Sudanese protests (2018–19)
This article needs to be updated.March 2019)(
Sudanese protests (2018–19), also known as Sudanese uprising are a series of demonstrations that broke out on 19 December, 2018 in some cities in Sudan, due to spiraling costs of living and deterioration of economic conditions at all levels of society, The protests quickly turned from demands for urgent economic reforms into demands for Omar al-Bashir to step down.
|Sudanese protests (2018–19)|
|Part of Arab protests (2018–19)|
|Date||19 December 2018 – present|
(3 months and 3 days)
|Parties to the civil conflict|
The violence of the government's reaction to these peaceful demonstrations sparked international concern. On 22 February, al-Bashir declared a state of emergency and dissolved the national and regional governments, replacing the latter with military and intelligence-service officers. On 8 March, al-Bashir announced that all of the women jailed for protesting against the government would be released.
In January 2018, large protests started on the streets of Khartoum, Sudan’s capital, in opposition to the rising prices of the basic goods including bread. The protests grew quickly and found support from different opposition parties. Youth and women's movements also joined the protests.
The Sudanese government started austerity measures recommended by the International Monetary Fund (IMF),  including devaluation of the local currency, as well as the removal of wheat and electricity subsidies. Sudan’s economy has struggled since Omar al-Bashir's ascent to power, but became increasingly turbulent following the secession of South Sudan in 2011, which, up until then, had represented an important source of foreign currency, because of its oil output. The devaluation of the Sudanese pound in October 2018 led to wildly fluctuating exchange rates and a shortage of cash in circulation. Long queues for basic goods such as petrol, bread, as well as cash from ATM machines are a common sight. Sudan has around 70% inflation, second only to Venezuela.
In August 2018, the National Congress party backed Omar Al-Bashir's 2020 presidential run, despite his increasing unpopularity and his previous declaration that he would not run in the upcoming elections. These measures led to rising opposition from within the party calling for respect of the constitution, which currently prevents Al-Bashir from being reelected. Sudanese activists reacted on social media and called for a campaign against his nomination.
Al-Bashir has ruled the country since 1989. He came to power by leading a coup against the elected, but increasingly unpopular, prime minister of the time, Sadiq al-Mahdi. The International Criminal Court (ICC) has indicted Al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the western region of Darfur.
The most recent waves of protests began on 19 December 2018 in response to the tripling of the price of bread in Atbara, then quickly spread to Port Sudan, Dongola and the capital Khartoum. Protestors set fire to the national party headquarters in Atbara and Dongola. Authorities used tear gas, rubber bullets and live ammunition to disperse demonstrators, causing dozens of deaths and injuries. The former prime minister, Sadiq al-Mahdi, returned to the country on the same day.
Access to social media and instant messaging was cut on 21 December by the country's major service providers, with technical evidence collected by the NetBlocks internet observatory and Sudanese volunteers indicating the installation of "an extensive internet censorship regime".
By 7 January 2019 over 800 anti-government protesters were arrested and 19 people, including security officials, were killed during the protests.
Media coverage of the protests was strictly controlled by security forces. Al Tayyar began printing blank pages to show the amount of government-censored copy. Other news outlets have seen their entire print run confiscated by the government. The security service (NISS) raided Al Jarida's offices again, which has led the latter to stop producing its print version. According to The Listening Post, foreign Arabic-language videographers have been particularly targeted by the government.
A "senior military source" told Middle East Eye that Salah Gosh, head of Sudanese intelligence, had the support of the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt to replace al-Bashir as president, citing his private talks with Yossi Cohen at the Munich Security Conference as evidence (15-17 February).
On 22 February, Bashir declared a state of national emergency—the first in twenty years—and "dissolved the central and regional governments". The next day he appointed his chosen successor, Mohamed Tahir Ayala, as Prime Minister and former intelligence chief and current Defence Minister Awad Mohamed Ahmed Ibn Auf as first vice president. His intelligence chief also announced that he would not seek re-election in 2020 and would resign from the head of the National Congress Party. Ahmed Haroun, also wanted by the ICC for war crimes, replaced Al-Bashir as leader of the National Congress party. Officers from the military and intelligence services were put in charge of provincial governments after the dissolution.
Security forces raided universities in Khartoum and Ombdurman, reportedly beating students with sticks in Khartoum on 24 February. New 10-year prison sentences and emergency courts were decreed the same day by al-Bashir.
On 7 March, protests were organized to honor women for their leading role in the uprising. "You women, be strong" and "This revolution is a women's revolution" were slogans chanted at several protests. On 8 March, Omar al-Bashir ordered that all the women who had been arrested for participating in anti-government demonstrations be freed. Protestors named a Khartoum neighborhood park (in Burri) after one such woman, who had been sentenced to 20 lashes and one month in prison by an emergency court, then freed on appeal. The sentence of flogging, first introduced during British colonization in 1925, aims at discouraging Sudanese women from political activism. According to the Democratic Lawyers Alliance, at least 870 people have been tried in the newly-established emergency courts.
Similar to other protests, the Sudanese protestors have chanted slogans demanding the fall of the current regime. These slogans include "Freedom, peace and justice," "We are all Darfur," and "Just fall – that is all", among others.
Slogans which widespread since December 19. 2018 were “Freedom, peace, justice” and “Revolution". is the people’s choice” and Video footage showed men and women, many wearing masks, shouting slogans against the government.
Sudan President Omar al-Bashir, facing the country’s biggest popular protests since he came to power 30 years ago, declared a one-year state of emergency
Against this background, the outbreak of protests in the northern town of Atbara.
Just fall – that is allEdit
The slogan "Just fall – that is all" (تسقط – بس tasquṭ bas) was first used on Twitter and Facebook pages during the protests of 22nd December 2018 and has thereafter been widely used. Starting in late December, many people across social media and on the ground started using the slogan in writing including on walls, on the ground using empty tear gas canisters, bricks, and other household items.
Freedom, peace and justiceEdit
This slogan was the first to be used in downtown Khartoum where demonstrators chanting "freedom, peace and justice" and "revolution is the people’s choice" were met with tear gas. The organizers of this particular march were "professionals, including doctors, engineers, and teachers." 
We are All DarfurEdit
The slogan "You arrogant racist, we are all Darfur!" was used in Khartoum in response to the targeting of students from Darfur by National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS) agents in relation to allegations of a planned attack. According to Radio Dabanga, the NISS claimed that a number of Darfuri students had been trained by the Israeli Mossad to carry out acts of sabotage. The 32 Darfuri students who are studying at the University of Sennar in eastern Sudan were arrested in Sinnar and transported to Khartoum where they subsequently confessed "under duress."
On 28 December 2018, two United Nations Special Rapporteurs expressed alarm about reports of government violence (using live ammunition) against protestors and concern about "arbitrary arrests and detentions".
- Egypt – Egypt sent its minister of foreign affairs Sameh Shoukry to become the first Arab official to announce its support of the Sudanese government. "Egypt is confident that Sudan will overcome the present situation," Shoukry said, adding that "Egypt is always ready to support Sudan and the ability of Sudanese people as per the government of Sudan's vision and policies."
- Qatar – The Emir of Qatar Tamim bin Hammad declared his support of Omar al-Bashir, whose first international trip since the uprising began was to visit the Emir. No financial support was announced after this meeting.
- Saudi Arabia – King Salman of Saudi Arabia has sent a diplomatic delegation calling for the stability of Sudan and stating that the security of Sudan is part of the security of the (Saudi) kingdom itself.
- United Arab Emirates – The UAE has announced plans to support the shortages of the Sudanese economy and provided 1.12 million tonnes of fuel and allocated $300 million to finance Sudan's agriculture.
- Turkey – Turkey announced its aid to the Sudanese government by providing the country with wheat to assist in dropping its prices and helping calm down the protests.
- United Kingdom – British Ambassador to Sudan Irfan Siddiq said he urged the Sudanese government to avoid violence with the protesters and to release the political detainees saying "No more use of force, credible investigations into killings, release of political detainees, freedom of media and respect for the sanctity of hospitals and work of medics all essential steps."
- United States – The United States has announced its concern over the arrests and detentions, calling for the Sudanese government to release journalists, activists, and peaceful protesters arbitrarily detained during the protests, State Department spokesman Robert Palladino announced "We call on the government to allow for a credible and independent investigation into the deaths and injuries of protesters."
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Leading Sudanese opposition figure Sadiq al-Mahdi returned to Sudan on Wednesday from nearly a year in self-imposed exile
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Leading Sudanese opposition figure Sadiq al-Mahdi returned to Sudan on Wednesday from nearly a year in self-imposed exile
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