This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.



Republican consuls


From the establishment of the Republic to the time of Augustus, the consuls were the chief magistrates of the Roman state. Traditionally, two were simultaneously appointed for a year-long term, so that the executive power of the state was not vested in a single individual, as it had been under the kings.[1][2] As other ancient societies dated historical events according to the reigns of their kings, it became customary at Rome to date events by the names of the consuls in office when the events occurred, rather than (for instance) by counting the number of years since the foundation of the city, although that method could also be used.[2] If a consul died during his year of office, another was elected to replace him. Although his imperium was the same as his predecessor's, he was termed consul suffectus, in order to distinguish him from the consul ordinarius whom he replaced; but the eponymous magistrates for each year were normally the consules ordinarii.[1][2]

Because of this method of dating events, it was important to keep records of each year's eponymous magistrates. Many such lists have survived, either in the form of monumental inscriptions, conventionally referred to as fasti, or indirectly through the ancient historians, who had access to linen rolls recording the names of magistrates. Although these lists account for the entire period of the Republic, and most of Imperial times, there are discrepancies due to gaps and disagreements between different sources. Many of these no doubt arose as copying errors, especially those that involved the substitution of a familiar name for a less common one. Others may represent later attempts to edit the lists in order to explain deficiencies in the record, to reconcile conflicting traditions, or to ascribe particular actions or events to the time of a particular individual.[3]

Other magistrates included


Occasionally, the authority of the consuls was temporarily superseded by the appointment of a dictator, who held greater imperium than that of the consuls.[1] By tradition, these dictators laid down their office upon the completion of the task for which they were nominated, or after a maximum period of six months, and did not continue in office longer than the year for which the nominating consul had been elected.[4] However, in four years at the end of the fourth century BC, dictators are said to have continued in office in the year following their nomination, in place of consuls. Modern scholars are skeptical of these years, which might be due to later editing of the lists of magistrates in order to fill a gap.[5] All known dictators have been included in this table.

Two other types of magistrates are listed during the period of the Republic. In the year 451 BC, a board of ten men, known as decemviri, or decemvirs, was appointed in place of the consuls in order to draw up the tables of Roman law, in a sense establishing the Roman constitution. According to tradition, a second college of decemvirs was appointed for the next year, and these continued in office illegally into 449, until they were overthrown in a popular revolt, and the consulship was reinstated.[6][7]

Among the disputes which the decemvirs failed to resolve was the relationship between the patricians, Rome's hereditary aristocracy, and the plebeians, or common citizens. Although it has been argued that some of the consuls prior to the Decemvirate may have been plebeians, the office was definitely closed to them in the second half of the fifth century BC. To prevent open hostility between the two orders, the office of military tribune with consular power, or "consular tribune", was established. In place of patrician consuls, the people could elect a number of military tribunes, who might be either patrician or plebeian.[2][8]

According to Livy, this compromise held until 376 BC, when two of the tribunes of the plebs, Gaius Licinius Calvus Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus, blocked the election of any magistrates for the following year, unless the senate would agree to place a law before the people opening the consulship to the plebeians, and effecting other important reforms. The senate refused, and the tribunes continued to prevent the election of magistrates for several years until the senate capitulated, and the lex Licinia Sextia was passed, leading to the election of the first plebeian consul in 367.[2][8][9] Other accounts of this event are inconsistent, and current scholarly opinion is that the duration of the period without magistrates may have been exaggerated, or even invented to fill a gap in the record; nevertheless Roman tradition unanimously holds that Licinius and Sextius were able to open the consulship to the plebeians.[10]

The consulship in imperial times


In Imperial times the consulship became the senior administrative office under the emperors, who frequently assumed the title of consul themselves, and appointed other consuls at will.[1] The consulship was often bestowed as a political favour, or a reward for faithful service. Because there could only be two consuls at once, the emperors frequently appointed several sets of suffecti sequentially in the course of a year; holding the consulship for an entire year became a special honour.[1][2] As the office lost much of its executive authority, and the number of consuls appointed for short and often irregular periods increased, surviving lists from Imperial times are often incomplete, and have been reconstructed from many sources, not always with much certainty. In many cases it is stated that a particular person had been consul, but the exact time cannot be firmly established.

As an institution, the consulship survived the abdication of the last emperor of the West, and for a time consuls continued to be appointed, one representing the Eastern Roman Empire, and the other the Western, even as the Western Empire dissolved as a political entity. The last consuls appointed represented only the Eastern Empire, until finally the title became the sole province of the Emperor, who might or might not assume it upon taking office.[1][2]



For the early Republic, this article observes the Varronian chronology, established by the historian Marcus Terentius Varro, who calculated that Rome was founded in what is now called the year 753 BC (the founding of the city was traditionally observed on the Palilia, a festival occurring on April 21). This becomes the year 1 ab urbe condita, or AUC. The Republic was established in AUC 245, or 509 BC. Although other ancient historians gave different years and modern scholarship knows Varro to have been mistaken in his calculations by at least a few years,[11] Varro's chronology was the most widely accepted in antiquity, in official use for various purposes by at least the reign of Claudius.[12] Its use by Censorinus brought it to the attention of Joseph Scaliger, who helped popularize it in modern times.[13][14]

For Imperial times, the dates of the consules ordinarii are far more certain than those of the suffecti, who were not recorded with the same attention as the eponymous magistrates. Their identification and dating is far more controversial, and despite the efforts of generations of scholars, gaps in coverage remain. Known consules suffecti are shown with their known (or reconstructed) dates of tenure, which normally varied from two to six months — although one suffect consul, Rosius Regulus, is known to have held the fasces for a single day, October 31, AD 69.[15] Where neither consul is known or inferred for a portion of the year, their names are omitted for convenience; if one consul can be named, but his colleague is unknown, the unnamed colleague is listed as ignotus (unknown).

Consules prior and posterior


The consul named first in the lists was identified as consul prior, whereas the other was called consul posterior. The two consuls' authority was equal and their duties were shared on an alternating basis.[1] There is evidence that, during the late Republic, the consul elected with the most votes became the consul prior, and the consul elected first also may have been the first in the year to hold fasces (take precedence), but the evidence is not conclusive.[16][17] The surviving sources for the order of the consuls in the early Republic show some measure of conflict in just under half of the cases.[18] Lily Ross Taylor argues that the emperor Augustus falsified some of the records in order to give prominence to several families, and that the order of consuls as reported by the historian Livy is the most reliable.[19][20][21] Drummond disagrees: he argues that Livy himself switches the correct order at times for literary purposes, and that discrepant entries in the sources are most likely simply the result of negligence.[22] Although there is probably one 'correct' order for all the consuls of the republic, or at least one underlying tradition reporting it, no surviving source seems to be more reliable than another to a significant extent.[23][24]

When the emperor assumed the consulship, he was necessarily consul prior. This distinction continued until the fourth century AD, when the Empire was divided into a Western Roman Empire and an Eastern Roman Empire: the consuls who were appointed by the court in the Western Empire, which was sometimes at Rome, are commonly identified as the "Western consul", and those appointed by the court in the Eastern, usually Constantinople, the "Eastern consul". These designations were used until the end of the consulship in the sixth century.[25]

Other lists of consuls


For a list of consuls whose year of office is uncertain or entirely unknown (usually suffecti, although some of the ordinarii in the breakaway Gallic Empire also lack dates[26]), see the List of undated Roman consuls. For those individuals who were elected consul but never assumed the office due to death, disgrace, or any other reason, see List of Roman consuls designate.

Latin terms

  • Imperator (abbreviated Imp.) = literally "commander"; originally an honorary title bestowed upon a general by his soldiers, the term later became part of the style of the emperors, and the word "emperor" is derived from it.
  • suffectus (abbreviated suff.) = a substitute elected or appointed in place of a magistrate who died or resigned. Information is not available for all consules suffecti, and some may not be listed.
  • ignotus = unknown. All consuls who can be assigned to a particular date, at least tentatively, are included in this table. If neither consul for a given period is known, they are entirely omitted; if one is known, and the other is not, the unknown colleague is referred to as ignotus.
  • sine collega = without colleague. On a few occasions before the dissolution of the Western Empire, only one consul was appointed.
  • post consulatum = after the (preceding) consulship. Used for gaps when no consuls were appointed for a period following the end of another consulship, or at least none are known to have been appointed.
  • inter alios = among others.

Abbreviations for praenomina

  • A. = Aulus
  • Ap. = Appius
  • C. = Gaius
  • Cn. = Gnaeus
  • D. = Decimus
  • K. = Caeso
  • L. = Lucius
  • M. = Marcus
  • M'. = Manius
  • Mam. = Mamercus
  • N. = Numerius
  • Opet. = Opiter
  • P. = Publius
  • Post. = Postumus
  • Proc. = Proculus
  • Q. = Quintus
  • Ser. = Servius
  • Sex. = Sextus
  • Sp. = Spurius
  • T. = Titus
  • Ti. = Tiberius
  • Vop. = Vopiscus



Sixth century BC (509–501)


Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates of the consuls between 509 and 31 BC are taken from Thomas Broughton's Magistrates of the Roman Republic.[27][28]

509 L. Junius Brutus[29] L. Tarquinius Collatinus
suff. Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus P. Valerius Poplicola
suff. M. Horatius Pulvillus
508 P. Valerius Poplicola II T. Lucretius Tricipitinus
507 P. Valerius Poplicola III M. Horatius Pulvillus II[30]
506 Sp. Larcius T. Herminius Aquilinus[31]
505 M. Valerius Volusus P. Postumius Tubertus
504 P. Valerius Poplicola IV T. Lucretius Tricipitinus II
503 Agrippa Menenius Lanatus P. Postumius Tubertus II
502 Opiter Verginius Tricostus Sp. Cassius Vecellinus
501 Post. Cominius Auruncus T. Larcius

Fifth century BC (500–401)

500 Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus M'. Tullius Longus
499 T. Aebutius Helva C. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus
498 Q. Cloelius Siculus T. Larcius II
497 A. Sempronius Atratinus M. Minucius Augurinus
496 A. Postumius Albus Regillensis T. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus
495 Ap. Claudius Sabinus Inregillensis P. Servilius Priscus Structus
494 A. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus T. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus
493 Post. Cominius Auruncus II Sp. Cassius Vecellinus II
492 T. Geganius Macerinus P. Minucius Augurinus
491 M. Minucius Augurinus II A. Sempronius Atratinus II
490 Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus Sp. Larcius II[32]
489 C. Julius Iullus P. Pinarius Mamercinus Rufus
488 Sp. Nautius Rutilus Sex. Furius
487 T. Sicinius (or Siccius) Sabinus C. Aquillius Tuscus
486 Sp. Cassius Vecellinus III Proculus Verginius Tricostus Rutilus
485 Q. Fabius Vibulanus Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis[33]
484 L. Aemilius Mamercus K. Fabius Vibulanus
483 M. Fabius Vibulanus L. Valerius Potitus
482 C. Julius Iullus Q. Fabius Vibulanus II[34][35]
481 K. Fabius Vibulanus II Sp. Furius Fusus
480 M. Fabius Vibulanus II Cn. Manlius Cincinnatus
479 K. Fabius Vibulanus III T. Verginius Tricostus Rutilus
478 L. Aemilius Mamercus II[36] C. Servilius Structus Ahala[37]
suff. (Opiter Verginius? E)squilinus[38]
477 C. (or M.) Horatius Pulvillus T. Menenius Lanatus
476 A. Verginius Tricostus Rutilus Sp. (or C.) Servilius Structus
475 P. Valerius Poplicola C. Nautius Rutilus
474 L. Furius Medullinus A. Manlius Vulso
473 L. Aemilius Mamercus III Vopiscus Julius Iullus[39]
472 L. Pinarius Mamercinus Rufus P. Furius Medullinus Fusus
471 Ap. Claudius Crassus Inregillensis Sabinus T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus
470 L. Valerius Potitus II Ti. Aemilius Mamercus
469 T. Numicius Priscus A. Verginius Caeliomontanus
468 T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus II Q. Servilius Priscus
467 Ti. Aemilius Mamercus II Q. Fabius Vibulanus
466 Q. Servilius Priscus II Sp. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
465 Q. Fabius Vibulanus II T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus III
464 A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis Sp. Furius Medullinus Fusus
463 P. Servilius Priscus L. Aebutius Helva
462 L. Lucretius Tricipitinus T. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus
461 P. Volumnius Amintinus Gallus Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus
460 P. Valerius Poplicola II C. Claudius Inregillensis Sabinus
suff. L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
459 Q. Fabius Vibulanus III L. Cornelius Maluginensis Uritinus
458 C. Nautius Rutilus II (...) Carve(ntanus?)[40]
suff. L. Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus
457 C. (or M.) Horatius Pulvillus II Q. Minucius Esquilinus (or L. Postumius)
456 M. Valerius Maximus Lactuca[41] Sp. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus
455 T. Romilius Rocus Vaticanus C. Veturius Cicurinus
454 Sp. Tarpeius Montanus Capitolinus A. Aternius Varus Fontinalis
453 P. Curiatius Fistus Trigeminus Sextus Quinctilius[42]
suff. Sp. Furius (Medullinus Fusus) II?)[43]
452 T. Menenius Lanatus P. Sestius Capitolinus Vaticanus
451 Ap. Claudius Crassus Inregillensis Sabinus II[44] T. Genucius (or Minucius) Augurinus
First Decemvirate
Ap. Claudius Crassus Inregillensis Sabinus T. Genucius (or Minucius) Augurinus
T. Veturius Geminus Cicurinus[45] C. Julius Iullus
A. Manlius Vulso Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus
P. Sestius Capitolinus Vaticanus P. Curiatius Fistus Trigeminus
T. Romilius Rocus Vaticanus Sp. Postumius Albus Regillensis
450 Second Decemvirate
Ap. Claudius Crassus Inregillensis Sabinus II M. Cornelius Maluginensis
M.(?) Sergius Esquilinus L. Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus
Q. Fabius Vibulanus Q. Poetelius
T. Antonius Merenda Caeso Duillius Longus
Sp. Oppius Cornicen M'. Rabuleius
449 L. Valerius Poplicola Potitus M. Horatius Turrinus Barbatus[46]
448 Lars Herminius Coritinesanus T. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus
447 M. Geganius Macerinus C. Julius Iullus
446 T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus IV Agrippa Furius Fusus
445 M. Genucius Augurinus C. Curiatius Philo
444 Consular tribunes
A. Sempronius Atratinus L. Atilius Luscus
T. Cloelius Siculus
suff. L. Papirius Mugillanus[47] L. Sempronius Atratinus
443 M. Geganius Macerinus II T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus V
442 M. Fabius Vibulanus Post. Aebutius Helva Cornicen
441 C. Furius Pacilus Fusus M'. Papirius Crassus
440 Proc. Geganius Macerinus T. Menenius Lanatus II[48]
439 Agrippa Menenius Lanatus T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus VI
438 Consular tribunes
Mam. Aemilius (Mamercinus?) L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
L. Julius Iullus[49]
437 M. Geganius Macerinus III L. Sergius Fidenas
436 M. (or A.) Cornelius Maluginensis[50] L. Papirius Crassus
435 C. Julius Iullus II (L. or Proc.) Verginius Tricostus
434 Consular tribunes(?)[51]
M. Manlius Capitolinus Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Praetextatus
Ser. Cornelius Cossus
433 Consular tribunes
M. Fabius Vibulanus M. Foslius Flaccinator
L. Sergius Fidenas
432 Consular tribunes
L. Pinarius Mamercinus L. Furius Medullinus
Sp. Postumius Albus Regillensis
431 T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus C. Julius Mento
430 C. (or L.) Papirius Crassus L. Julius Iullus
429 Hostus Lucretius Tricipitinus L. Sergius Fidenas II
428 A. Cornelius Cossus T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus II
427 C. Servilius Axilla[52] L. Papirius Mugillanus
426 Consular tribunes[53]
C. Furius Pacilus Fusus T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus
M. Postumius Albinus Regillensis A. Cornelius Cossus
425 Consular tribunes
A. Sempronius Atratinus L. Quinctius Cincinnatus II
L. Furius Medullinus II L. Horatius Barbatus[54]
424 Consular tribunes
Ap. Claudius Crassus Sp. Nautius Rutilus
L. Sergius Fidenas II Sex. Julius Iullus
423 C. Sempronius Atratinus Q. Fabius Vibulanus
422 Consular tribunes
L. Manlius Capitolinus Q. Antonius Merenda
L. Papirius Mugillanus
421 N. (or Cn.) Fabius Vibulanus T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus
420 Consular tribunes
Quinctius Cincinnatus[55] L. Furius Medullinus III
M. Manlius Vulso A. Sempronius Atratinus II
419 Consular tribunes
Agrippa Menenius Lanatus P. Lucretius Tricipitinus
Sp. Nautius Rutilus C. Servilius Axilla
418 Consular tribunes
L. Sergius Fidenas III M. Papirius Mugillanus
C. Servilius Axilla II
417 Consular tribunes
P. Lucretius Tricipitinus II Agrippa Menenius Lanatus II
C. Servilius Axilla III Sp. Veturius Crassus[56]
416 Consular tribunes
A. Sempronius Atratinus III M. Papirius Mugillanus II
Q. Fabius Vibulanus Sp. Nautius Rutilus II
415 Consular tribunes
P. Cornelius Cossus C. Valerius Potitus Volusus
Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus N. (or Cn.) Fabius Vibulanus
414 Consular tribunes
Cn. Cornelius Cossus L. Valerius Potitus
Q. Fabius Vibulanus II P. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
413 (A. or M.) Cornelius Cossus L. Furius Medullinus
412 Q. Fabius Vibulanus (?)Ambustus (II?)[57] C. Furius Pacilus
411 M. Papirius Mugillanus[58] Sp. (or C.) Nautius Rutilus
410 M'. Aemilius Mamercinus C. Valerius Potitus Volusus
409 Cn. Cornelius Cossus L. Furius Medullinus II
408 Consular tribunes
C. Julius Iullus P. Cornelius Cossus
C. Servilius Ahala
407 Consular tribunes
L. Furius Medullinus C. Valerius Potitus Volusus II
N. (or Cn.) Fabius Vibulanus II C. Servilius Ahala II
406 Consular tribunes
P. Cornelius Rutilus Cossus Cn. Cornelius Cossus
N. (or Cn.) Fabius Ambustus L. Valerius Potitus II
405 Consular tribunes
T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus II
C. Julius Iullus II A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus
L. Furius Medullinus II M'. Aemilius Mamercinus
404 Consular tribunes
C. Valerius Potitus Volusus III M'. Sergius Fidenas
P. Cornelius Maluginensis Cn. Cornelius Cossus II
K. Fabius Ambustus[59] Sp. Nautius Rutilus III
403 Consular tribunes
M'. Aemilius Mamercinus II L. Valerius Potitus III
Ap. Claudius Crassus M. Quinctilius Varus
L. Julius Iullus M. Furius Fusus
402 Consular tribunes
C. Servilius Ahala III Q. Servilius Fidenas
L. Verginius Tricostus Esquilinus Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus
A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus II M'. Sergius Fidenas II
401 Consular tribunes[60]
L. Valerius Potitus IV M. Furius Camillus
M'. Aemilius Mamercinus III Cn. Cornelius Cossus III
K. Fabius Ambustus II L. Julius Iullus

Fourth century BC (400–301)

400 Consular tribunes
P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus P. Manlius Vulso
L. Titinius Pansa Saccus P. Maelius Capitolinus
Sp. Furius Medullinus L. Publilius Philo Vulscus
399 Consular tribunes
Cn. Genucius Augurinus L. Atilius Priscus
M. Pomponius Rufus C. Duillius Longus
M. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus Volero Publilius Philo
398 Consular tribunes
L. Valerius Potitus V M. Valerius Lactucinus Maximus
M. Furius Camillus II L. Furius Medullinus III
Q. Servilius Fidenas II Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus II
397 Consular tribunes
L. Julius Iullus II L. Furius Medullinus IV
L. Sergius Fidenas A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
P. Cornelius Maluginensis A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus III
396 Consular tribunes
L. Titinius Pansa Saccus II P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus II
P. Maelius Capitolinus II Q. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus
Cn. Genucius Augurinus II L. Atilius Priscus II
395 Consular tribunes
P. Cornelius Cossus P. Cornelius Scipio
K. Fabius Ambustus III L. Furius Medullinus V
Q. Servilius Fidenas III M. Valerius Lactucinus Maximus II
394 Consular tribunes
M. Furius Camillus III L. Furius Medullinus VI
C. Aemilius Mamercinus L. Valerius Poplicola
Sp. Postumius Albinus Regillensis P. Cornelius (Maluginensis or Scipio or Cossus) II
393 L. Valerius Potitus (invalidated) Cornelius Maluginensis (invalidated)
L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus
392 L. Valerius Potitus II M. Manlius Capitolinus
391 Consular tribunes[61]
L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus
L. Aemilius Mamercinus[62] L. Furius Medullinus VII
Agrippa Furius Fusus C. Aemilius Mamercinus II
390 Consular tribunes[63]
Q. Sulpicius Longus Q. Fabius Ambustus
K. Fabius Ambustus IV N. (or Cn.) Fabius Ambustus II
Q. Servilius Fidenas IV P. Cornelius Maluginensis II
389 Consular tribunes
L. Valerius Poplicola II L. Verginius Tricostus (Esquilinus II?)
P. Cornelius A. Manlius Capitolinus
L. Aemilius Mamercinus II L. Postumius Albinus Regillensis
(?) L. Papirius (Mugillanus?)[64] (?) M. Furius
388 Consular tribunes
T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus Q. Servilius Fidenas V
L. Julius Iullus L. Aquillius Corvus
L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus II Ser. Sulpicius Rufus
387 Consular tribunes[65]
L. Papirius Cursor Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo
L. Aemilius Mamercinus III Licinus Menenius Lanatus
L. Valerius Poplicola III
386 Consular tribunes
M. Furius Camillus IV Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis
Q. Servilius Fidenas VI L. Quinctius Cincinnatus
L. Horatius Pulvillus P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola
385 Consular tribunes
A. Manlius Capitolinus II P. Cornelius
T. Quinctius (Cincinnatus?) Capitolinus II L. Quinctius Capitolinus
L. Papirius Cursor II Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo II
384 Consular tribunes
Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis II P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola II
M. Furius Camillus V Ser. Sulpicius Rufus II
C. (or L.) Papirius Crassus[66] T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus (III?)
383 Consular tribunes
L. Valerius Poplicola IV A. Manlius Capitolinus IV
Ser. Sulpicius Rufus III L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus III
L. Aemilius Mamercinus IV M. Trebonius
382 Consular tribunes
Sp. Papirius Crassus L. Papirius (Mugillanus?)
Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis III Q. Servilius Fidenas
C. Sulpicius Camerinus L. Aemilius Mamercinus V
381 Consular tribunes
M. Furius Camillus VI A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis II
L. Postumius Albinus Regillensis II L. Furius Medullinus
L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus IV M. Fabius Ambustus
380 Consular tribunes[67]
L. Valerius Potitus Poplicola V P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola III
Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis IV Licinus Menenius Lanatus II
C. Sulpicius Peticus L. Aemilius Mamercinus VI
Cn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo III Ti. Papirius Crassus
L. Papirius Mugillanus II
379 Consular tribunes
P. Manlius Capitolinus Cn. Manlius Vulso
L. Julius Iullus II C. Sextilius
M. Albinius L. Antistius
P. Trebonius[68] C. Erenucius[68]
378 Consular tribunes
Sp. (or L.) Furius Q. Servillius Fidenas II
Licinus Menenius Lanatus III P. Cloelius Siculus
M. Horatius[69] L. Geganius Macerinus[69]
377 Consular tribunes
L. Aemilius Mamercinus P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola IV
C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus Ser. Sulpicius (Rufus IV or Praetextatus)
L. Quinctius Cincinnatus III C. Quinctius Cincinnatus
376 Consular tribunes
L. Papirius (Mugillanus?) III Licinus Menenius Lanatus IV
Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis V Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus II

solitudo magistratuum
According to Livy (6.35), the tribunes Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius introduced new laws known as the Lex Licinia Sextia, which provoked strong resistance from the patricians. Licinius Stolo and Sextius resorted to using the tribunican veto to prevent either consuls or consular tribunes from being elected.
The actual length of this period is controversial, with primary sources stating it was one (Diodorus Siculus), five (Fasti Capitolini), or ten (Livy) years.[70]
370 Consular tribunes
L. Furius Medullinus II A. Manlius Capitolinus V
Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus III Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis VI
P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola V C. Valerius Potitus
369 Consular tribunes
Q. Servilius Fidenas III C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus II
A. Cornelius Cossus M. Cornelius Maluginensis
Q. Quinctius (Cincinnatus?) M. Fabius Ambustus II
368 Consular tribunes
T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis VII
Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus IV Sp. Servilius Structus
L. Papirius Crassus L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus
367 Consular tribunes
A. Cornelius Cossus II M. Cornelius Maluginensis II
M. Geganius Macerinus P. Manlius Capitolinus II
L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus II P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola VI
366 L. Aemilius Mamercinus L. Sextius Sextinus Lateranus
365 L. Genucius Aventinensis Q. Servilius Ahala
364 C. Sulpicius Peticus C. Licinius Calvus[71]
363 Cn. Genucius Aventinensis L. Aemilius Mamercinus II
362 Q. Servilius Ahala II L. Genucius Aventinensis II
361 C. Licinius Stolo[71] C. Sulpicius Peticus II
360 M. Fabius Ambustus C. Poetelius Libo Visolus
359 M. Popillius Laenas Cn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus
358 C. Fabius Ambustus C. Plautius Proculus
357 C. Marcius Rutilus Cn. Manlius Capitolinus (Imperiosus II?)[72]
356 M. Fabius Ambustus II M. Popillius Laenas II
355 C. Sulpicius Peticus III M. Valerius Poplicola
354 M. Fabius Ambustus III T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus[73]
353 C. Sulpicius Peticus IV M. Valerius Poplicola II
352 P. Valerius Poplicola C. Marcius Rutilus II
351 C. Sulpicius Peticus V T. (or C. or K.) Quinctius Poenus (II?)[74]
350 M. Popillius Laenas III L. Cornelius Scipio
349 L. Furius Camillus[75] Ap. Claudius Crassus Inregillensis
348 M. Valerius Corvus M. Popillius Laenas IV
347 C. Plautius Venno (or Venox) T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus
346 M. Valerius Corvus II C. Poetelius Libo Visolus II
345 M. Fabius Dorsuo Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Rufus
344 C. Marcius Rutilus III T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus II
343 M. Valerius Corvus III A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina
342 Q. Servilius Ahala III C. Marcius Rutilus IV
341 C. Plautius Venno (or Venox) II L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas
340 T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus III P. Decius Mus
339 Ti. Aemilius Mamercinus Q. Publilius Philo
338 L. Furius Camillus C. Maenius
337 C. Sulpicius Longus P. Aelius Paetus
336 L. Papirius Crassus K. Duilius
335 M. Atilius Regulus Calenus M. Valerius Corvus IV
334 Sp. Postumius Albinus (Caudinus) T. Veturius Calvinus
333 Dictator: P. Cornelius Rufinus (fictitious year)[76]
332 Cn. Domitius Calvinus A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina II
331 C. Valerius Potitus M. Claudius Marcellus
330 L. Papirius Crassus II L. Plautius Venno (or Venox)
329 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas II C. Plautius Decianus
328 Plautius[77] P. Cornelius (Scapula or Scipio Barbatus)
327 L. Cornelius Lentulus Q. Publilius Philo II
326 C. Poetelius Libo Visolus III L. Papirius Cursor
325 L. Furius Camillus II D. Junius Brutus Scaeva
324 Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor (fictitious year)[76]
323 C. Sulpicius Longus II Q. Aulius Cerretanus
322 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus L. Fulvius Curvus
321 T. Veturius Calvinus II Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus II
320 Q. Publilius Philo III[78] L. Papirius Cursor II
319 L. Papirius Cursor III Q. Aulius Cerretanus II
318 M. Folius Flaccinator L. Plautius Venno (or Venox)
317 C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus Q. Aemilius Barbula
316 Sp. Nautius Rutilus M. Popillius Laenas
315 L. Papirius Cursor IV Q. Publilius Philo IV
314 M. Poetelius Libo C. Sulpicius Longus III
313 L. Papirius Cursor V C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus II
312 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus P. Decius Mus
311 C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus III Q. Aemilius Barbula II
310 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus II C. Marcius Rutilus (Censorinus)
309 Dictator: L. Papirius Cursor (fictitious year)[76]
308 P. Decius Mus II Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus III
307 Ap. Claudius Caecus[79] L. Volumnius Flamma Violens
306 Q. Marcius Tremulus P. Cornelius Arvina
305 L. Postumius Megellus Ti. Minucius Augurinus
suff. M. Fulvius Curvus Paetinus
304 P. Sempronius Sophus P. Sulpicius Saverrius
303 Ser. Cornelius Lentulus L. Genucius Aventinensis
302 M. Livius Denter M. Aemilius Paullus
301 Dictator: M. Valerius Maximus Corvus (fictitious year)[76]

Third century BC (300–201)

300 M. Valerius Corvus V Q. Appuleius Pansa
299 M. Fulvius Paetinus T. Manlius Torquatus
suff. M. Valerius Corvus VI
298 L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus Cn. Fulvius Maximus Centumalus
297 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus IV P. Decius Mus III
296 L. Volumnius Flamma Violens II Ap. Claudius Caecus II
295 Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus V P. Decius Mus IV
294 L. Postumius Megellus II M. Atilius Regulus
293 L. Papirius Cursor Sp. Carvilius Maximus
292 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges D. Junius Brutus Scaeva
291 L. Postumius Megellus III C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus
290 P. Cornelius Rufinus M'. Curius Dentatus
289 M. Valerius Maximus Corvinus II Q. Caedicius Noctua
288 Q. Marcius Tremulus II P. Cornelius Arvina II
287 M. Claudius Marcellus C. Nautius Rutilus
286 M. Valerius Maximus (Potitus? Corvinus III?) C. Aelius Paetus
285 C. Claudius Canina M. Aemilius Lepidus
284 C. Servilius Tucca L. Caecilius Metellus Denter
283 P. Cornelius Dolabella Cn. Domitius Calvinus Maximus
282 C. Fabricius Luscinus Q. Aemilius Papus
281 L. Aemilius Barbula Q. Marcius Philippus
280 P. Valerius Laevinus Ti. Coruncanius
279 P. Sulpicius Saverrio P. Decius Mus
278 C. Fabricius Luscinus II Q. Aemilius Papus II
277 P. Cornelius Rufinus II C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus II
276 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges II C. Genucius Clepsina
275 M'. Curius Dentatus II L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus
274 M'. Curius Dentatus III Ser. Cornelius Merenda
273 C. Fabius Licinus C. Claudius Canina II
272 L. Papirius Cursor II Sp. Carvilius Maximus II
271 C. Quinctius Claudus L. Genucius Clepsina
270 C. Genucius Clepsina II Cn. Cornelius Blasio
269 Q. Ogulnius Gallus C. Fabius Pictor
268 P. Sempronius Sophus Ap. Claudius Russus
267 M. Atilius Regulus L. Julius Libo
266 D. Junius Pera N. Fabius Pictor
265 Q. Fabius Maximus Gurges L. Mamilius Vitulus
264 Ap. Claudius Caudex M. Fulvius Flaccus
263 M'. Valerius Maximus Mesalla M'. Otacilius Crassus
262 L. Postumius Megellus Q. Mamilius Vitulus
261 L. Valerius Flaccus T. Otacilius Crassus
260 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina C. Duilius
259 L. Cornelius Scipio C. Aquillius Florus
258 A. Atilius Caiatinus C. Sulpicius Paterculus
257 C. Atilius Regulus Cn. Cornelius Blasio II
256 L. Manlius Vulso Longus Q. Caedicius
suff. M. Atilius Regulus II
255 Ser. Fulvius Paetinus Nobilior M. Aemilius Paullus
254 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina II A. Atilius Caiatinus II
253 Cn. Servilius Caepio C. Sempronius Blaesus
252 C. Aurelius Cotta P. Servilius Geminus
251 L. Caecilius Metellus C. Furius Pacilus
250 C. Atilius Regulus II L. Manlius Vulso Longus II
249 P. Claudius Pulcher L. Junius Pullus
248 C. Aurelius Cotta II P. Servilius Geminus II
247 L. Caecilius Metellus II N. Fabius Buteo
246 M'. Otacilius Crassus II M. Fabius Licinus
245 M. Fabius Buteo C. Atilius Bulbus
244 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus C. Sempronius Blaesus II
243 C. Fundanius Fundulus C. Sulpicius Galus
242 C. Lutatius Catulus A. Postumius Albinus
241 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus II Q. Lutatius Cerco
240 C. Claudius Centho M. Sempronius Tuditanus
239 C. Mamilius Turrinus Q. Valerius Falto
238 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus P. Valerius Falto
237 L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus Q. Fulvius Flaccus
236 P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus C. Licinius Varus
235 T. Manlius Torquatus C. Atilius Bulbus II
234 L. Postumius Albinus Sp. Carvilius Maximus Ruga
233 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus M'. Pomponius Matho
232 M. Aemilius Lepidus M. Publicius Malleolus
231 M. Pomponius Matho C. Papirius Maso
230 M. Aemilius Barbula M. Junius Pera
229 L. Postumius Albinus II Cn. Fulvius Centumalus
228 Sp. Carvilius Maximus Ruga II Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus II
227 P. Valerius Flaccus M. Atilius Regulus
226 M. Valerius Messalla L. Apustius Fullo
225 L. Aemilius Papus C. Atilius Regulus
224 T. Manlius Torquatus II Q. Fulvius Flaccus II
223 C. Flaminius P. Furius Philus
222 M. Claudius Marcellus[80] Cn. Cornelius Scipio Calvus
221 P. Cornelius Scipio Asina M. Minucius Rufus
220 M. Valerius Laevinus (invalidated) Q. Mucius Scaevola (invalidated)
220 C. Lutatius Catulus L. Veturius Philo
219 L. Aemilius Paullus M. Livius Salinator
218 P. Cornelius Scipio Ti. Sempronius Longus
217 Cn. Servilius Geminus C. Flaminius II
suff. M. Atilius Regulus II
216 C. Terentius Varro L. Aemilius Paullus II
215 L. Postumius Albinus III (killed before taking office) Ti. Sempronius Gracchus
suff. M. Claudius Marcellus II (invalidated)
suff. Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus III
214 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus IV M. Claudius Marcellus III
213 Q. Fabius Maximus Ti. Sempronius Gracchus II
212 Q. Fulvius Flaccus III Ap. Claudius Pulcher
211 Cn. Fulvius Centumalus Maximus P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus
210 M. Claudius Marcellus IV M. Valerius Laevinus II
209 Q. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus V Q. Fulvius Flaccus IV
208 M. Claudius Marcellus V T. Quinctius Crispinus
207 C. Claudius Nero M. Livius Salinator II
206 L. Veturius Philo Q. Caecilius Metellus
205 P. Cornelius Scipio (Africanus) P. Licinius Crassus Dives
204 M. Cornelius Cethegus P. Sempronius Tuditanus
203 Cn. Servilius Caepio C. Servilius Geminus
202 M. Servilius Pulex Geminus Ti. Claudius Nero
201 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus P. Aelius Paetus

Second century BC (200–101)

200 P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus II C. Aurelius Cotta
199 L. Cornelius Lentulus P. Villius Tappulus
198 T. Quinctius Flamininus Sex. Aelius Paetus Catus
197 C. Cornelius Cethegus Q. Minucius Rufus
196 L. Furius Purpureo M. Claudius Marcellus
195 L. Valerius Flaccus M. Porcius Cato
194 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus II Ti. Sempronius Longus
193 L. Cornelius Merula Q. Minucius Thermus
192 L. Quinctius Flamininus Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
191 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica M'. Acilius Glabrio
190 L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus C. Laelius
189 M. Fulvius Nobilior Cn. Manlius Vulso
188 M. Valerius Messalla C. Livius Salinator
187 M. Aemilius Lepidus C. Flaminius
186 Sp. Postumius Albinus Q. Marcius Philippus
185 Ap. Claudius Pulcher M. Sempronius Tuditanus
184 P. Claudius Pulcher L. Porcius Licinus
183 M. Claudius Marcellus Q. Fabius Labeo
182 Cn. Baebius Tamphilus L. Aemilius Paullus (Macedonicus)
181 P. Cornelius Cethegus M. Baebius Tamphilus
180 A. Postumius Albinus Luscus C. Calpurnius Piso
suff. Q. Fulvius Flaccus
179 Q. Fulvius Flaccus L. Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus
178 M. Junius Brutus A. Manlius Vulso
177 C. Claudius Pulcher Ti. Sempronius Gracchus
176 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispallus Q. Petillius Spurinus
suff. C. Valerius Laevinus
175 P. Mucius Scaevola M. Aemilius Lepidus II
174 Sp. Postumius Albinus Paullulus Q. Mucius Scaevola
173 L. Postumius Albinus M. Popillius Laenas
172 C. Popillius Laenas P. Aelius Ligus
171 P. Licinius Crassus C. Cassius Longinus
170 A. Hostilius Mancinus A. Atilius Serranus
169 Q. Marcius Philippus II Cn. Servilius Caepio
168 L. Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus II C. Licinius Crassus
167 Q. Aelius Paetus M. Junius Pennus
166 M. Claudius Marcellus C. Sulpicius Galus
165 T. Manlius Torquatus Cn. Octavius
164 A. Manlius Torquatus Q. Cassius Longinus
163 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus II M'. Juventius Thalna
162 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum C. Marcius Figulus
suff. P. Cornelius Lentulus Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
161 M. Valerius Messalla C. Fannius Strabo
160 L. Anicius Gallus M. Cornelius Cethegus
159 Cn. Cornelius Dolabella M. Fulvius Nobilior
158 M. Aemilius Lepidus C. Popillius Laenas II
157 Sex. Julius Caesar L. Aurelius Orestes
156 L. Cornelius Lentulus Lupus C. Marcius Figulus II
155 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum II M. Claudius Marcellus II
154 Q. Opimius L. Postumius Albinus
suff. M'. Acilius Glabrio
153 Q. Fulvius Nobilior[81] T. Annius Luscus
152 M. Claudius Marcellus III L. Valerius Flaccus
151 L. Licinius Lucullus A. Postumius Albinus
150 T. Quinctius Flamininus M'. Acilius Balbus
149 L. Marcius Censorinus M'. Manilius
148 Sp. Postumius Albinus Magnus L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
147 P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus C. Livius Drusus
146 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus L. Mummius Achaicus
145 Q. Fabius Maximus Aemilianus L. Hostilius Mancinus
144 Ser. Sulpicius Galba L. Aurelius Cotta
143 Ap. Claudius Pulcher Q. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus
142 L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus Q. Fabius Maximus Servilianus
141 Cn. Servilius Caepio Q. Pompeius
140 C. Laelius Sapiens Q. Servilius Caepio
139 Cn. Calpurnius Piso M. Popillius Laenas
138 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio D. Junius Brutus (Callaicus)
137 M. Aemilius Lepidus Porcina C. Hostilius Mancinus
136 L. Furius Philus Sex. Atilius Serranus
135 Ser. Fulvius Flaccus Q. Calpurnius Piso
134 P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Aemilianus II C. Fulvius Flaccus
133 P. Mucius Scaevola L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi
132 P. Popillius Laenas P. Rupilius
131 P. Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus L. Valerius Flaccus
130 L. Cornelius Lentulus M. Perperna
suff. Ap. Claudius Pulcher
129 C. Sempronius Tuditanus M'. Aquillius
128 Cn. Octavius T. Annius Rufus
127 L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla L. Cornelius Cinna
126 M. Aemilius Lepidus L. Aurelius Orestes
125 M. Plautius Hypsaeus M. Fulvius Flaccus
124 C. Cassius Longinus C. Sextius Calvinus
123 Q. Caecilius Metellus (Balearicus) T. Quinctius Flamininus
122 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus C. Fannius
121 L. Opimius Q. Fabius Maximus (Allobrogicus)
120 P. Manilius C. Papirius Carbo
119 L. Caecilius Metellus (Delmaticus) L. Aurelius Cotta
118 M. Porcius Cato Q. Marcius Rex
117 L. Caecilius Metellus Diadematus Q. Mucius Scaevola (Augur)
116 C. Licinius Geta Q. Fabius Maximus Eburnus
115 M. Aemilius Scaurus M. Caecilius Metellus
114 M'. Acilius Balbus C. Porcius Cato
113 C. Caecilius Metellus Caprarius Cn. Papirius Carbo
112 M. Livius Drusus L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
111 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica L. Calpurnius Bestia
110 M. Minucius Rufus Sp. Postumius Albinus
109 Q. Caecilius Metellus (Numidicus) M. Junius Silanus
108 Ser. Sulpicius Galba Hortensius (invalidated)
suff. M. Aurelius Scaurus
107 C. Marius I L. Cassius Longinus
106 Q. Servilius Caepio C. Atilius Serranus
105 P. Rutilius Rufus Cn. Mallius Maximus
104 C. Marius II C. Flavius Fimbria
103 C. Marius III L. Aurelius Orestes
102 C. Marius IV Q. Lutatius Catulus
101 C. Marius V M'. Aquillius

First century BC (100–1)

100 C. Marius VI L. Valerius Flaccus
99[82] M. Antonius A. Postumius Albinus
98 Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos T. Didius
97 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus P. Licinius Crassus
96 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus C. Cassius Longinus
95 L. Licinius Crassus Q. Mucius Scaevola (Pontifex)
94 C. Coelius Caldus L. Domitius Ahenobarbus
93 C. Valerius Flaccus M. Herennius
92 C. Claudius Pulcher M. Perperna
91 L. Marcius Philippus Sex. Julius Caesar
90 L. Julius Caesar P. Rutilius Lupus
89 Cn. Pompeius Strabo L. Porcius Cato
88 L. Cornelius Sulla Q. Pompeius Rufus
87 Cn. Octavius L. Cornelius Cinna
suff. L. Cornelius Merula
86 L. Cornelius Cinna II C. Marius VII
suff. L. Valerius Flaccus
85 L. Cornelius Cinna III Cn. Papirius Carbo
84 Cn. Papirius Carbo II L. Cornelius Cinna IV
83 L. Cornelius Scipio Asiagenes (Asiaticus) C. Norbanus
82 C. Marius Cn. Papirius Carbo III
81 M. Tullius Decula Cn. Cornelius Dolabella
80 L. Cornelius Sulla Felix II Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius
79 P. Servilius Vatia (Isauricus) Ap. Claudius Pulcher
78 M. Aemilius Lepidus Q. Lutatius Catulus
77 D. Junius Brutus Mam. Aemilius Lepidus Livianus
76 Cn. Octavius C. Scribonius Curio
75 L. Octavius C. Aurelius Cotta
74 L. Licinius Lucullus M. Aurelius Cotta
73 M. Terentius Varro Lucullus C. Cassius Longinus
72 L. Gellius Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus
71 P. Cornelius Lentulus Sura Cn. Aufidius Orestes
70 Cn. Pompeius Magnus M. Licinius Crassus
69 Q. Hortensius Hortalus Q. Caecilius Metellus (Creticus)
68 L. Caecilius Metellus Q. Marcius Rex
suff. (Servilius) Vatia (died before taking office)
67 C. Calpurnius Piso M'. Acilius Glabrio
66 M'. Aemilius Lepidus L. Volcacius Tullus
65 P. Cornelius Sulla (invalidated) P. Autronius Paetus (invalidated)
suff. L. Aurelius Cotta L. Manlius Torquatus
64 L. Julius Caesar (?) Minucius Thermus[83]
C. Marcius Figulus
63 M. Tullius Cicero C. Antonius Hybrida
62 D. Junius Silanus L. Licinius Murena
61 M. Pupius Piso Frugi Calpurnianus M. Valerius Messalla Niger
60[84] L. Afranius Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer
59 C. Julius Caesar M. Calpurnius Bibulus
58 L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus A. Gabinius
57 P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos
56 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus L. Marcius Philippus
55 Cn. Pompeius Magnus II M. Licinius Crassus II
54 L. Domitius Ahenobarbus Ap. Claudius Pulcher
53 Cn. Domitius Calvinus M. Valerius Messalla Rufus
52 Cn. Pompeius Magnus III Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio (from 1 September)
51 Ser. Sulpicius Rufus M. Claudius Marcellus
50 L. Aemilius Paullus C. Claudius Marcellus
49 C. Claudius Marcellus L. Cornelius Lentulus Crus
48 C. Julius Caesar II P. Servilius Isauricus
47 Q. Fufius Calenus P. Vatinius
46 C. Julius Caesar III M. Aemilius Lepidus
45 C. Julius Caesar IV sine collega
suff. Q. Fabius Maximus (from 1 October) C. Trebonius (from 1 October)
suff. C. Caninius Rebilus (31 December)
44 C. Julius Caesar V M. Antonius
suff. P. Cornelius Dolabella
43[85] C. Vibius Pansa Caetronianus A. Hirtius
suff. C. Julius Caesar (Octavianus) Q. Pedius
suff. C. Carrinas P. Ventidius
42 M. Aemilius Lepidus II L. Munatius Plancus
41 L. Antonius Pietas P. Servilius Isauricus II
40 Cn. Domitius Calvinus II C. Asinius Pollio
suff. L. Cornelius Balbus P. Canidius Crassus
39[86] L. Marcius Censorinus C. Calvisius Sabinus
suff. C. Cocceius Balbus (after 2 October) P. Alfenus Varus (after 2 October)
38[86] Ap. Claudius Pulcher C. Norbanus Flaccus
suff. L. Cornelius Lentulus (from 1 July) L. Marcius Philippus (from 1 September)
37 M. (Vipsanius) Agrippa L. Caninius Gallus
suff. T. Statilius Taurus
36[87] L. Gellius Poplicola M. Cocceius Nerva
suff. L. Nonius Asprenas (from 1 September) Q. Marcius Rufus[88] (from 1 July)
35[86] L. Cornificius Sex. Pompeius
suff. P. Cornelius Dolabella (from 1 September) T. Peducaeus (from 1 July)
34[89] M. Antonius II (1 January only) L. Scribonius Libo
suff. L. Sempronius Atratinus
suff. Paullus Aemilius Lepidus (from 1 July) C. Memmius (from 1 July)
suff. M. Herennius Picens (from September or November)
33[89] Imp. Caesar (Octavianus) II (1 January only) L. Volcacius Tullus
suff. L. Autronius Paetus
suff. L. Flavius (1 May – before October) C. Fonteius Capito (1 May – before October)
M. Acilius Glabrio (1 July – before October)
L. Vinicius (from 1 September)
Q. Laronius (from 1 October)
32 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus C. Sosius
suff. L. Cornelius (Balbus? Cinna?)[90] M. Valerius Messalla
31 M. Antonius III (in the east) Imp. Caesar III
suff. M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus (from 1 January)
suff. M. Titius (from 1 May)
suff. Cn. Pompeius (from 1 October)
30[91] Imp. Caesar IV M. Licinius Crassus
suff. C. Antistius Vetus (from 1 July)
suff. M. Tullius Cicero (from 1 September)
suff. L. Saenius
29 Imp. Caesar V Sex. Appuleius
suff. Potitus Valerius Messalla
28 Imp. Caesar VI M. Agrippa II
27 Imp. Caesar Augustus VII M. Agrippa III
26 Imp. Caesar Augustus VIII T. Statilius Taurus II
25 Imp. Caesar Augustus IX M. Junius Silanus
24 Imp. Caesar Augustus X C. Norbanus Flaccus
23 Imp. Caesar Augustus XI A. Terentius Varro Murena (abdicated)[92]
suff. L. Sestius Albanianus Quirinalis (from 1 July)[93] Cn. Calpurnius Piso
22 M. Claudius Marcellus Aeserninus L. Arruntius
21 M. Lollius Q. Aemilius Lepidus
20 M. Appuleius P. Silius Nerva
19 C. Sentius Saturninus Q. Lucretius Vespillo (after 1 August)[94]
suff. M. Vinicius (after 1 August)
18 P. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Cn. Cornelius Lentulus
17 C. Furnius C. Junius Silanus
16 L. Domitius Ahenobarbus P. Cornelius Scipio
suff. L. Tarius Rufus
15 M. Livius Drusus Libo L. Calpurnius Piso
14 M. Licinius Crassus Frugi Cn. Cornelius Lentulus (Augur)
13 Ti. Claudius Nero P. Quinctilius Varus
12[95] M. Valerius Messalla Appianus P. Sulpicius Quirinius
suff. C. Valgius Rufus (by 6 March)
suff. C. Caninius Rebilus (after 29 August) L. Volusius Saturninus (after 29 August)
11 Q. Aelius Tubero Paullus Fabius Maximus
10 Africanus Fabius Maximus Iullus Antonius
9 Nero Claudius Drusus T. Quinctius Crispinus Sulpicianus
8 C. Marcius Censorinus C. Asinius Gallus
7 Ti. Claudius Nero II Cn. Calpurnius Piso
6 D. Laelius Balbus C. Antistius Vetus
5[96] Imp. Caesar Augustus XII L. Cornelius Sulla
suff. Q. Haterius (after 11 April) L. Vinicius (after 11 April)
suff. C. Sulpicius Galba (by 13 August)
4 C. Calvisius Sabinus L. Passienus Rufus
suff. C. Caelius Galus Sulpicius (after 1 July)[97]
3 L. Cornelius Lentulus M. Valerius Messalla Messallinus
2[97] Imp. Caesar Augustus XIII M. Plautius Silvanus
suff. C. Fufius Geminus (by 18 September) L. Caninius Gallus (by 1 August)
suff. Q. Fabricius (by 1 December)
1 Cossus Cornelius Lentulus (Gaetulicus) L. Calpurnius Piso (Augur)
suff. A. Plautius A. Caecina Severus

First century (1–100)

1[98] C. Caesar L. Aemilius Paullus
Jul. M. Herennius Picens
2 P. Vinicius P. Alfenus Varus
Jul. P. Cornelius Lentulus Scipio T. Quinctius Crispinus Valerianus
3 L. Aelius Lamia M. Servilius
Jul. P. Silius L. Volusius Saturninus
4 Sex. Aelius Catus C. Sentius Saturninus
Jul. Cn. Sentius Saturninus C. Clodius Licinus
5 L. Valerius Messalla Volesus Cn. Cornelius Cinna Magnus
Jul. C. Vibius Postumus C. Ateius Capito
6 M. Aemilius Lepidus L. Arruntius
Jul. L. Nonius Asprenas
7 Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus Silanus A. Licinius Nerva Silianus
Jul. Lucilius Longus
8 M. Furius Camillus Sex. Nonius Quinctilianus
Jul. L. Apronius A. Vibius Habitus
9 C. Poppaeus Sabinus Q. Sulpicius Camerinus
Jul. M. Papius Mutilus Q. Poppaeus Secundus
10 P. Cornelius Dolabella C. Junius Silanus
Jul. Ser. Cornelius Lentulus Maluginensis Q. Junius Blaesus
11 M'. Aemilius Lepidus T. Statilius Taurus
Jul. L. Cassius Longinus
12 Germanicus Julius Caesar C. Fonteius Capito
Jul. C. Visellius Varro
13[99] C. Silius L. Munatius Plancus
suff. C. Caecina Largus
14[100] Sex. Pompeius Sex. Appuleius
15 Drusus Julius Caesar C. Norbanus Flaccus
Jul. M. Junius Silanus
16 Sisenna Statilius Taurus L. Scribonius Libo
Jul. C. Vibius Rufus C. Pomponius Graecinus
17 L. Pomponius Flaccus C. Caelius Rufus
suff. C. Vibius Marsus L. Voluseius Proculus
18 Ti. Caesar Augustus III (January) Germanicus Julius Caesar II (January–April)
suff. L. Seius Tubero (February–July) Livineius Regulus (May–July)
suff. C. Rubellius Blandus (August–December) M. Vipstanus Gallus
19 M. Junius Silanus Torquatus L. Norbanus Balbus
Jul. P. Petronius
20 M. Valerius Messalla Barbatus M. Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus
21 Ti. Caesar Augustus IV Drusus Julius Caesar II
suff. Mam. Aemilius Scaurus Cn. Tremellius
22 D. Haterius Agrippa C. Sulpicius Galba
23 C. Asinius Pollio C. Antistius Vetus
suff. C. Stertinius Maximus
24 Ser. Cornelius Cethegus L. Visellius Varro
Jul. C. Calpurnius Aviola P. Cornelius Lentulus Scipio
25 Cossus Cornelius Lentulus M. Asinius Agrippa
Sep. C. Petronius
26 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus C. Calvisius Sabinus
suff. Q. Junius Blaesus L. Antistius Vetus
27 L. Calpurnius Piso M. Licinius Crassus Frugi
suff. P. Cornelius Lentulus C. Sallustius Passienus Crispus
28 Ap. Junius Silanus P. Silius Nerva
suff. L. Junius Silanus C. Vellaeus Tutor
29 C. Fufius Geminus L. Rubellius Geminus
Jul. A. Plautius L. Nonius Asprenas
30 L. Cassius Longinus M. Vinicius
Jul. L. Naevius Surdinus C. Cassius Longinus
31[101] Ti. Caesar Augustus V L. Aelius Sejanus
9 May Faustus Cornelius Sulla Sex. Tedius Valerius Catullus
Jul. L. Fulcinius Trio
Oct. P. Memmius Regulus
32 Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus L. Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus
Jul. A. Vitellius
33 L. Livius Ocella Sulpicius Galba L. Cornelius Sulla Felix
Jul. L. Salvius Otho C. Octavius Laenas
34 Paullus Fabius Persicus L. Vitellius
Jul. Q. Marcius Barea Soranus T. Rustius Nummius Gallus
35 C. Cestius Gallus M. Servilius Nonianus
Jul. D. Valerius Asiaticus A. Gabinius Secundus
36 Sex. Papinius Allenius Q. Plautius
Jul. C. Vettius Rufus[102] M. Porcius Cato
37[103] Cn. Acerronius Proculus C. Petronius Pontius Nigrinus
1 Jul. C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus
1 Sep. A. Caecina Paetus C. Caninius Rebilus
38 M. Aquila Julianus P. Nonius Asprenas Calpurnius Serranus
1 Jul. Ser. Asinius Celer Sex. Nonius Quinctilianus
39 C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus II L. Apronius Caesianus
Feb. Q. Sanquinius Maximus
1 Jul. Cn. Domitius Corbulo unidentified
suff. Cn. Domitius Afer A. Didius Gallus (2 September–December)
40 C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus III without colleague
id. Jan. C. Laecanius Bassus Q. Terentius Culleo
41[104] C. Caesar Augustus Germanicus IV (January) Cn. Sentius Saturninus (January–June)
suff. Q. Pomponius Secundus (February–June)
1 Jul. unidentified unidentified
suff. Q. Futius Lusius Saturninus (September–October) M. Seius Varanus
suff. Q. Ostorius Scapula[105] (November–December) P. Suillius Rufus
42 Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus II C. Caecina Largus
Mar. C. Cestius Gallus
Sep.? Cornelius Lupus
43[106] Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus III L. Vitellius II
Mar. Sex. Palpellius Hister L. Pedanius Secundus
Aug.? A. Gabinius Secundus unidentified
Oct. Q. Curtius Rufus Sp. Oppius
44[107] C. Sallustius Passienus Crispus II T. Statilius Taurus
suff. P. Calvisius Sabinus Pomponius Secundus
suff. (?) T. Axius (?) T. Mussidius Pollianus
45 M. Vinicius II T. Statilius Taurus Corvinus
1 Mar. Ti. Plautius Silvanus Aelianus[108]
Jul.? M. Pompeius Silvanus Staberius Flavianus A. Antonius Rufus
Dec.? (?) P. Fabius Firmanus (?) L. Tampius Flavianus
46 D. Valerius Asiaticus II (January–February) M. Junius Silanus (January–December)
suff. Camerinus Antistius Vetus (early March)[109]
suff. Q. Sulpicius Camerinus (early March – June)
suff. D. Laelius Balbus (July–August)
suff. C. Terentius Tullius Geminus (September–December)
47[110] Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus IV L. Vitellius III
1 Mar. C. Calpetanus Rantius Sedatus M. Hordeonius Flaccus
1 Jul. Cn. Hosidius Geta T. Flavius Sabinus
1 Sep. L. Vagellius
1 Nov. C. Volasenna Severus
48[111] A. Vitellius L. Vipstanus Poplicola
1 Jul. L. Vitellius Messalla Vipstanus Gallus
49 Q. Veranius C. Pompeius Longinus Gallus
suff. L. Mammius Pollio Q. Allius Maximus
50 C. Antistius Vetus II M. Suillius Nerullinus
suff. Q. Futius P. Calvisius
51[112] Ti. Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus V Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus
Sep.? L. Calventius Vetus Carminius
Nov. T. Flavius Vespasianus
52[112] Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix L. Salvius Otho Titianus
Jul. Q. Marcius Barea Soranus
Nov.? L. Salvidienus Rufus Salvianus
53 D. Junius Silanus Torquatus Q. Haterius Antoninus
suff. Q. Caecina Primus P. Trebonius
suff. P. Calvisius Ruso
54 M'. Acilius Aviola M. Asinius Marcellus
Jul.? M. Junius Silanus A. Pompeius Paulinus
Sep.? Vellaeus Tutor
55[113] Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus L. Antistius Vetus
1 Mar. N. Cestius
1 May P. Cornelius Dolabella L. Annaeus Seneca
1 Jul. M. Trebellius Maximus
1 Sep. T. (or P.?) Palfurius
1 Nov. Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus T. Curtilius Mancia
56 Q. Volusius Saturninus P. Cornelius Scipio
1 Jul. L. Junius Gallio Annaeanus T. Cutius Ciltus
1 Sep. P. Sulpicius Scribonius Rufus P. Sulpicius Scribonius Proculus
1 Nov. L. Duvius Avitus P. Clodius Thrasea Paetus
57 Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus II L. Calpurnius Piso
1 Jul. L. Caesius Martialis
58 Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus III M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus
1 May C. Fonteius Agrippa
1 Jul. A. Paconius Sabinus A. Petronius Lurco
59 C. Vipstanus Apronianus C. Fonteius Capito
1 Jul. T. Sextius Africanus M. Ostorius Scapula
60 Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus IV Cossus Cornelius Lentulus
1 Jul. C. Velleius Paterculus[114] M. Manilius Vopiscus
61 P. Petronius Turpilianus L. Junius Caesennius Paetus
1 Jul. Cn. Pedanius Fuscus Salinator L. Velleius Paterculus
62 P. Marius Lucius Afinius Gallus
Jul.? Q. Manlius Tarquitius Saturninus P. Petronius Niger
Sep.? T. Clodius Eprius Marcellus C. Junius Marullus
63 C. Memmius Regulus L. Verginius Rufus
suff. unidentified[115] unidentified
64 C. Laecanius Bassus M. Licinius Crassus Frugi
suff. unidentified unidentified
65 A. Licinius Nerva Silianus M. Julius Vestinus Atticus (killed)
suff. P. Pasidienus Firmus (attested 17 Jun.)
suff. C. Pomponius Pius (attested 13 Aug.) C. Anicius Cerialis (attested 13 Aug.)
66 C. Luccius Telesinus C. Suetonius Paullinus
Jul. M. Annius Afrinus C. Paccius Africanus
Sep. M. Arruntius Aquila M. Vettius Bolanus
67 L. Julius Rufus Fonteius Capito
suff. L. Aurelius Priscus
Jul. Ap. Annius Gallus L. Verulanus Severus
68 Ti. Catius Asconius Silius Italicus P. Galerius Trachalus
suff. Imp. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus V (Apr.–Jun.) C. Luccius Telesinus II (from May?)
suff. C. Bellicus Natalis P. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus
69[116] Ser. Galba Caesar Augustus[118] II (until 15 Jan.) T. Vinius (Rufinus?) (until 15 Jan.)
suff. M. Otho Caesar Augustus[119] (15 Jan.–28 Feb.) L. Salvius Otho Titianus II
suff. L. Verginius Rufus II (March) L. Pompeius Vopiscus
suff. Cn. Arulenus Caelius Sabinus (April–June) T. Flavius Sabinus
suff. Cn. Arrius Antoninus (July–August) A. Marius Celsus
suff. Fabius Valens (September–October) A. Caecina Alienus (September–30 October)
suff. Rosius Regulus (31 October)
suff. Cn. Caecilius Simplex (November−December) C. Quinctius Atticus
70[120] Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus II T. Caesar Vespasianus
suff. C. Licinius Mucianus II (Apr.?) unidentified
suff. M. Ulpius Traianus (May?) unidentified
suff. (…)ne(…) unidentified
Nov.? L. Annius Bassus C. Laecanius Bassus Caecina Paetus
71 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus III M. Cocceius Nerva
Apr.? Caesar Domitianus Cn. Pedius Cascus
May? C. Calpetanus Rantius Quirinalis Valerius Festus
Jul.? L. Flavius Fimbria C. Atilius Barbarus
1 Nov. Cn. Pompeius Collega Q. Julius Cordus
72 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus IV T. Caesar Vespasianus II
suff. C. Licinius Mucianus III (attested 29 May) T. Flavius Sabinus II (attested 29 May)
suff. Q. Julius Cordinus C. Rutilius Gallicus unidentified
suff.[121] Sex. Marcius Priscus (attested 30 Dec.) Cn. Pinarius Aemilius Cicatricula (attested 30 Dec.)
73 Caesar Domitianus II L. Valerius Catullus Messallinus
1 May M. Arrecinus Clemens (…)m(…)
suff.[122] unidentified unidentified
74 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus V T. Caesar Vespasianus III
id. Jan. Ti. Plautius Silvanus Aelianus II
id. Mar. L. Junius Q. Vibius Crispus II
id. May Q. Petillius Cerialis Caesius Rufus II T. Clodius Eprius Marcellus II
1 Jul. (…)on(…)[123] unidentified
Sep.? C. Pomponius L. Manlius Patruinus
75 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VI T. Caesar Vespasianus IV
suff. Caesar Domitianus III (attested 12 Mar. / 28 Apr.) L. Pasidienus Firmus (attested 12 Mar. / 28 Apr.)
76 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VII T. Caesar Vespasianus V
suff. Caesar Domitianus IV unidentified
suff.[124] (?) L. Tampius Flavianus II (?) M. Pompeius Silvanus Staberius Flavianus II
suff. Galeo Tettienus Petronianus (attested 2 Dec.) M. Fulvius Gillo (attested 2 Dec.)
77[125] Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VIII T. Caesar Vespasianus VI
suff. Caesar Domitianus V unidentified
Sep.? (?) L. Pompeius Vopiscus C. Arruntius Catellius Celer (?) M. Arruntius Aquila
Nov.? Cn. Julius Agricola unidentified
78 D. Junius Novius Priscus L. Ceionius Commodus
May.? (Q. Articuleius?) Paetus Sex. Vitulasius Nepos
Sep.? Q. Corellius Rufus L. Funisulanus Vettonianus
79 Imp. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus IX T. Caesar Vespasianus VII
suff. Caesar Domitianus VI unidentified
1 Mar. L. Junius Caesennius Paetus (attested until 29 May) P. Calvisius Ruso[126]
suff. T. Rubrius Aelius Nepos (attested 8 Sep.) M. Arrius Flaccus
80[127] Imp. T. Caesar Vespasianus Augustus VIII Caesar Domitianus VII
id. Jan. A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiento II L. Aelius Plautius Lamia Aelianus
Mar.? Q. Aurelius Pactumeius Fronto
May? C. Marius Marcellus Octavius P. Cluvius Rufus
1 Jul. unidentified Q. Pompeius Trio
Sep.? L. Acilius Strabo Sex. Neranius Capito
Nov.? M. Tittius Frugi M. Vinicius Julius Rufus[128]
81 L. Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus M. Asinius Pollio Verrucosus
Mar.? M. Roscius Coelius C. Julius Juvenalis
May? L. Julius Vettius Paullus T. Junius Montanus
1 Jul. C. Scoedius Natta Pinarianus T. Tettienus Serenus
Sep.? M. Petronius Umbrinus L. Carminius Lusitanicus
1 Nov. L. Turpilius Dexter M. Maecius Rufus
82 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus VIII T. Flavius Sabinus
Feb.? (? Servaeus In)noc(ens) L. Salvius Otho Cocceianus
Mar.? (…)an(us) M'. Acilius Aviola
Apr.? (M. Mettius? Mo)dest(us)[129] unidentified
May? unidentified unidentified
Jul.? P. Valerius Patruinus L. Antonius Saturninus
Sep.? M. Larcius Magnus Pompeius Silo T. Aurelius Quietus
Nov.? unidentified unidentified
83 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus IX Q. Petillius Rufus II
Feb.? A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiento III L. Junius Q. Vibius Crispus III
Mar.? (?) M. Arrecinus Clemens II[130] (?) L. Baebius Honoratus
May? L. Tettius Julianus Terentius Strabo Erucius Homullus
Sep.? L. Calventius Sex. Carminius Vetus M. Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius Maternus
Nov.? unidentified unidentified
84 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus X C. Oppius Sabinus
suff. (?) C. Fisius Sabinus (attested 24 Apr.) (?) M. Annius Messalla (attested 24 Apr.)
Jul.? unidentified L. Julius Ursus
Sep.? C. Tullius Capito Pomponianus Plotius Firmus C. Cornelius Gallicanus
Nov.? unidentified (P. Glitius? G)allus[131]
85 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XI T. Aurelius Fulvus II
Mar.? Q. Julius Cordinus C. Rutilius Gallicus II L. Valerius Catullus Messallinus II
May? L. Aelius Oculatus Q. Gavius Atticus
Jul.? P. Herennius Pollio M. Annius Herennius Pollio
Sep.? D. Aburius Bassus Q. Julius Balbus
Nov.? C. Salvius Liberalis Nonius Bassus Cornelius Orestes[132]
86 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XII Ser. Cornelius Dolabella Petronianus
id. Jan. C. Secius Campanus
Mar.? unidentified Q. Vibius Secundus
1 May Sex. Octavius Fronto Ti. Julius Candidus Marius Celsus
1 Sep. A. Bucius Lappius Maximus C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus L. Javolenus Priscus
87 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XIII L. Volusius Saturninus
id. Jan. C. Calpurnius Piso Crassus Frugi Licinianus
1 May C. Bellicus Natalis P. Gavidius Tebanianus[133] C. Ducenius Proculus
1 Sep. C. Cilnius Proculus L. Neratius Priscus
88 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XIV L. Minicius Rufus
id. Jan. D. Plotius Grypus
1 May Q. Ninnius Hasta (L. Scribonius?) Libo (Rupilius?) Frugi
1 Sep. M'. Otacilius Catulus Sex. Julius Sparsus
89 T. Aurelius Fulvus M. Asinius Atratinus
1 May P. Sallustius Blaesus M. Peducaeus Saenianus
1 Sep. A. Vicirius Proculus M'. Laberius Maximus
90 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XV M. Cocceius Nerva II
id. Jan. L. Cornelius Pusio Annius Messalla
1 Mar. L. Antistius Rusticus Ser. Julius Servianus
1 May Q. Accaeus Rufus C. Caristanius Fronto
1 Jul. P. Baebius Italicus C. Aquilius Proculus
1 Sep. L. Albius Pullaienus Pollio Cn. Pinarius Aemilius Cicatricula Pompeius Longinus
1 Nov. M. Tullius Cerialis Cn. Pompeius Catullinus
91 M'. Acilius Glabrio M. Ulpius Trajanus
1 May Cn. Minicius Faustinus P. Valerius Marinus
1 Sep. Q. Valerius Vegetus P. Metilius Sabinus Nepos
92 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XVI Q. Volusius Saturninus
id. Jan. L. Venuleius Montanus Apronianus
1 May L. Stertinius Avitus Ti. Julius Celsus Polemaeanus
1 Sep. C. Julius Silanus Q. Junius Arulenus Rusticus
93 Sex. Pompeius Collega Q. Peducaeus Priscinus
1 May T. Avidius Quietus Sex. Lusianus Proculus
1 Sep. C. Cornelius Rarus Sextius Na(so?) (? Tuccius Ceria)lis
94 L. Nonius Calpurnius Asprenas Torquatus T. Sextius Magius Lateranus
1 May M. Lollius Paullinus D. Valerius Asiaticus Saturninus C. Antius A. Julius Quadratus
1 Sep. L. Silius Decianus T. Pomponius Bassus
95 Imp. Caesar Domitianus Augustus XVII T. Flavius Clemens
id. Jan. L. Neratius Marcellus
1 May A. Bucius Lappius Maximus II P. Ducenius Verus
1 Sep. Q. Pomponius Rufus L. Baebius Tullus
96 C. Manlius Valens C. Antistius Vetus
1 May Q. Fabius Postuminus T. Prifernius Paetus
1 Sep. Ti. Catius Caesius Fronto M. Calpurnius (…)cus
97 Imp. Nerva Caesar Augustus III L. Verginius Rufus III
Mar.? Cn. Arrius Antoninus II (C.?) Calpurnius Piso
May? M. Annius Verus L. Neratius Priscus
Jul.? L. Domitius Apollinaris Sex. Hermentidius Campanus
Sep.? L. Pomponius Maternus Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola
Nov.? P. Cornelius Tacitus (?) M. Ostorius Scapula[134]
98[135] Imp. Nerva Caesar Augustus IV Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus II[136]
id. Jan. Cn. Domitius Afer Curvius Tullus II
1 Feb. Sex. Julius Frontinus II
1 Mar. L. Julius Ursus II
1 Apr. T. Vestricius Spurinna II
1 May C. Pomponius Pius
1 Jul. A. Vicirius Martialis L. Maecius Postumus
1 Sep. C. Pomponius Rufus Acilius [Pri]scus Coelius Sparsus Cn. Pompeius Ferox Licinianus
1 Nov. Q. Fulvius Gillo Bittius Proculus P. Julius Lupus
99[137] A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus Q. Sosius Senecio
suff. P. Sulpicius Lucretius Barba (from 1 Apr. or 1 May) Senecio Memmius Afer (from 1 Apr. or 1 May)[138]
suff. Q. Fabius Barbarus Valerius Magnus Julianus A. Caecilius Faustinus
suff. Ti. Julius Ferox[139] unidentified
100[140] Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus III Sex. Julius Frontinus III
id. Jan. L. Julius Ursus III
Mar. M. Marcius Macer C. Cilnius Proculus
May L. Herennius Saturninus Pomponius Mamilianus
Jul. Q. Acutius Nerva L. Fabius Tuscus
Sep. C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus C. Julius Cornutus Tertullus
Nov. L. Roscius Aelianus Maecius Celer Ti. Claudius Sacerdos Julianus

Second century (101–200)

101[141] Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus IV (January) Q. Articuleius Paetus II (January–March)
suff. Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus (February–March)
suff. C. Sertorius Brocchus Q. Servaeus Innocens (April–May) M. Maecius Celer
suff. [...]us Proculus (sometime between May and October) ignotus
suff.[142] L. Arruntius Stella (attested October) L. Julius Marinus Caecilius Simplex
102 L. Julius Ursus Servianus II (January–April) L. Licinius Sura II (January–February)
suff. L. Fabius Justus (March–April)
suff.[143] T. Didius Secundus (May–August) L. Publilius Celsus
suff. L. Antonius Albus (September–December) M. Junius Homullus
103 Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus V (January) M'. Laberius Maximus II (January–March)
suff. Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola II (January–March)
suff. P. Metilius Nepos (April–June) Q. Baebius Macer
suff. [? M. Flavius Ap]er[144] (July–September) C. Trebonius Proculus Mettius Modestus
suff. (A?)nnius Mela (October–December) P. Calpurnius Macer Caulius Rufus
104 Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus II M. Asinius Marcellus
suff.[145] Sex. Subrius Dexter Cornelius Priscus Cn. C[---]ius Paullus Caesonianus
105 Ti. Julius Candidus Marius Celsus II (January–March) C. Antius A. Julius Quadratus II
suff. C. Julius Quadratus Bassus (May–August) Cn. Afranius Dexter (May–15 July)
suff. Q. Caelius Honoratus (July–August)
suff. M. Vitorius Marcellus (September–December) C. Caecilius Strabo
106 L. Ceionius Commodus Sex. Vettulenus Civica Cerialis
suff. L. Minicius Natalis Q. Licinius Silvanus Granianus Quadronius Proculus
107 L. Licinius Sura III (January–February or April)[146] Q. Sosius Senecio II
suff. Acilius Rufus[147] (March–April)
suff. C. Minicius Fundanus (May–August) C. Vettennius Severus
suff. C. Julius Longinus (September–December) C. Valerius Paullinus
108 Ap. Annius Trebonius Gallus (January–?) M. Appius Bradua
suff. P. Aelius Hadrianus (attested 22 June) M. Trebatius Priscus
suff.[148] Q. Pompeius Falco (attested 27 July) M. Titius Lustricus Bruttianus
109 A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus II (January–February) P. Calvisius Tullus Ruso (January–April)
suff. L. Annius Largus (March–April)
suff. Cn. Antonius Fuscus (May–August) C. Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappus
suff. C. Aburnius Valens (September–December) C. Julius Proculus
110 M. Peducaeus Priscinus (January–March) Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus
suff. C. Avidius Nigrinus (April–June) Ti. Julius Aquila Polemaeanus
suff. L. Catilius Severus Julianus Claudius Reginus (July–September) C. Erucianus Silo
suff. A. Larcius Priscus (October–December) Sex. Marcius Honoratus
111 C. Calpurnius Piso (January–April) M. Vettius Bolanus
suff. T. Avidius Quietus (May–August) L. Eggius Marullus
suff. L. Octavius Crassus (September–December) P. Coelius Apollinaris
112 Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus VI (January) T. Sextius Cornelius Africanus (January–March)
suff. [M. ?] Licinius Ruso (January–March)
suff. Cn. Pinarius Cornelius Severus (April–June) L. Mummius Niger Q. Valerius Vegetus
suff. P. Stertinius Quartus (July–September) T. Julius Maximus Manlianus Brocchus Servilianus
suff. C. Claudius Severus (October–December) T. Settidius Firmus
113 L. Publilius Celsus II (January) C. Clodius Crispinus (January–April)
suff. Ser. Cornelius Dolabella Metilianus Pompeius Marcellus (February–April)
suff. L. Stertinius Noricus (May–August) L. Fadius Rufinus
suff. Cn. Cornelius Urbicus (September–December) T. Sempronius Rufus
114 Q. Ninnius Hasta (January–April) P. Manilius Vopiscus Vicinillianus
suff. C. Clodius Nummus (May–August) L. Caesennius Sospes[149]
suff. L. Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus (September–December) M. Messius Rusticus[150]
115 L. Vipstanus Messalla (January–April) M. Pedo Vergilianus (January)
suff. T. Statilius Maximus Severus Hadrianus (February–April)
suff. L. Julius Frugi (May–August) P. Juventius Celsus T. Aufidius Hoenius Severianus
suff. M. Pompeius Macrinus Neos Theophanes (September–December) T. Vibius Varus
116[151] L. Fundanius Lamia Aelianus (January–March) Sex. Carminius Vetus
suff. Ti. Julius Secundus (April–June) M. Egnatius Marcellinus
suff. D. Terentius Gentianus[152] (July–September) L. Co[...][153]
suff. L. Statius Aquila (October–December) C. Julius Alexander Berenicianus
117 Q. Aquilius Niger (January–? March) M. Rebilus Apronianus
suff. L. Cossonius Gallus (attested 16 August) P. Afranius Flavianus
118[154] Imp. Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus Augustus II (January–June) Cn. Pedanius Fuscus Salinator (January–February)
suff. Bellicius Tebanianus (March)
suff. C. Ummidius Quadratus (attested May)
suff. L. Pomponius Bassus (attested 9 July and 31 August) T. Sabinius Barbarus
119[155] Imp. Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus III (January–April) P. Dasumius Rusticus (January–February)
suff. A. Platorius Nepos (March–April)
suff. M. Paccius Silvanus Q. Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus (May–June) Q. Vibius Gallus
suff. C. Herennius Capella (November–December) L. Coelius Rufus
120[156] L. Catilius Severus Julianus Claudius Reginus II T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus
suff. C. Quinctius Certus Poblicius Marcellus (May–June) T. Rutilius Propinquus
suff. C. Arminius Gallus[157] (attested 19 October) C. Atilius Serranus
121 M. Annius Verus II (January–February) Cn. Arrius Augur
suff. M. Herennius Faustus (March–April) Q. Pomponius Marcellus
suff. T. Pomponius Antistianus Funisulanus Vettonianus (May–June) L. Pomponius Silvanus
suff. M. Statorius Secundus (July–August) L. Sempronius Merula Auspicatus
122[154] M'. Acilius Aviola L. Corellius Neratius Pansa
suff. Ti. Julius Candidus Capito (attested 17 July) L. Vitrasius Flamininus
suff. C. Trebius Maximus (attested 18 November) T. Calestrius Tiro Orbius Speratus
123[158] Q. Articuleius Paetinus L. Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus
suff. T. Prifernius Geminus (attested 16 June) P. Metilius Secundus
suff. T. Salvius Rufinus Minicius Opimianus (attested 10 August) Cn. Sentius Aburnianus
124[159] M'. Acilius Glabrio (January–April) C. Bellicius Flaccus Torquatus Tebanianus
suff. A. Larcius Macedo (May–August) P. Ducenius Verres
suff. C. Julius Gallus (September–December) C. Valerius Severus
125 M. Lollius Paulinus D. Valerius Asiaticus Saturninus II L. Titius Epidius Aquilinus
suff. Q. Vetina Verus[160] (attested 1 June) P. Lucius Cosconianus
126 M. Annius Verus III (January–February) C. Eggius Ambibulus
suff. L. Valerius Propinquus (From 1 March)
suff. L. Cuspius Camerinus (attested 1 July) C. Saenius Severus
127 T. Atilius Rufus Titianus (January–March) M. Gavius Squilla Gallicanus
suff. P. Tullius Varro (April) [D.?] Junius Paetus
suff. Q. Tineius Rufus (May–September) M. Licinius Celer Nepos
suff. L. Aemilius Juncus (October–December) Sex. Julius Severus
128 L. Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asprenas II (January) M. Annius Libo (January–March)
suff. L. Caesennius Antoninus (February–March)
suff. M. Junius Mettius Rufus (April–June) Q. Pomponius Maternus
suff. L. Valerius Flaccus (July–September) M. [Junius Homullus ?][161]
suff. A. Egrilius Plarianus (October–December) Q. [Planius Sardus Varius Ambibulus ?][162]
129 P. Juventius Celsus T. Aufidius Hoenius Severianus II (January – after 22 March) L. Neratius Marcellus II (January–? February)
suff. Q. Julius Balbus (attested 22 March)
130 Q. Fabius Catullinus (January–February) M. Flavius Aper
suff. Cassius Agrippa (or Agrippinus) (attested 19 March) Ti. Claudius Quartinus
131[163] Sergius Octavius Laenas Pontianus (January–April) M. Antonius Rufinus
suff. L. Fabius Gallus (May–August) Q. Fabius Julianus
132 C. Junius Serius Augurinus (January–April) C. Trebius Sergianus
suff. C. Acilius Priscus (September–December) A. Cassius Arrianus
133 M. Antonius Hiberus (January–April) P. Mummius Sisenna
suff. Q. Flavius Tertullus (May–August) Q. Junius Rusticus
suff. Ti. Claudius Atticus Herodes (September–December) P. Sufenas Verus
134 L. Julius Ursus Servianus III (January–March) T. Vibius Varus (January–April)
suff. T. Haterius Nepos (attested 2 April)
suff. P. Licinius Pansa (attested September–December) L. Attius Macro
135 L. Tutilius Lupercus Pontianus (January–April) P. Calpurnius Atilianus (Atticus Rufus?)
suff. M. Cutius Priscus Messius Rusticus Aemilius Papus
Arrius Proculus Julius Celsus
L. Burbuleius Optatus Ligarianus
suff. P. Rutilius Fabianus (September–December) Cn. Papirius Aelianus Aemilius Tuscillus
136[164] L. Ceionius Commodus Sex. Vettulenus Civica Pompeianus
137 L. Aelius Caesar II P. Coelius Balbinus Vibullius Pius
138[165] Kanus Junius Niger C. Pomponius Camerinus
1 Apr. M. Vindius Verus P. Pactumeius Clemens
1 Jul. unidentified unidentified
1 Oct. P. Cassius Secundus M. Nonius Mucianus
139 T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius[166] II C. Bruttius Praesens L. Fulvius Rusticus II
May? unidentified unidentified
Jul.? L. Minicius Natalis Quadronius Verus L. Claudius Proculus
Sep.? unidentified [C. Julius? S]capula
1 Nov. M. Ceccius Justinus C. Julius Bassus
140 T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius III M. Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar
1 May Q. Antonius Isauricus L. Aurelius Flaccus
suff. Julius Crassipes (between June and October) unidentified
1 Nov. M. Barbius Aemilianus T. Flavius Julianus
141 T. Hoenius Severus M. Peducaeus Stloga Priscinus
1 Mar. unidentified unidentified
1 May C. Julius Pisibanus [Larcius?] Lepidus
1 Jul. unidentified unidentified
1 Sep. T. Caesernius Statianus unidentified
1 Nov. L. Annius Fabianus unidentified
142 L. Cuspius Pactumeius Rufinus L. Statius Quadratus
1 Apr. L. Granius Castus Ti. Junius Julianus
1 Jul. M. Cornelius Fronto C. Laberius Priscus
1 Sep. L. Tusidius Campester Q. Cornelius Senecio Annianus
1 Nov. [Sulpicius?] Julianus [Ti. Julius? Castus]
143 C. Bellicus Flaccus Torquatus L. Vibullius Hipparchus Ti. Claudius Atticus Herodes
1 Apr. unidentified unidentified
1 Jul. Q. Junius Calamus M. Valerius Junianus
1 Oct. unidentified unidentified
144 L. Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus T. Statilius Maximus
1 Mar. L. Aemilius Carus Q. Egrilius Plarianus
Jul.? unidentified Q. Laberius Licinianus
1 Oct. L. Marcius Celer M. Calpurnius Longus D. Velius Fidus
145 T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius IV M. Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar II
Mar.? L. Plautius Lamia Silvanus L. Poblicola Priscus
1 May Cn. Arrius Cornelius Proculus D. Junius [Paetus?]
1 Jul. Q. Mustius Priscus M. Pontius Laelianus
1 Sep. L. Petronius Sabinus C. Vicrius Rufus
1 Nov. C. Fadius Rufus P. Vicrius
146 Sex. Erucius Clarus II Cn. Claudius Severus Arabianus
Mar. Q. Licinius Modestinus (Sex.?) Attius Labeo
1 May P. Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus T. Prifernius Paetus Rosianus Nonius Agricola C. Labeo Tettius Geminus
1 Jul. Cn. Terentius Homullus Iunior L. Aurelius Gallus
1 Sep. Q. Voconius Saxa Fidus C. Annianus Verus
1 Nov. L. Aemilius Longus Q. Cornelius Proculus
147 C. Ulpius Pacatus Prastina Messalinus L. Annius Largus
1 Apr. A. Claudius Charax Q. Fuficius Cornutus
1 Jul. Cupressenus Gallus Q. Cornelius Quadratus
1 Oct. Sex. Cocceius Severianus Honorinus Ti. Licinius Cassius Cassianus
suff. C. Popilius Carus Pedo
148 L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius Julianus Aemilianus C. Bellicus Calpurnius Torquatus
1 Apr. Satyrius Firmus C. Salvius Capito
1 Jul. L. Coelius Festus P. Orfidius Senecio
Oct.? C. Fabius Agrippinus M. Antonius Zeno
149 L. Sergius Salvidienus Scipio Orfitus[167] Q. Pompeius Sosius Priscus
Jul.? Q. Passienus Licinus C. Julius Avitus
150 M. Gavius Squilla Gallicanus Sex. Carminius Vetus
Apr.? […]mus C. La[berius Priscus?]
Jul.? M. Cassius Apollinaris M. Petronius Mamertinus
Oct. C. Curtius Justus C. Julius Julianus[168]
151 Sex. Quintilius Condianus Sex. Quintilius Valerius Maximus
Jul.? M. Cominius Secundus L. Attidius Cornelianus
152 M'. Acilius Glabrio Cn. Cornelius Severus M. Valerius Homullus
1 Apr. P. Sufenas [Verus?] L. Dasumius Tullius Tuscus
1 Jul. C. Novius Priscus L. Julius Romulus
1 Oct. P. Cluvius Maximus Paulinus M. Servilius Silanus
153 L. Fulvius Rusticus C. Bruttius Praesens A. Junius Rufinus
1 Apr. [? Sex. Caecilius / C. Julius Max]imus M. Pontius Sabinus
1 Jul. P. Septimius Aper M. Sedatius Severianus Julius Acer Metilius Nepos Rufinus Ti. Rutilianus Censor
1 Oct. C. Cattius Marcellus Q. Petiedius Gallus
154 L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus T. Sextius Lateranus
1 Apr. [Prifernius?] Paetus M. Nonius Macrinus
1 Jul. [? M. Valerius Etrus]cus (?) L. [Aemilius Iuncus?]
1 Sep. Ti. Claudius Julianus Sex. Calpurnius Agricola
1 Nov. C. Julius Statius Severus T. Junius Severus
155 C. Julius Severus M. Junius Rufinus Sabinianus
Apr.? C. Aufidius Victorinus M. Gavius [Appalius Maximus?]
Nov. Antius Pollio Minicius Opimianus
Dec. [D. Rupilius?] Severus L. Julius T. Statilius Severus
156 M. Ceionius Silvanus C. Serius Augurinus
Mar.? A. Avillius Urinatius Quadratus Strabo Aemilianus
Nov.? Q. Canusius Praenestinus C. Lusius Sparsus
157 M. Vettulenus Civica Barbarus M. Metilius Aquillius Regulus Nepos Volusius Torquatus Fronto
1 Apr. L. Roscius Aelianus Cn. Papirius Aelianus
Jul.? C. Julius Commodus Orfitianus C. Caelius Secundus
Oct.? Q. V[…]su[…]clus[169] Q. […]inus
158 Sex. Sulpicius Tertullus Q. Tineius Sacerdos Clemens
Jul.? M. Servilius Fabianus Maximus Q. Iallius Bassus
Sep.? Q. Pomponius Musa L. Cassius Juvenalis
159 Plautius Quintillus M. Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus
1 Apr. M. Pisibanius Lepidus L. Matuccius Fuscinus
1 Jul. P. Cornelius Dexter unidentified
1 Oct. A. Curtius Crispinus unidentified
160 Ap. Annius Atilius Bradua T. Clodius Vibius Varus
1 Mar. A. Platorius Nepos Calpurnianus M. Postumius Festus
May? [C. Septimius? S]everus […] Flavus
Jul.? C. Prastina Pacatus M. Censorius Paullus
Oct.? Ti. Oclatius Severus [Q.?] Ninnius Hastianus
suff. [… N]ovius Sabinianus (attested 18 December)
161 M. Aelius Aurelius Verus Caesar III L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus II
suff. M. Annius Libo (attested 8 Feb. – 26 Apr.) Q. Camurius Numisius Junior
Oct.? (?) Julius Geminus Capellianus T. Flavius Boethus
162[170] Q. Junius Rusticus II L. Titius Plautius Aquilinus
suff.[171] Ti. Claudius Paullinus (attested 23 August) Ti. Claudius Pompeianus
suff. D. Fonteius Frontinianus L. Stertinius Rufus ignotus
suff. M. Insteius Bithynicus ignotus
163 M. Pontius Laelianus A. Junius Pastor L. Caesennius Sospes
164 M. Pompeius Macrinus P. Juventius Celsus
suff. Ti. Haterius Saturninus (attested 19 and 21 July) Q. Caecilius Avitus
165 M. Gavius Orfitus L. Arrius Pudens
166 Q. Servilius Pudens L. Fufidius Pollio
suff. M. Vibius Liberalis (attested 23 March) P. Martius Verus
167 L. Aurelius Verus Augustus III M. Ummidius Quadratus
suff. Q. Caecilius Dentilianus (attested 5 May) M. Antonius Pallas
168 L. Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus II L. Sergius Paullus II
suff. Q. Tullius Maximus[172] ignotus
169 Q. Pompeius Senecio Sosius Priscus P. Coelius Apollinaris
170 C. Erucius Clarus M. Gavius Cornelius Cethegus
suff. T. Hoenius Severus ignotus
171 T. Statilius Severus L. Alfidius Herennianus
172 Ser. Calpurnius Scipio Orfitus Sex. Quintilius Maximus
suff. C. Modius Justus ignotus
173 Cn. Claudius Severus II Ti. Claudius Pompeianus II
174 L. Aurelius Gallus Q. Volusius Flaccus Cornelianus
suff. M. Aemilius Macer Saturninus ignotus
175 L. Calpurnius Piso P. Salvius Julianus
suff. P. Helvius Pertinax M. Didius Severus Julianus
176 T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio II M. Flavius Aper II
177 L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Caesar M. Peducaeus Plautius Quintillus
178 Ser. Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus D. Velius Rufus (Julianus?)
179 L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus II P. Martius Verus II
suff.[173] T. Flavius Claudianus (attested 21 March) L. Aemilius Iuncus
suff.[174] M'. Acilius Faustinus (attested 1 April) L. Julius Proculianus
180 L. Fulvius Rusticus C. Bruttius Praesens II Sex. Quintilius Condianus
181[175] L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus III L. Antistius Burrus
182 M. Petronius Sura Mamertinus Q. Tineius Rufus
suff. (?) Aurelianus (attested 15 May) (L. Attidius?) Cornelianus
183 M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus IV C. Aufidius Victorinus II
suff. L. Tutilius Pontianus Gentianus (attested 8 February) ignotus
suff. M. Herennius Secundus (attested 13 and 20 May) M. Egnatius Postumus
suff. T. Pactumeius Magnus (after 20 May) L. Septimius Flaccus
184 L. Cossonius Eggius Marullus Cn. Papirius Aelianus
suff. C. Octavius Vindex (attested 18 May) Cassius Apronianus[176]
185 Triarius Maternus Lascivius Ti. Claudius M. Ap. Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus
186 M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus V M'. Acilius Glabrio II
suff. L. Novius Rufus (attested 25 May) L. Annius Ravus[177]
suff. C. Sabucius Maior Caecilianus (attested 24 and 27 Nov.) Valerius Senecio
187 L. Bruttius Quintius Crispinus L. Roscius Aelianus Paculus
188 P. Seius Fuscianus II M. Servilius Silanus II
189 Dulius Silanus Q. Servilius Silanus
suff. Severus (attested 27 May) Vitellius
190 M. Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus VI M. Petronius Sura Septimianus
suff. L. Septimius Severus (May–?) Apuleius Rufinus[178]
191 Popilius Pedo Apronianus M. Valerius Bradua Mauricus
192 L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus VII P. Helvius Pertinax II
193[179] Q. Pompeius Sosius Falco C. Julius Erucius Clarus Vibianus
suff. Q. Tineius Sacerdos (March) P. Julius Scapula Priscus
suff. M. Silius Messala (May) ignotus
suff. L. Julius Messala Rutilianus (July) C. Aemilius Severus Cantabrinus
suff. L. Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus[180]
194 L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus II D. Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus (Gaul)
suff. C. Gabinius Barbarus Pompeianus ignotus
195 P. Julius Scapula Tertullus Priscus Q. Tineius Clemens
196 C. Domitius Dexter II L. Valerius Messalla Thrasea Priscus
197 T. Sextius Magius Lateranus Cuspius Rufinus[181]
198 P. Martius Sergius Saturninus L. Aurelius Gallus
suff. Q. Anicius Faustus[182] ignotus
199 P. Cornelius Anullinus II M. Aufidius Fronto
200 Ti. Claudius Severus Proculus C. Aufidius Victorinus

Third century (201–300)


Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates of the consuls after 284 are taken from Roger S. Bagnall's Consuls of the Later Roman Empire. See also the list of consuls in the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire.

201 L. Annius Fabianus M. Nonius Arrius Mucianus
202 L. Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus III M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
suff.[183] T. Murrenius Severus C. Cassius Regallianus
203 C. Fulvius Plautianus P. Septimius Geta II
204 L. Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus II M. Annius Flavius Libo
suff. L. Pomponius Liberalis[184] ignotus
205 M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus II P. Septimius Geta Caesar
206 M. Nummius Umbrius Primus Senecio Albinus L. Fulvius Gavius Numisius Petronius Aemilianus
suff.[185] P. Tullius Marsus (attested 10 December) M. Caelius Faustinus
207 L. Annius Maximus[186] C. Septimius Severus Aper
208 M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus III P. Septimius Geta Caesar II
209 L. Aurelius Commodus Pompeianus Q. Hedius Lollianus Plautius Avitus
210 M'. Acilius Faustinus A. Triarius Rufinus
211 Hedius Lollianus Terentius Gentianus Pomponius Bassus
212 C. Julius Asper II C. Julius Camilius Asper
suff. (Cn. Claudius ?) Severus (May–June) (Ti. Claudius ?) Pompeianus
213 M. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus IV D. Caelius Calvinus Balbinus II
214 L. Valerius Messalla C. Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus
215 Q. Maecius Laetus II M. Munatius Sulla Cerialis
216 P. Catius Sabinus II P. Cornelius Anullinus
217 C. Bruttius Praesens T. Messius Extricatus II
218 M. Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus II M. Oclatinius Adventus
suff. M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (from 8 June)
219 M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus II Q. Tineius Sacerdos II
220 M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus III P. Valerius Comazon
221 C. Vettius Gratus Sabinianus M. Flavius Vitellius Seleucus
222 M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus IV M. Aurelius Alexander Caesar
223 L. Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus II L. Roscius Aelianus Paculus Salvius Julianus
224 Ap. Claudius Julianus II C. Bruttius Crispinus
225 Ti. Manilius Fuscus II Ser. Calpurnius Domitius Dexter
226 M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus II C. Aufidius Marcellus II
227 M. Nummius Senecio Albinus M. Laelius Fulvius Maximus Aemilianus
228 Q. Aiacius Modestus Crescentianus II M. Pomponius Maecius Probus
229 M. Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus III L. Cassius Dio
230 L. Virius Agricola Sex. Catius Clementinus Priscillianus
231 L. Ti. Claudius Pompeianus T. Flavius Sallustius Paelignianus
232 L. Virius Lupus Julianus L. Marius Maximus Aurelianus
233 L. Valerius Maximus Acilius Priscillianus Cn. Cornelius Paternus
234 M. Clodius Pupienus Maximus II M. Munatius Sulla Urbanus[187]
235 Cn. Claudius Severus L. Ti. Claudius Quintianus
236[188] C. Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus M. Pupienus Africanus Maximus
237 L. Marius Perpetuus L. Mummius Felix Cornelianus
238 C. Fulvius Pius Q. Pontius Proculus Pontianus
239 M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus M'. Acilius Aviola
240 C. Octavius Appius Suetrius Sabinus II L. Ragonius Venustus
241 M. Antonius Gordianus Augustus II Clodius Pompeianus
242 C. Vettius Gratus Atticus Sabinianus C. Asinius Lepidus Praetextatus
243 L. Annius Arrianus C. Cervonius Papus
244 Ti. Pollienus Armenius Peregrinus Fulvius Aemilianus
245 M. Julius Philippus Augustus C. Maesius Titianus
246 C. Bruttius Praesens C. All(...) Albinus
247 M. Julius Philippus Augustus II M. Julius Severus Philippus Caesar
248 M. Julius Philippus Augustus III M. Julius Severus Philippus Augustus II
249 L. Fulvius Gavius Numisius Aemilianus II L. Naevius Aquilinus
250 C. Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius Augustus II Vettius Gratus
251 C. Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius Augustus III Q. Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius Caesar
252 C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus II C. Vibius Volusianus Augustus
253 C. Vibius Volusianus Augustus II L. Valerius Poplicola Balbinus Maximus
254 P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus II P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus
255 P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus III P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus II
256 L. Valerius Maximus . . . Acilius Priscillianus II M. Acilius Glabrio
257 P. Licinius Valerianus Augustus IV P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus III
258 M. Nummius Tuscus Mummius Bassus
259 Aemilianus Pomponius Bassus
260 P. Cornelius Saecularis II C. Junius Donatus II
Gaul: M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus Augustus Honoratianus
261 P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus IV L. Petronius Taurus Volusianus
Gaul: M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus Augustus II
262 P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus V Nummius Faus(t?)ianus
Gaul: M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus Augustus II
263 M. Nummius Albinus II Dexter (Maximus?)
264 P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus VI Saturninus
265 Licinius Valerianus II Lucillus
266 P. Licinius Gallienus Augustus VII Sabinillus
267 Ovinius C. Julius Aquilius Paternus Arcesilaus
Gaul: M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus Augustus IV M. Piavonius Victorinus
268 Aspasius Paternus II P. Licinius Egnatius Marinianus
269 M. Aurelius Claudius (Gothicus) Augustus Paternus
Gaul: M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus Augustus V M. Piavonius Victorinus II
270 Flavius Antiochianus II Virius Orfitus
271 L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus Pomponius Bassus II
Gaul: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Augustus
272 T. Flavius Postumius Quietus Junius Veldumnianus
Gaul: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Augustus II
273 A. Caecina Tacitus or M. Claudius Tacitus[189][190] Julius Placidianus
274 L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus II Capitolinus
Gaul: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus Augustus III
275 L. Domitius Aurelianus Augustus III (Aurelius?) Marcellinus[191]
276 M. Claudius Tacitus Augustus II (Fulvius?) Aemilianus
277 M. Aurelius Probus Augustus (L. Julius?)[192] Paulinus
278 M. Aurelius Probus Augustus II Virius Lupus
279 M. Aurelius Probus Augustus III Nonius Paternus II
280 (L. Valerius?) Messalla (Vettius?) Gratus
281 M. Aurelius Probus Augustus IV Junius Tiberianus
282 M. Aurelius Probus Augustus V Victorinus
283 M. Aurelius Carus Augustus II M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus
284 M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus II M. Aurelius Numerianus Augustus
suff. C. Valerius Diocletianus Augustus (L. Caesonius?) Bassus
285[193] M. Aurelius Carinus Augustus III T. Claudius Aurelius Aristobulus
C. Valerius Diocletianus Augustus II
286 M. Junius Maximus II Vettius Aquilinus
287 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus III M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus
288 M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus II Pomponius Januarianus
suff. (...)a (...)ivianus[194]
289 M. Magrius Bassus (January–June)[195] L. Ragonius Quintianus (January–June)
suff. M. Umbrius Primus (July–August) T. Flavius Coelianus (July–August)
suff. Ceionius Proculus (September–October) Helvius Clemens (September–October)
suff. Flavius Decimus (November–December) ... ninius Maximus (November–December)
290 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus IV M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus III
291 C. Junius Tiberianus II Cassius Dio
292 Afranius Hannibalianus Julius Asclepiodotus
293 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus V M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus IV
294 M. Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar[196] C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar
295 Nummius Tuscus C. Annius Anullinus
296 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VI M. Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar II
297 M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus V C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar II
298 Anicius Faustus II Virius Gallus
299 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VII M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VI
300 M. Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar III C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar III

Fourth century (301–395)

301 T. Flavius Postumius Titianus II Virius Nepotianus
302 M. Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar IV C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar IV
303 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus VIII M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VII
304 C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus IX M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VIII
305 M. Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar V C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar V
306 M. Flavius Valerius Constantius Augustus VI C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VI
(a) Flavius Valerius Severus Augustus (until Sept.) Galerius Valerius Maximinus Caesar
(b) M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus IX (Italy) Flavius Valerius Constantinus Caesar
(c) C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VII (until Apr.) Galerius Valerius Maximinus Caesar (until Apr.)
308 (a) C. Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus X C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VII
(b) M. Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus X[198]
(c) M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus (from Apr.) (M. Aurelius Valerius) Romulus (from Apr.)
309 East: Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus Flavius Valerius Constantinus Caesar[199]
Italy: M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus II M. Aurelius Valerius Romulus II
310 East: Tatius Andronicus Pompeius Probus
Italy: M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus III
311 C. Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus VIII Galerius Valerius Maximinus Augustus II
Italy: C. Ceionius Rufius Volusianus (from Sep.) Rufinus (from Sep.)
312 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus II Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus II
Italy: M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus IV
313 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus III Galerius Valerius Maximinus Augustus III (until July)
suff. Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus III
314 C. Ceionius Rufius Volusianus (II) Petronius Annianus
315 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus IV Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus IV
316 Antonius Caecina Sabinus C. Vettius Cossinius Rufinus
317 Ovinius Gallicanus Caesonius Bassus
318 Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus V Flavius Julius Crispus Caesar
319 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus V Valerius Licinianus Licinius Caesar
320 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus VI Flavius Claudius Constantinus Caesar
321 West: Flavius Julius Crispus Caesar II Flavius Claudius Constantinus Caesar II
East: Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus VI Valerius Licinianus Licinius Caesar II
322 West: Petronius Probianus[200] Amnius Anicius Julianus
323 West: Acilius Severus Vettius Rufinus
324 Flavius Julius Crispus Caesar III Flavius Claudius Constantinus Caesar III
325 Valerius Proculus (January–May)[201] Sex. Anicius Paulinus
suff. Julius Julianus (May–December)[202]
326 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus VII Flavius Julius Constantius Caesar
327 Flavius Constantius[203] Valerius Maximus
328 Flavius Januarinus[203] Vettius Justus
329 Flavius Valerius Constantinus Augustus VIII Flavius Claudius Constantinus Caesar IV
330 Gallicanus Aurelius Valerius Symmachus Tullianus
331 Junius Bassus Ablabius
332 L. Papius Pacatianus Mecilius Hilarianus
333 Flavius Dalmatius[203] Domitius Zenofilus
334 Optatus Amnius Manius Caesonius Nicomachus Anicius Paulinus
335 Julius Constantius[204] Ceionius Rufius Albinus
336 Nepotianus Tettius Facundus
337 Felicianus Fabius Titianus
338 Ursus Polemius
339 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus II Flavius Julius Constans Augustus
340 Septimius Acindynus L. Aradius Valerius Proculus
341 Antonius Marcellinus Petronius Probinus
342 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus III Flavius Julius Constans Augustus II
343 M. Maecius Memmius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus Romulus
344 Domitius Leontius (a) Bonosus[205]
(b) Julius Sallustius
345 Amantius M. Nummius Albinus
346 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus IV Flavius Julius Constans Augustus III
347 Vulcacius Rufinus Eusebius
348 Philippus Salia
349 Ulpius Limenius Aconius Catullinus
350 Sergius Nigrinianus
351 West: Magnus Magnentius Augustus Gaiso
East: post consulatum Sergii et Nigriniani
352 West: Magnus Decentius Caesar Paulus
East: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus V Flavius Claudius Constantius Caesar
353 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus VI Flavius Claudius Constantius Caesar II
354 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus VII Flavius Claudius Constantius Caesar III
355 Arbitio Q. Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus
356 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus VIII Flavius Claudius Julianus Caesar
357 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus IX Flavius Claudius Julianus Caesar II
358 Censorius Datianus Neratius Cerealis
359 Eusebius Hypatius
360 Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus X Flavius Claudius Julianus Caesar III
361 Taurus Florentius
362 Claudius Mamertinus Nevitta
363 Flavius Claudius Julianus Augustus IV Sallustius
364 Jovianus Augustus Varronianus
365 Valentinianus Augustus Valens Augustus
366 Gratianus Dagalaifus
367 Lupicinus Jovinus
368 Valentinianus Augustus II Valens Augustus II
369 Valentinianus (Galates) Victor
370 Valentinianus Augustus III Valens Augustus III
371 Gratianus Augustus II Sex. Claudius Petronius Probus
372 Domitius Modestus Arintheus
373 Valentinianus Augustus IV Valens Augustus IV
374 Gratianus Augustus III Equitius
375 post consulatum Gratiani Augusti III et Equitii
376 Valens Augustus V Valentinianus (junior) Augustus
377 Gratianus Augustus IV Merobaudes
378 Valens Augustus VI Valentinianus (junior) Augustus II
379 Decimius Magnus Ausonius Q. Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius
380 Gratianus Augustus V Theodosius Augustus
381 Syagrius (western) Eucherius (eastern)
382 Claudius Antonius Afranius Syagrius
383 Merobaudes II Saturninus
384 Ricomer Clearchus
Gaul: Magnus Maximus Augustus
385 Arcadius Augustus Bauto
386 Honorius Euodius
387 Valentinianus Augustus III Eutropius
388 West: Merobaudes III? (until 10 January?)[206] Unknown colleague?
West: Magnus Maximus Augustus II
East: Theodosius Augustus II Maternus Cynegius
389 Timasius Promotus
390 Valentinianus Augustus IV Neoterius
391 Eutolmius Tatianus Q. Aurelius Symmachus
392 Arcadius Augustus II Rufinus
393 Theodosius Augustus III West: Eugenius Augustus
East: Abundantius
394 West: Virius Nicomachus Flavianus
East: Arcadius Augustus III Honorius Augustus II
395 Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius Anicius Probinus

Until the fall of the Western Empire (396–480)


In 395, the Roman Empire was permanently divided into a Western Roman Empire and an Eastern Roman Empire. The separate courts often appointed a consul each, which sometimes led to one consul not being recognized by the other. The order of the names also varied at times depending on the sources, with the western consul appearing as the consul prior in western sources while being listed as the consul posterior in eastern sources, and viceversa. Western consuls continued to be appointed after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476.

396 Arcadius Augustus IV Honorius Augustus III
397 Caesarius Nonius Atticus
398 Honorius Augustus IV Eutychianus
399 Mallius Theodorus (western) Eutropius (East only, until August)
400 Stilicho Aurelianus (East only)
401 Vincentius Fravitta
402 Arcadius Augustus V Honorius Augustus V
403 Theodosius Augustus Rumoridus
404 Honorius Augustus VI Aristaenetus (East only)
405 Stilicho II Anthemius (East only)
406 Arcadius Augustus VI Anicius Petronius Probus
407 Honorius Augustus VII Theodosius Augustus II
408 Anicius Auchenius Bassus Philippus
409 Honorius Augustus VIII Theodosius Augustus III
Gaul: Fl. Claudius Constantinus Augustus
410 Varanes (under Honorius and Theodosius II)
Tertullus (under Priscus Attalus)
411 Theodosius Augustus IV
412 Honorius Augustus IX Theodosius Augustus V
413 Heraclianus Lucius
414 Constantius Constans
415 Honorius Augustus X Theodosius Augustus VI
416 Theodosius Augustus VII Junius Quartus Palladius
417 Honorius Augustus XI Constantius II
418 Honorius Augustus XII Theodosius Augustus VIII
419 Monaxius Plinta
420 Theodosius Augustus IX Constantius III
421 Agricola (western) Eustathius (eastern)
422 Honorius Augustus XIII Theodosius Augustus X
423 Avitus Marinianus (western) Asclepiodotus (eastern)
424 Castinus (West only) Victor (East only)
425 West: Johannes Augustus
East: Theodosius Augustus XI Placidus Valentinianus Caesar
426 Theodosius Augustus XII Placidus Valentinianus Augustus II
427 Hierius Ardabur
428 Felix Taurus
429 Florentius Dionysius
430 Theodosius Augustus XIII Placidus Valentinianus Augustus III
431 Anicius Auchenius Bassus (western) Antiochus (eastern)
432 Aetius (western) Valerius (eastern)
433 Theodosius Augustus XIV Petronius Maximus
434 Ardabur Aspar (western) Areobindus (eastern)
435 Theodosius Augustus XV Placidus Valentinianus Augustus IV
436 Anthemius Isidorus Senator
437 Aetius II Sigisvultus
438 Theodosius Augustus XVI Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus
439 Theodosius Augustus XVII Festus
440 Placidus Valentinianus Augustus V Anatolius
441 Taurus Seleucus Cyrus
442 Dioscorus (western) Eudoxius (eastern)
443 Petronius Maximus II Paterius
444 Theodosius Augustus XVIII Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus
445 Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VI Nomus
446 Aetius III Q. Aurelius Symmachus
447 Calepius (western) Ardabur (eastern)
448 Rufius Praetextatus Postumianus (western) Zeno (eastern)
449 Astyrius (western) Florentius Romanus Protogenes (eastern)
450 Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VII Gennadius Avienus
451 Marcianus Augustus (East only) Valerius Faltonius Adelfius (West only)
452 Bassus Herculanus (West only) Sporacius (East only)
453 Opilio (western) Joannes Vincomalus (East only)
454 Aetius Studius
455 Placidus Valentinianus Augustus VIII Procopius Anthemius
456 West: Eparchius Avitus Augustus
East: Varanes Johannes
457 Constantinus Rufus
458 Leo Augustus Julius Valerius Majorianus Augustus (West only)
459 Ricimer (West only) Patricius (East only)
460 Magnus (western) Apollonius (eastern)
461 Severinus (western) Dagalaifus (eastern)
462 Leo Augustus II (East only) Libius Severus Augustus (West only)
463 Caecina Decius Basilius (West only) Antoninus Messala Vivianus (East only)
464 Rusticius Anicius Olybrius
465 Hermenericus (western) Basiliscus (eastern)
466 Leo Augustus III Tatianus (?)
467 Pusaeus Johannes
468 Procopius Anthemius Augustus II
469 Marcianus (western) Zeno (eastern)
470 Messius Phoebus Severus (western) Jordanes (eastern)
471 Leo Augustus IV Caelius Aconius Probianus
472 Rufius Postumius Festus (western) Marcianus (eastern)
473 Leo Augustus V
474 Leo (junior) Augustus
475 Zeno Augustus II
476 Basiliscus Augustus II Armatus
477 post consulatum Basilisci Augusti II et Armati
478 Illus
479 Zeno Augustus III
480 Caecina Decius Maximus Basilius

After the fall of the Western Empire (481–541)

Year Western consul Eastern consul
481 Rufius Achilius Maecius Placidus sine collega
482 Severinus Appalius Illus Trocundes
483 Anicius Acilius Aginantius Faustus post consulatum Trocundi
484 Decius Marius Venantius Basilius Theodericus
485 Q. Aurelius Memmius Symmachus post consulatum Theoderici
486 Caecina Mavortius Basilius Decius Longinus
487 Nar. Manlius Boëthius post consulatum Longini
488 Claudius Julius Ecclesius Dynamius II post consulatum Longini
Rufius Achilius Sividius
489 Petronius Probinus Eusebius
490 Anicius Probus Faustus Longinus II
491 Olybrius sine collega
492 Rufus (eastern) Anastasius Augustus
493 Caecina Decius Faustus Albinus Eusebius II
494 Turcius Rufius Apronianus Asterius post consulatum Eusebii II
495 Viator[207] sine collega
496 post consulatum Viatoris Paulus
497 II post consulatum Viatoris Anastasius Augustus II
498 Paulinus Johannes Scytha
499 post consulatum Paulini Johannes qui et Gibbus
500 II post consulatum Paulini Patricius
501 Avienus Pompeius
502 Rufius Magnus Faustus Avienus Probus
503 Volusianus Dexicrates
504 Rufius Petronius Nicomachus Cethegus sine collega
505 Theodorus Sabinianus
506 Ennodius Messala Areobindus Dagalaifus Areobindus
507 Venantius Anastasius Augustus III
508 Decius Basilius Venantius Celer
509 Inportunus sine collega
510 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius sine collega
511 Arcadius Placidus Magnus Felix Secundinus
512 post consulatum Felicis Paulus
513 Probus Taurus Clementinus Armonius Clementinus
514 Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator sine collega
515 Florentius Procopius Anthemius
516 Petrus sine collega
517 Agapitus Anastasius Paulus Probus Sabinianus Pompeius Anastasius
518 post consulatum Agapiti Anastasius Paulus Probus Moschianus Probus Magnus
519 Eutharicus Cillica Justinus Augustus
520 Rusticius Vitalianus
521 Iobius Philippus Ymelcho Valerius[208] Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus
522 Boethius Symmachus (western)
523 (Anicius) Maximus sine collega
524 Venantius Opilio Justinus Augustus II
525 Probus Theodorus Filoxenus Sotericus Filoxenus
526 Olybrius sine collega
527 Vettius Agorius Basilius Mavortius sine collega
528 post consulatum Mavortii Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Augustus II
529 Decius sine collega
530 Rufius Gennadius Probus Orestes Lampadius (western)
531 post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis
532 II post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis
533 III post consulatum Lampadii et Orestis Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Augustus III
534 (Decius) Paulinus Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus Augustus IV
535 post consulatum Paulini Belisarius
536 post consulatum Belisarii
537 II post consulatum Belisarii
538 sine collega Marianus Michaelius Gabrielius Archangelus Ioannes[209]
539 post consulatum Ioannis Strategius Apion Strategius Apion
540 sine collega Mar. Petrus Theodorus Valentinus Rusticius Boraides Germanus Justinus
541 sine collega Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius

Roman consuls of the East alone (541–887)


During the reign of Justinian I (527–565), the position of consul altered in two significant ways. From 535, there was no longer a Roman consul chosen in the West. In 541, the separate office of Roman consul was abolished. When used thereafter, the office was used as part of the imperial title.[210] The office was finally abolished as part of the Basilika reforms of Leo VI the Wise in 887.[211] The late antique practice of granting honorary consulships eventually evolved into the Byzantine court dignity of hypatos (the Greek translation of the Latin consul), which survived until the 12th century.[212]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Peck 1898, Consules
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Smith 1859, Consul
  3. ^ Broughton 1951, pp. xi, xii..
  4. ^ Peck 1898, Dictator
  5. ^ Broughton 1951, pp. xi, xii, 141, 148, 149, 163, 171..
  6. ^ Livy, History of Rome, iii. 32 ff.
  7. ^ Peck 1898, Decemviri
  8. ^ a b Peck 1898, Tribunus
  9. ^ Livy, History of Rome, vi. 42, vii. 1.
  10. ^ Broughton 1951, pp. 108–114.
  11. ^ Lendering, Jona (2020), "Varronian Chronology", Official site, Amsterdam: Livius.
  12. ^ However, the Fasti Capitolini, generally dated to the reign of Augustus, use the era of Cato, which placed the founding of Rome in 752 BC, one year later than the chronology of Varro. Sandys, Latin Epigraphy, p. 170.
  13. ^ Anthony Grafton and Noel Swerdlow, "Technical Chronology and Astrological History in Varro, Censorinus, and Others", Classical Quarterly, N.S. 35 (1985), p. 454-65
  14. ^ Lendering, Jona (2008). "Varronian Chronology". Livius.Org.
  15. ^ Tacitus, Historiae, 3.37
  16. ^ Taylor & Broughton 1968, pp. 3–14.
  17. ^ Drummond 1978, pp. 81–86.
  18. ^ Drummond 1978, p. 80.
  19. ^ Taylor & Broughton 1949, p. 9.
  20. ^ Taylor 1951, p. 78.
  21. ^ Taylor & Broughton 1968, p. 166.
  22. ^ Drummond 1978, pp. 97–99, 106.
  23. ^ Drummond 1978, pp. 81–82, 106.
  24. ^ Pina Polo 2011, p. 197.
  25. ^ Bagnall 1987, pp. 13–18.
  26. ^ The fasti for the Gallic consuls under Postumus are incomplete, with the names of some ordinary consuls known, but not the year they served — see PLRE, Vol. 1, 1041.
  27. ^ Broughton 1951.
  28. ^ Broughton 1952.
  29. ^ Livy (2.8.5) and Dionysius of Halicarnassus (iv.1.2, iv.12.3, iv.19.2) assign 5 consuls to the first year of the Republic, an amount not repeated for a single year until imperial times. Polybius (3.22.1), probably following an older and more reliable tradition, names only Brutus and Horatius. Beloch 1926, pp. 9–10. Ogilvie 1965, p. 254.
  30. ^ These consuls are omitted by Livy, perhaps due to confusion with the consuls of 506 BC. Broughton 1951, pp. 6–7.
  31. ^ Livy (2.15.1), against other sources, names P. Lucretius and P. Valerius Poplicola III. P. Lucretius may have been corrupted from Larcius, or perhaps inserted due to confusion with T. Lucretius, Poplicola's colleague in 508 and 504 BC. Broughton 1951, pp. 6–7.
  32. ^ The consuls of 490 and 489 BC are omitted by Livy.
  33. ^ Drummond 1978, p. 103; Taylor 1951, p. 79 (note 18).
  34. ^ The consuls of 482 BC are omitted by Diodorus (11. 41, 48).
  35. ^ Drummond 1978, p. 104; Taylor 1951, p. 79 (note 18).
  36. ^ The consuls probably entered office on 1 August, which was the official entry date until the Decemvirate was established in 451. From 509 to 479 BC, the date was probably 1 September. Ogilvie 1965, pp. 404–405.
  37. ^ His name is garbled in the sources, with variations such as C. Sergius (Dionysius 9.16.1) and C. Cornelius Lentulus (Diodorus 11.52.1). Broughton 1951, pp. 25–26 (and note 1). Ridley 1980, pp. 268–269.
  38. ^ Only known from the Fasti Capitolini. The missing name may be Opiter Verginius, which Livy (2.54.3) gives for L. Aemilius's colleague in 473 BC, or perhaps C. Sergius. Broughton 1951, p. 26.
  39. ^ Livy (2.54.3) suggests Opiter Verginius as an alternative to Vopiscus Julius, but this may be a confusion with the year 478, when the other consul was also L. Aemilius. Ogilvie 1965, p. 371.
  40. ^ The stone inscription of the Fasti Capitolini has for this year Carve[ntanus] or Carve[tus], a rare name attested for no other consul in history. Two late Roman records have (Sempronius) Atratinus. The literary sources omit him and show his substitute, L. Minucius, holding office for the entire year. See the discussion in Broughton 1951, pp. 39, 40 (note 1); Ogilvie 1965, pp. 438, 615; Ridley 1980, pp. 271, 288.
  41. ^ Diodorus (12.3.1) inserts a new pair of consuls, L. Quinctius Cincinnatus and M. Fabius Vibulanus, between the colleges of 457 and 456.
  42. ^ Taylor 1951, pp. 74, 78 (n. 8).
  43. ^ Only mentioned by Dionysius (10.53.3). Broughton 1951, p. 44. Ridley 1980, p. 271.
  44. ^ Ancient sources disagree on whether Claudius and Genucius became decemvirs while consuls-elect or if they assumed the consulship and abdicated. Ridley 1980, p. 271.
  45. ^ Broughton 1951, pp. 45, 46 (n. 3); Ogilvie 1965, p. 456.
  46. ^ The consuls probably entered office on 13 December. This was the official date until 402. Ogilvie 1965, pp. 405, 463.
  47. ^ These consuls were said to be absent from the annals, but named in the linen rolls and in a treaty with Ardea. In another tradition, they became Rome's first pair of censors the following year. Authorities have variously eliminated either the consuls or the consular tribunes, attempted to fit both into 444 BC, or assigned the colleges to consecutive years. Frier 1975, pp. 79–80, 89–90.
  48. ^ Ogilvie 1965, p. 552.
  49. ^ Diodorus (12.38.1) calls him Gaius, but Ogilvie 1965, p. 557, rejects it in favor of Lucius which is given by Livy (4.16.8). Broughton 1951, pp. 57–58.
  50. ^ Drummond 1978, p. 96 (note 68).
  51. ^ Another tradition omits Cornelius and has Manlius and Sulpicius holding office as consuls. On the other hand, Licinius Macer (Livy 4.23.1–3) states that the consuls of 435, Julius and Verginius, continued in office this year. Of the three possibilities, the latter is held to be the least likely. Broughton 1951, pp. 61–62. Ogilvie 1965, p. 571.
  52. ^ Diodorus Siculus (12.77.1) inserts the pair L. Quinctius (Cincinnatus?) and A. Sempronius (Atratinus?) between the consuls of 428 and 427 BC, perhaps misplacing them from the college of 425. Ogilvie 1965, pp. 566, 584.
  53. ^ Drummond 1978, p. 88.
  54. ^ Authenticity doubted. Broughton 1951, p. 67.
  55. ^ L. Quinctius Cincinnatus III (Livy 4.44.1) or T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus II. Broughton 1951, pp. 70, 71.
  56. ^ Ogilvie 1965, p. 606.
  57. ^ Possibly identical with Q. Fabius Vibulanus, consul in 423. Broughton 1951, p. 76. Ogilvie 1965, p. 613.
  58. ^ Livy (4.52.4) has here Papirius Atratinus, following Licinius Macer who attributed this reading to the linen rolls. Other sources show it was Papirius Mugillanus. The surname Atratinus was only used by the Sempronii, and so the college of 411 may been three consular tribunes, Papirius, Sempronius and Nautius. Ogilvie 1965, pp. 613–614.
  59. ^ Livy (4.61.4) instead has Gaius Fabius Ambustus, and treats him as a different person than the tribune of 401, 395 and 390 BC. Broughton 1951, p. 81. Ogilvie 1965, p. 624.
  60. ^ Entered office on 1 October after the preceding college resigned. Broughton 1951, p. 83. Ogilvie 1965, p. 405.
  61. ^ Entered office on 1 July. Broughton 1951, p. 92. Ogilvie 1965, p. 405.
  62. ^ Livy (5.32.1) calls him M. Aemilius Mamercinus, indicating he is a different person than the four-time consular tribune of 389 BC forward.
  63. ^ Drummond 1978, pp. 88, 92.
  64. ^ Drummond 1980, p. 66 (note 40), 71
  65. ^ Diodorus Siculus (XV.24.1) states that there were six consular tribunes this year, but Livy only lists five; Attilio Degrassi suggests either L. Cornelius or A. Manlius for the sixth member of this college; Broughton, based on the evidence of the Fasti Capitolini, suggests A. Manlius Capitolinus. Broughton 1951, p. 100, n.1
  66. ^ Gaius in Livy (6.18.1), Lucius in Diodorus (15.36.1). Drummond 1980, p. 71 (note 71).
  67. ^ These are the nine consular tribunes the Fasti Capitolini lists for this year. Livy names only six (omitting C. Sulpicius Peticus, L. Aemilius Mamercinus, and Ti. Papirius Crassus), and Diodorus Siculus eight (omitting L. Papirius Mugillanus). Broughton notes, "Clearly Fast. Cap. has the most seriously interpolated tradition."Broughton 1951, p. 106, n.1
  68. ^ a b These two consular tribunes are only known from Diodorus Siculus (XV.51.1). Broughton suggests "Erenucius" may be a corruption of "Genucius" or "Minucius". Broughton 1951, p. 106, n.1
  69. ^ a b These two consular tribunes are only known from Livy (6.31.1)
  70. ^ Modern scholarly consensus is that the fasti for the fourth century was discovered to be missing several sets of eponymous magistrates, and explained this gap by stating elections were blocked by these two tribunes. See the discussions of T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (London: Routeledge, 1995), pp. 399-402; and Forsythe, Critical History of Early Rome, pp. 368-70
  71. ^ a b The Fasti Capitolini states C. Licinius Calvus was consul in 364 BC and C. Lincinius Stolo in 361 BC, but Livy reverses these two.
  72. ^ Drummond 1989, p. 639.
  73. ^ Livy (7.18.10) notes that in some sources M. Popillius Laenas III appears instead of Quinctius, though this is probably a confusion with the year 356 BC, when M. Fabius Ambustus was also consul. Drummond 1980, p. 70 (note 66).
  74. ^ Broughton 1951, p. 127; Drummond 1989, p. 639.
  75. ^ Diodorus (16.59) reports instead this year's consuls were M. Aemilius and T. Quinctius (Poenus Capitolinus III?). Drummond 1989, p. 639.
  76. ^ a b c d The "dictator years" (333, 324, 309 and 301 BC) were fabricated to lengthen the documented interval to earlier historical events, in order to account for deficiencies and gaps in Roman chronology. The dictator years did not exist in Roman history: the conventional year 334 BC was followed by the year 332, and so on. Cornell 1995, pp. 399–400.
  77. ^ The sources are conflicted:
  78. ^ Taylor 1951, p. 78 (note 7).
  79. ^ Livy (9.44) notes that the consuls of 307 and 306 BC were skipped in Calpurnius Piso's history.
  80. ^ Entered office on 15 March. Ogilvie 1965, p. 405.
  81. ^ Entered office on 1 January. R.M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1–5, p. 405.
  82. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 99 to 31 BC are taken from Broughton 1952.
  83. ^ Either Thermus's election was invalidated or he is identical to Figulus, having changed his name by adoption. E.W. Gray, "The Consular Elections held in 65 B.C.", Antichthon 13 (1979), pp. 56–65, doi:10.1017/S0066477400002665.
  84. ^ Taylor & Broughton 1968, p. 172; Drummond 1978, p. 100.
  85. ^ Tansey 2018, pp. 209, 212, 237.
  86. ^ a b c Bodel 1995, p. 285.
  87. ^ Bodel 1995, p. 280.
  88. ^ Umberto Soldovieri: Un inedito cinerario plumbeo e Q. MARCIUS RUFUS, cos. suff. 36 a.C. In: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (ZPE), 217 (2021), S. 235f.
  89. ^ a b Bodel 1995, p. 287.
  90. ^ Ernest Weinrib, The Spaniards in Rome (1990), pp. 180, 309–311
  91. ^ Consuls from 30 to 1 BC are taken from Cooley 2012, pp. 457–458.
  92. ^ Tansey 2018, pp. 238 (note 72), 243 (note 102).
  93. ^ Phillips 1997, p. 106.
  94. ^ Augustus was apparently intended to be the colleague of Saturninus, but never took office. Saturninus held office alone until Vespillo and Vinicius succeeded him after 1 August and by 12 October. Phillips 1997, p. 107.
  95. ^ Phillips 1997, p. 107.
  96. ^ Phillips 1997, pp. 107–108.
  97. ^ a b Phillips 1997, p. 108.
  98. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from AD 1 through AD 12 are taken from Syme 1989
  99. ^ The consuls of this year are taken from Diana Gorostidi Pi, "Sui consoli dell'anno 13 d.C.: Nuovi dati dai fasti consulares Tusculani", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 189 (2014), pg 265–275
  100. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years AD 14–36 are taken from Cooley 2012, pp. 458–460.
  101. ^ Bodel 1995, p. 296.
  102. ^ First proposed by Hans-Georg Pflaum, and accepted by Ladislaus Vidman (Fasti Ostienses, 2nd edition, p. 68); Cooley offers as a possible alternative A. Didius Gallus although she also puts him in the last nundinium of 39. Gallivan 1979, p. 66.
  103. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years AD 37–40 are taken from Gallivan 1979, pp. 66–69.
  104. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years AD 41-54 are taken from Cooley 2012, pp. 460–462.
  105. ^ M. Christol and S. Demougin, "Notes de prosopographie équestre", in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 57 (1984), pp. 171-8.
  106. ^ Camodeca 2002, p. 235; Cooley 2012, p. 461.
  107. ^ Suffect consuls for July–December Gallivan placed in 44 Camodeca moved to 47 ("Novità sui fasti consolari delle tavolette cerate della Campania", Publications de l'École française de Rome, 143 (1991), p. 52)
  108. ^ Gallivan 1978, p. 408.
  109. ^ Giuseppe Camodeca, "I consoli del 43 e gli Antistii Veteres d'età claudia dalla riedizione delle Tabulae Herculanenses", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 140 (2002), pp. 234–236.
  110. ^ Camodeca 1991, p. 52.
  111. ^ Camodeca 1991, p. 53.
  112. ^ a b Gallivan 1978, p. 425.
  113. ^ Names and dates for 55–68 taken from Camodeca 2015, pp. 272–282.
  114. ^ Camodeca 2015, p. 275, notes that additional pairs of suffect consuls may have held office in the last months of 60 and 61.
  115. ^ Camodeca 2015, pp. 277–279, places C. Licinius Mucianus and Q. Fabius Barbarus Antonius Macer in the second half of either 63 or 64.
  116. ^ Names and dates for this year are taken from G. B. Townend, "The Consuls of A. D. 69/70", American Journal of Philology, 83 (1962), pp. 113–129
  117. ^ a b c d Hammond 1957.
  118. ^ Sometimes "Imp. Ser. Galba" or "Ser. Galba Imp."[117]
  119. ^ Sometimes "Imp. Otho" or "Imp. M. Otho".[117]
  120. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 70–97 are taken from Eck 2009, pp. 251–257.
  121. ^ Gallivan 1981, pp. 206, 219, dated this pair to 71 or 72, but the available slot for 71 in Eck 2009, p. 251, is filled, so they are placed here. Eck has the year 72 but with a question mark.
  122. ^ Gallivan 1981, pp. 213–214.
  123. ^ Eck 2009, p. 252, restores this as [Fr]on[tino] or [Veient]on[e].
  124. ^ Cooley 2012, p. 464.
  125. ^ Gallivan 1981, pp. 189, 214.
  126. ^ See Syme, "P. Calvisius Ruso. One Person or Two?" Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 56 (1984), pp. 173-192
  127. ^ Gallivan 1981, pp. 189, 215; Eck 2009, p. 253.
  128. ^ Also referred to as T. Vinicius Julianus. Salomies 2005, p. 111.
  129. ^ Gallivan 1981, p. 190, suggests instead C. Arinius Modestus.
  130. ^ Cooley 2012, p. 465, has in this spot M. Annius Messalla and C. Fisius Sabinus, but Eck 2009, p. 254, places them in 84. Clemens and Honoratus are dated to 85 in Cooley, but Eck moved to that position L. Aelius Oculatus and Q. Gavius Atticus, whom Gallivan 1981, pp. 188, 196, 213, had originally assigned to 73.
  131. ^ Syme first proposed the identification of this consul with M. Raecius Gallus ("Pliny the Procurator", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 73 (1969), pp. 201–236 [p. 229]). However, he later concluded that Publius Glitius Gallus "is on every count a better candidate" than Raecius ("P. Calvisius Ruso. One Person or Two?", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 56 (1984), pp. 173-192 [p. 175]).
  132. ^ Eck & Pangerl 2013, p. 275.
  133. ^ Eck, Werner & Andreas Pangerl (2012). "Ein Diplom für die Truppen Judäas aus dem Jahr 87 und die Frage nach der Gleichförmigkeit römischer Militäradministration". Scripta Classica Israelica. 31: 53–64.
  134. ^ So Zevi, "I consoli del 97 d. Cr. in due framenti gia' editi dei Fasti Ostienses", Listy filologické / Folia philologica, 96 (1973), pp. 125–137; Cooley offers no colleague for Tacitus. Peter Weiss has argued, based on more recently recovered evidence, that Scapula could have been suffect consul in September–October 99, or even later. (Weiss, "Weitere Diplomfragmente von Moesia Inferior", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 124 (1999), pp. 287-289
  135. ^ Vidman 1982, pp. 45, 93–94; Cooley 2012, pp. 466–467.
  136. ^ This is the name Trajan adopted following Nerva's death on 27 January. Trajan's name following his adoption in AD 97 was "M. Ulpius Nerva Trajanus"; he was named Caesar shortly after (Dio; 68.3–4), but the exact formula he adopted is not known.[117]
  137. ^ Cooley 2012, p. 467.
  138. ^ There may have been a pair of unattested consuls in April. Eck & Pangerl 2014, p. 243.
  139. ^ Placed in this year by Mommsen.
  140. ^ Vidman 1982, p. 45; Cooley 2012, p. 467.
  141. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 101 through 115 are taken from Cooley 2012, p. 467f
  142. ^ Added from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfastern der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), p. 327 n.181
  143. ^ Added from AE 2013, 650
  144. ^ As proposed by Syme, "People in Pliny", Journal of Roman Studies, 58 (1968), pp. 139f
  145. ^ Werner Eck and Ittai Gradel, "Eine Konstitution für das Heer von Mauretania Tingitana vom 20. September 104 n.Chr.", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 219 (2021), pp. 248–255.
  146. ^ It is uncertain which ordinary consul Acilius Rufus replaced.
  147. ^ Fasti ostienses reads ...] Rufu[s]; Attilo Degrassi and Vidman restore this name as "L. Acilius Rufus", while Ronald Syme restores it as "M. Acilius Rufus" (Syme, "Superior Suffect Consuls", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 58 (1985), pp. 239-242)
  148. ^ This pair of consuls added from AE 2004, 1898
  149. ^ Added from Evgeni I. Paunov and Margaret M. Roxan, "The Earliest Extant Diploma of Thrace, AD 114 (=RMD I 14)"[permanent dead link], Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 119 (1997), pp. 269–279.
  150. ^ The praenomen Marcus is attested by an inscription dated 1 September. (AE 1998, 1727)
  151. ^ Unless indicated otherwise, the names and dates for the years 116 and 117 are taken from Werner Eck, "Konsuln des Jahres 117 in Militärdiplomen Traians mit Tribunicia Potestas XX", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 185 (2013), pp. 235–238
  152. ^ Sharankov, N. 2021. Five Official Inscriptions from Heraclea Sintica Including a Record of the Complete cursus honorum of D. Terentius Gentianus. Archaeologia Bulgarica 25.3, 1–43.
  153. ^ All that survives of the name on the Fasti ostienses. Suggested restorations include Q. Cornelius Senecio Annianus (favored by Cooley 2012, p. 469) and Q. Coelius Honoratus. (Vidman 1982, p. 114)
  154. ^ a b The names and dates for this year are taken from Cooley 2012, p. 469
  155. ^ The names and dates for this year are taken from Werner Eck and Andreas Pangerl, "Neue Diplome mit den Namen von Konsuln und Statthaltern," Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 187 (2013), p. 282
  156. ^ The names and dates for 120 and 121 are taken from Werner Eck and Andreas Pangerl, "Ein Consul Suffectus Q. Aburnius in drei fragmentarischen Diplomen", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 185 (2013), pp. 239–247
  157. ^ W. Eck, A. Pangerl,"Neue Diplome aus der Zeit Hadrians für die beiden mösischen Provinzen", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 207 (2018), pp. 219-224
  158. ^ The names and dates for this year are taken from Eck and Pangerl, "Neue Diplome," pp. 287f
  159. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 124 through 130 are taken from Cooley 2012, pp. 469f
  160. ^ Werner Eck and Andreas Pangerl had previously reconstructed the gentilicium of this otherwise unknown person as "Accena", but a more recently discovered military diploma proved this is his correct name. Eck and Pangerl, "Eine Konstitution für das Herr von Moesia Inferior vom 1. Juni 125 in fünf Diplomen", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 188 (2014), pp. 245–249
  161. ^ All that survives from the Fasti ostienses is the praenomen; Vidman suggests this restoration (Vidman, Fasti Ostienses, p. 118)
  162. ^ All that survives from the Fasti ostienses is the praenomen; Cooley suggests this restoration.
  163. ^ Unless otherwise noted, the names and dates for the consuls from 131 to 135 are taken from Werner Eck, Paul Holder and Andreas Pangerl, "A Diploma for the Army of Britain in 132 and Hadrian's Return to Rome from the East", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 174 (2010), p. 194. The structure of the nundinia presented for those years is also used here.
  164. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, the names and dates for the years 136 and 137 are taken from Cooley 2012, p. 471
  165. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 138 to 161 are taken from Eck 2013, pp. 69–90.
  166. ^ By this time, 'Imperator' 'Caesar' and 'Augustus' had become full imperial titles and were no longer treated as names.[117] The titles "Caesar" and "Augustus" will still be included in order to better differentiate between emperors and heirs-apparents.
  167. ^ So Eck ("Die Fasti consulares", p.75) and James H. Oliver ("The Solonian Constitution and a Consul of A.D. 149", Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 13 (1972), pp. 103-107) separately. Alföldy identifies this consul with Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, proconsul of Africa 163/164 (Konsulat und Senatorenstand, p. 153)
  168. ^ Attested in a military diploma dated 19 November 150. Another source, dated 2 October, appears to indicate P. Julius Nauto instead, but Tomlin and Pearce note that his name is poorly inscribed and argue it was probably an incorrect transcription of Julianus's name. If Nauto and Julianus are different individuals, the former will have died by 19 November. Roger S. O. Tomlin, John Pearce, "A Roman Military Diploma for the German Fleet (19 November 150) Found in Northern Britain", ZPE 206 (2018), pp. 207–216.
  169. ^ Possibly Q. Vilius Proculus or Q. Virius Larcius Sulpicius.
  170. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 162 to 180 are taken from Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), pp. 176-191
  171. ^ W. Eck, A. Pangerl, "Eine neue Bürgerrechtskonstitution für die Truppen von Pannonia inferior aus dem Jahr 162 mit einem neuen Konsulnpaar", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 173 (2010), pp. 223-236
  172. ^ P. A. Holder, Roman Military Diplomas V, (2006), p. 861
  173. ^ C. Römer, "Diplom für einen Fußsoldaten aus Koptos vom 23. März 179", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 82 (1990), pp. 137–153
  174. ^ Ioan Piso and Doina Benea, "Das Militärdiplom von Drobeta", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 56 (1984), pp. 263ff
  175. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 181 to 235 are taken from Paul M. M. Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander, (Amsterdam: Verlag Gieben, 1989), pp. 129-137
  176. ^ David Stone Potter, The Roman Empire at bay, AD 180–395 (2006), pg. 72
  177. ^ CIL VI, 2100 reads ..]vo or (nominative) ...]vus for Rufus' colleague. This is the most frequent restoration.
  178. ^ Leunissen disagrees with Dessau, Groag, and Barbieri that the gentilicium of this suffect consul could be Atulenus. (Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare, p. 132 n. 20)
  179. ^ The suffects for this year are taken from Peter Weiß, "Konstitutionen eines toten Kaisers: Militärdiplome von Commodus aus dem Jahr 193 n. Chr.", PHAROS Studien zur griechisch-römischen Antike. Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, Rahden 2015. Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH, Rahden 2015, pp. 273–280.
  180. ^ Fabius Cilo was possibly a colleague of Silius Messalla. Peter Weiß, p. 277.
  181. ^ The sources disagree on his praenomen: CIL XIII, 1754 attests "L.", while CIL VIII, 8937 attests "C."
  182. ^ Suffectus in absentia. It is uncertain which consul he replaced. (Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare, p. 134 and note)
  183. ^ This pair of suffect consuls taken from Werner Eck, "Prosopographische Bemerkungen zum Militärdiplom vom 20.12.202 n. Chr. Der Flottenpräfekt Aemilius Sullectinus und das Gentilnomen des Usurpators Regalianus", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 139 (2002), pp. 208–210.
  184. ^ Added from Leunissen, p. 238
  185. ^ This pair is attested in M. M. Roxan, Roman Military Diplomas, 3: 1985–93 (1994), no. 188
  186. ^ His praenomen was confirmed by Askold Ivantchik, Oleg Pogorelets and Rostislav Savvov, "A New Roman Military Diploma from the Territory of the Ukraine", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 163 (2007), pp. 255-262
  187. ^ Andreas Krieckhaus, "Vater und Sohn. Bemerkungen zu den severischen consules ordinarii M. Munatius Sulla Cerialis und M. Munatius Sulla Urbanus", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 153 (2005), pp. 283-284
  188. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 236 to 285 are taken from Cooley 2012, pp. 476–478.
  189. ^ Caillan Davenport, "M. Claudius Tacitus: Senator or Soldier?", Latomus, vol. 73, no. 1 (2014), pp. 174–187
  190. ^ Benet Salway, "Redefining the Roman imperial élite in the fourth century AD", in D. Okoń (ed.), Elites in the Ancient World (Szczecińskie Studia nad Starożytnością, vol. II, Szczecin: Minerwa, 2015), pp. 189–220
  191. ^ Bowman, Alan; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil, eds. (2005). The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193–337. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-30199-2.
  192. ^ PLRE, Vol. 1, pp. 676, 681.
  193. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 284 to 541 are taken from Bagnall 1987, pp. 101–617.
  194. ^ From the Fasti Caleni, as published in Bagnall 1987, p. 110
  195. ^ From the Fasti Caleni, as published in Bagnall 1987, pp. 112–113
  196. ^ His praenomen was most certainly Marcus, although it was almost never used. Salway 1994, p. 139
  197. ^ There where three different pairs of consuls for the years 307 and 308, each proclaimed under a different jurisdiction. The first was declared by the legitimate Eastern emperors (Galerius, Licinius and Maximinus II), the second by Constantine I, and the third by Maxentius. See Barnes 1982, p. 93 and Bagnall 1987, p. 148
  198. ^ Waldron, Byron (2020-01-01). "Decies et Maximiano VII: A Proposed Revision to Consular Dating during the Rise of Constantine". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik.
  199. ^ Constantine did not recognize his own appointment as consul by Galerius, which is reflected in his later iteration numbers. Bagnall 1987, p. 152
  200. ^ Licinius did not recognize Constantine's consuls for the years 322 and 323, but did not elect any of his own. Bagnall 1987, p. 179.
  201. ^ Proculus seems to have fallen into disgrace and Iulianus appointed for him, see T. D. Barnes, in ZPE 21 (1976), p. 280 and Barnes 1982, p. 102. Proculus could be identical with the proc. Africae in 319/320 AD, see Bagnall 1987, p. 184.
  202. ^ Following p.Stras 137.20 and p.Stras 138.17 the first name could be Ionius instead of Iulius, see discussion in Bagnall 1987, p. 629f.
  203. ^ a b c From 325 onwards, almost all consuls appear in sources with the nomen "Flavius". However, the name was only used in consular papyri and letters, appearing as either "Fl" or "Fll". Because it was often used as a courtesy title rather than personal name, "Flavius" will be omitted in the following entries, unless it's referring to direct members of the Constantinian dynasty. Cameron, Alan (1988). "Flavius: a Nicety of Protocol". Latomus. 47 (1): 26–33. JSTOR 41540754.
  204. ^ Despite being a member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julius Constantius did not use the nomen "Flavius".
  205. ^ Bonosus was recognized as consul by Emperor Constans until April or May, when the latter began to acknowledge Sallustius. Under Constantius II, Sallustius was recognized as consul through the whole year. Bagnall 1987, pp. 222–223.
  206. ^ Saylor Rodgers, Barbara (First Quarter 1981). "Merobaudes and Maximus in Gaul". Historia. 30 (1): 97–105. JSTOR 4435744. Based on ICVR 1.370 and Panegyrici Latini 2(12).28.4. But cf. Bagnall et al. 1987, Consuls of the Later Roman Empire, p. 651.
  207. ^ '[P]resumably a westerner' – Bagnall 1987, p. 524
  208. ^ Patrizia Sabbatini Tumolesi, Silvia Orlandi, Marco Buonocore & Maurizio Fora, Epigrafia anfiteatrale dell'Occidente Romano, volume 6 (Quasar, 1988), pp. 292, 397
  209. ^ AE 2004, 01410.
  210. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1894). History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages. Vol. 1. George Bell & Sons. pp. 355–356.
  211. ^ Riedel, M. L. D. (2018). Leo VI and the Transformation of Byzantine Christian Identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1-107-05307-6.
  212. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. pp. 963–964.
  213. ^ Unless otherwise noted, consuls from 566 until 613 are taken from Degrassi 1952, pp. 99–106
  214. ^ Kaegi, Walter Emil (2003). Heraclius: Emperor of Byzantium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN 0-521-81459-6. Heraclius and his father were proclaimed consuls during their revolt against Phocas, who was still technically the "official" consul. They used consular titles in their coinage until the end of the revolt.
  215. ^ Theophanes (1997) [810s]. Chronographia. Translated by Cyril Mango. Oxford University Press. p. 433 (note 2). Theophanes dates the event to 613, but he also states that it occurred in the 5th indiction, that is, 617. Official documents indicate that it occurred in the next indictional cycle, that is, 632. ISBN 978-0-19-822568-3.
  216. ^ Bede (1999). Halsall, Paul (ed.). "Bede (673–734): Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book V: Chapter VII". Medieval Sourcebook. Archived from the original on 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
  217. ^ According to Bede, Justinian II apparently adopted the title of consul for all the Julian years of his reign, consecutively numbered.[216]
  218. ^ Thompson, Margaret (1940). "The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora: Eighteenth Report (Jul. – Sep., 1940): Some Unpublished Bronze Money of the Early Eighth Century". Hesperia. 9 (3): 358–380. doi:10.2307/146483. JSTOR 146483.
  219. ^ The Acts of the Second Council of Nicaea (787). Translated by Price, Richard. Liverpool University Press. 2020. pp. 98. "in the reign of our most pious and Christ-loving masters Constantine and Eirene his divinely crowned mother, in the eighth year of their consulship, eight days before the Kalends of October in the eleventh indiction [24 September 787]". ISBN 978-1-78962-157-0.

Main bibliography


Secondary bibliography


Primary sources