EuropeEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit

534

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • January 1Decimus Theodorius Paulinus is appointed consul (the last to hold this office in the West).
  • March – King Gelimer surrenders to Belisarius, after spending a winter in the mountains of Numidia. He and large numbers of captured Vandals are transported to Constantinople. The Vandal Kingdom ends, and the African provinces return to the Byzantine Empire.
  • April – Belisarius leaves a small force in Africa under the Byzantine general Solomon, to continue the subjugation of the province. He is appointed governor (Exarch) and pacifies with success the Moorish tribes. Malta becomes a Byzantine province (until 870).
  • Summer – Belisarius arrives in Constantinople and is permitted by Emperor Justinian I to celebrate a triumph, the first non-imperial triumph for over 500 years. In the procession are paraded the spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem and the Vandal treasure.
  • Justinian I commemorates the victory against the Vandals by stamping medals in his honor with the inscription "Gloria Romanorum" (approximate date).
  • November 16 – A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published.
EuropeEdit

535

By placeEdit

EuropeEdit
Byzantine EmpireEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
MeteorologyEdit

536

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
ClimateEdit

537

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
  • March 2Siege of Rome: The Ostrogothic army (45,000 men) under King Vitiges begins the siege of the city. Belisarius conducts a delaying action outside the Flaminian Gate; he and a detachment of his bucellarii are almost cut off.[18]
  • Vitiges sets up seven camps, overlooking the main gates and access routes to the city, in order to starve it out. He blocks the Roman aqueducts that are supplying Rome with water, necessary both for drinking and for operating the corn mills.[19]
  • March 21 – Vitiges attempts to assault the northern and eastern city walls with four siege towers, but is repulsed at the Praenestine Gate, known as the Vivarium, by the defenders under the Byzantine generals Bessas and Peranius.[20]
  • April – The Goths capture the Portus Claudii at Ostia; the harbor is left unguarded by the Romans. Belisarius is forced to unload his supplies at Antium (modern Anzio); he sends urgent messages for reinforcements to Constantinople.[21]
  • April 9 – Belisarius receives his promised reinforcements: 1,600 cavalry, mostly of Hunnic or Slavic origin and expert bowmen. He starts, despite shortages, raids against the Gothic camps and Vitiges is forced into a stalemate.[22]
  • June – In Rome, famine brings the city to despair; Belisarius sends his secretary Procopius to Naples for more reinforcements and supplies. Vitiges arranges a three-month armistice for Gothic envoys to travel to Constantinople.[23]
  • November – Belisarius brings his long-awaited reinforcements, namely 3,000 Isaurians and 1,800 cavalry embarked in Ostia, along with a supply convoy, safely to Rome. The Goths are forced to abandon the Portus Claudii.[24]
  • December – Belisarius sends John "the Sanguinary" with a force of 2,000 men towards Picenum, to plunder the east coast of Italy. He arrives at Ariminum (Rimini), where he is welcomed by the local Roman population.[25]
  • December 27 – The construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (begun in 532) is completed.
BritainEdit
AfricaEdit
AsiaEdit
  • Eastern Wei sends an advance guard of three army columns through the Tong Pass, to attack Western Wei. The Western army under Yu-Wen Tai defeats one of the columns while the others retreat. Yu-Wen follows up, but runs into the main Eastern army (200,000 men). The Westerners are pushed back through the pass, and the Eastern army emerges from the mountains. Unexpectedly they are charged in the flank by 10,000 Western cavalry, and 6,000 Easterners are killed and 70,000 captured.[27]
  • John Cottistis starts a short-lived rebellion against Justinian I. He is declared emperor at Dara, but is killed four days later by conspiring soldiers.[28]
AmericaEdit

By topicEdit

ConstructionEdit
  • The Aqua Virgo aqueduct is destroyed by the Goths; they try to use the underground channel as a secret route to invade Rome.[29]
ReligionEdit
SocietyEdit

538

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
BritainEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

ReligionEdit
SocietyEdit

539

By placeEdit

Byzantine EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit
AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

SocietyEdit

Significant peopleEdit

BirthsEdit

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DeathsEdit

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NotesEdit

  1. ^ Famine is described as "AI537.1, Failure of bread" in the Annals of Inisfallen.[30]
  2. ^ Famine is described as "T538.1, Failure of bread" in the Annals of Tigernach.[34]
  3. ^ Famine is described as "U539.1, Failure of bread" in the Annals of Ulster.[36]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Isidore of Seville, History of the Goths, chapter 40. Translation by Guido Donini and Gorden B. Ford, Isidore of Seville's History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, second revised edition (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1970), p. 19.
  2. ^ "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  3. ^ Connor, Steve (2014-07-07). "Our explosive past is written in the Antarctic ice". i. London. p. 17.
  4. ^ Procopius, BV, Vol. I, XI. 7–16
  5. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, p. 130–131
  6. ^ Jordanes, Vol. LIX, p. 51 and Herwig Wolfram (1998), p. 338
  7. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries", p. 215
  8. ^ Rome at War (p. 55). Michael Whitby, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-359-4
  9. ^ Breviarium S. Liberati, ap. Mansi, Concilia, Vol. IX, p. 695
  10. ^ Bury (1958). pp. 143–144.
  11. ^ a b Massimiliano Vitiello (1 January 2014). Theodahad: A Platonic King at the Collapse of Ostrogothic Italy. University of Toronto Press. pp. 157–160. ISBN 978-1-4426-4783-1.
  12. ^ a b Bury (1923). Vol. II, Ch. XVIII. pp. 174-180.
  13. ^ a b Gibbons, Ann (2018-11-15). "Why 536 was 'the worst year to be alive". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 2018-11-16.
  14. ^ Bambury, Pádraig; Beechinor, Stephen (2000). "The Annals of Ulster" (Electronic ed.). Cork, Ireland: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College Cork. pp. U536.3n. Failure of bread.
  15. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.VII.
  16. ^ Earl Philip Henry Stanhope Stanhope (1848). The Life of Belisarius. J. Murray. pp. 154–158.
  17. ^ Ochoa, George; Hoffman, Jennifer; Tin, Tina (2005). Climate: the force that shapes our world and the future of life on earth. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-59486-288-5.
  18. ^ Bury (1923), Ch. XIX, p. 182–183
  19. ^ Bury (1923), Ch. XIX, p. 185
  20. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XXIII
  21. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XXVII
  22. ^ Bury (1923), Ch. XIX, p. 188
  23. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II.VI
  24. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II.V
  25. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico, II.VII
  26. ^ Bury 1958, pp. 144–145
  27. ^ Imperial Chinese Armies (p. 42). C.J. Peers, 1995. ISBN 978-1-85532-514-2
  28. ^ Martindale, Jones & Morris 1992, pp. 639–640
  29. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II.IX
  30. ^ Mac Airt 2000–2008, pp. AI537.1.
  31. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico II
  32. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XIII
  33. ^ Martindale, Jones & Morris 1992, pp. 125, 255, 641
  34. ^ Mac Niocaill 2010, pp. T538.1.
  35. ^ The Making of the Slavs (p. 190–226). Florin Curta, 2001. ISBN 978-0-511-49629-5
  36. ^ Bambury, Pádraig; Beechinor, Stephen (2000). "The Annals of Ulster" (Electronic edition compiled by the CELT Team (2000) ed.). CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College Cork College Road, Cork, Ireland—http://www.ucc.ie/celt. pp. U539.1.
  37. ^ BRENNAN, BRIAN (1996). "DEATHLESS MARRIAGE AND SPIRITUAL FECUNDITY IN VENANTIUS FORTUNATUS'S "DE VIRGINITATE"". Traditio. 51: 73–97. doi:10.1017/S0362152900013374. JSTOR 27831930.
  38. ^ Pauline Allen (1981). Evagrius Scholasticus, the Church Historian. Peeters Publishers & Booksellers. p. 1.
  39. ^ "Dioscorus - pope". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  40. ^ "Colmán mac Lénéni". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  41. ^ "Cerdic | king of Wessex". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  42. ^ "John II | pope". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  43. ^ J. B. Bury (1 January 1958). History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian. Courier Corporation. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-486-20399-7.
  44. ^ T. F. Lindsay (1949). Saint Benedict: His Life and Work. Burns, Oates. p. 102.
Bibliography