Late-2019 Sudanese protests
The late-2019 Sudanese protests consist of street protests in Sudan starting from mid-September 2019 during the 2019 Sudanese transition to democracy, on issues that included the nomination of a new Chief Justice of Sudan and Attorney-General, killings of civilians by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), the toxic effects of cyanide and mercury from gold mining in Northern state and South Kordofan, protests against a state governor in el-Gadarif and against show trials of Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) coordinators, and for officials of the previous government to be dismissed in Red Sea, White Nile, and South Darfur. These protests followed the sustained street protests and civil disobedience of the Sudanese Revolution and the early September 2019 transfer of executive power to the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, civilian prime minister Abdalla Hamdok and his cabinet of ministers. Hamdok described the 39-month transitional period as being defined by the aims of the revolution.
Eight months of street protests and sustained civil disobedience in Sudan, starting on 19 December 2018, led to a Political Agreement and Draft Constitutional Declaration defining a 39-month political transition period that started in September 2019, formally transferring executive power to the Sovereignty Council of Sudan, civilian prime minister Abdalla Hamdok and his cabinet of ministers.  Gilbert Achcar described the transition period as the fourth phase of the revolution.
On 12 September two thousand protestors in Khartoum and other cities and on 19 September twenty thousand protestors in Khartoum, Wad Madani and Port Sudan called for Abdelgadir Mohamed Ahmed to be appointed as Chief Justice and Mohamed el-Hafiz as Attorney-General, for the Khartoum massacre investigation commission to be created, and for the senior members of the previous government to be either tried in Sudanese courts on extradited to the International Criminal Court investigation in Darfur.
Displaced people held mass protests in Mershing in South Darfur on 15–16 September 2019 and in Nyala on 17 September after armed men wearing Rapid Support Forces (RSF) uniforms shot dead University of Zalingei student Munir Hamid as well as Adam Mohamed, Hashim Karameldin and Radwan Abdelrahman. The protestors considered the transitional government to be responsible for the deaths and called for "the militias" to be disarmed.
On 17 September, residents of Simit and other villages in Northern state protested against the construction of a new mine by Hamid Mining Company on the grounds of the risks of pollution from mercury and cyanide used during the extraction procedures. On the same day, people from South Kordofan protested in Khartoum to call for mining to be suspended, as ordered by the governor of South Kordofan but disobeyed by some mining companies. The protestors showed photographs of victims of the cyanide used in the mining process and called for local companies including El Sunut, al-Junaid (also Juneid), Abarsi and international mining companies to stop mining.
On 18 and 19 September, the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), the Sudanese resistance committees, government employees and other el-Gadarif residents organised protests in el-Gadarif calling for the removal of the state governor on the grounds of government-controlled radio and television not reporting on activities of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and the situation of people affected by flooding, and against the governor's "anti-revolutionary position". On the same two days, the SPA protested in front of courts in Geneina against the trials of eight SPA coordinators, which they considered to be show trials punishing the SPA members for having organised protests and a strike.
Engineers and other workers of the White Nile Sugar Workers Union in White Nile protested on 17 September calling for officials of the previous government to be dismissed. Employers of the protestors dismissed three of the engineers and started investigations into others, which the protestors' committee, the Temporal Committee for the Restoration of the White Nile Sugar Workers Union, considered to be retaliation for having participated in the protest.
On 22 September, Sudanese police used tear gas against students protesting in Nyala in South Darfur against bread shortages and transport failures and calling for the state governor to be dismissed. The FFC condemned the "use of tear gas and live bullets against peaceful protestors", called for civilian governors to be appointed, and called for an immediate investigation into the actions of the police.
On 26 September, two thousand people protested in support of Waleed Abdelrahman Hassan (or Walid, Abdulrahman), a Sudanese student arrested in Cairo for alleged participation in the 21 September street protests in Egypt. The solidarity protest took place in Khartoum in front of the Foreign Affairs Ministry and the Egyptian Embassy. The SPA called for Abdelrahman Hassan to be able to contact his family, choose a lawyer and not be tortured or coerced. Abdelrahman Hassan's friends and relatives stated that an apparent confession by him broadcast by MBC Masr on 26 September, in which he stated support for the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, was a forced confession, given Abdelrahman Hassan's long-term opposition to Islamists in Sudan under the Omar al-Bashir government, for which he was arrested in 2013 and 2018, and during the Sudanese Revolution. Abdelrahman Hassan's friend Mohammed Saleh described the idea of Hassan supporting the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood as "unbelievable". The SPA stated that the video broadcast was "shameful" and that, "We stress here that the era when Sudanese citizens were humiliated inside or outside their country has gone and will never return." Abedelrahman Hassan was freed on 2 October.
On 13 October protestors in el-Hilaliya in Gezira started a sit-in calling for the administrative head of el-Hilaliya to be dismissed, for the security committee to be dissolved, and for improvements to be made in education, health care, electricity and the environment. The administrative head was dismissed on 19 October. The week-long sit-in continued on 20 October, with protestors considering a shift of the protest to the state capital Wad Madani if their demands were not met.
On 18 October, further protests aginst the use of cyanide and other toxic molecules in gold mining took place in Talodi. The protestors called for the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) to stop guarding the mining plants, for the Amir of Talodi to be dismissed, and for improved Talodi Hospital services. The RSF beat protest supporter Hussein Noureljalil in the head with their rifle butts. Regular army forces rescued Noureljalil and took him to Talodi Hospital.
On 21 October, 20 thousand people protested in Freedom Square in Khartoum and in other towns in Sudan calling for the National Congress Party (NCP), which dominated politics during the al-Bashir government, to be dissolved, and for its senior members to be tried in court. There were no reports of casualties. Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok gave a speech marking the 55th anniversary of the 1964 uprising, in which he said "the revolution needs greater efforts to be completed and achieve its goals", after firing several top bureaucrats associated with al-Bashir's government the previous week.
The 21 October protestors also called for the investigation into the 3 June Khartoum massacre to be carried out transparently and into all suspects, including members of the civilian–military Sovereignty Council who were formerly members of the Transitional Military Council.
On 11 November, Suakin residents blocked the main road linking Port Sudan to Tokar in protest against a week of electricity shtudowns. On the same day in Abu Naama in Sennar, protestors burnt the offices, fuel depots, tractors and factories of the Kanaf Abu Naama project in protest against carcinogens. Security services detained two residents.
Students at Nyala University protested in front of local administrative offices on 11 November in protest against the lack of public transport, and called for university staff vehicles to be used to help transport students. On the same day in Abu Ushar in Gezira, protestors burnt tyres and blocked a major highway in protest against the lack of flour and the deterioration of other services. Also on 11 November, Jaafar Mohamedein of the Kanabi Congress, representing Kanabi, seasonal workers originally from Darfur and other western parts of Sudan recruited and settled in Gezira, protested about racism by government and the local population at a meeting in Khartoum on 11 November with Mohamed Mahala, representing Sovereignty Council member Mohammed al-Ta'ishi, and Sudan Liberation Movement/Army-Minni Minnawi members. Mohamedein called for the rights of the Kanabi to participate in the political process and for the creation of a Sovereignty Council commission to defend Kanabi rights.
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