1981 Galician regional election

The 1981 Galician regional election was held on Tuesday, 20 October 1981, to elect the 1st Parliament of the Autonomous Community of Galicia. All 71 seats in the Parliament were up for election. The election was held simultaneously with a Statute of Autonomy referendum in Andalusia.

1981 Galician regional election

20 October 1981 1985 →

All 71 seats in the Parliament of Galicia
36 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered2,174,246
Turnout1,006,222 (46.3%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Xerardo Fernández Albor 2013 (cropped).jpg José Quiroga 1979 (cropped).jpg Portrait placeholder.svg
Leader Xerardo Fernández Albor José Quiroga Francisco Vázquez
Party AP UCD PSdG–PSOE
Leader since 27 August 1981 9 June 1979 1980
Leader's seat La Coruña Orense La Coruña
Seats won 26 24 16
Popular vote 301,039 274,191 193,456
Percentage 30.5% 27.8% 19.6%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Portrait placeholder.svg Camilo Nogueira 2009 (cropped).jpg Portrait placeholder.svg
Leader Bautista Álvarez Camilo Nogueira Joaquín Alvarez Corbacho
Party BNPGPSG EG PCE–PCG
Leader since 1977 1980 6 September 1981
Leader's seat La Coruña Pontevedra Pontevedra (lost)
Seats won 3 1 1
Popular vote 61,870 33,497 28,927
Percentage 6.3% 3.4% 2.9%

GaliciaProvinceMapParliament1981.png
Constituency results map for the Parliament of Galicia

President before election

José Quiroga
UCD

Elected President

Xerardo Fernández Albor
AP

The governing Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD), which had been expected to maintain its primacy in a region where it had obtained favourable results in the general elections of 1977 and 1979, won 27.8% and 24 seats to come in second place to Manuel Fraga's People's Alliance (AP), which won the election with 30.5% of the vote and 26 seats. The Socialists' Party of Galicia (PSdG–PSOE), while faring better that in the general elections, did not secure the expected gains, obtaining 19.6% of the vote and 16 seats.[1] The Communist Party of Galicia (PCE–PCG) secured 1 seat after the voiding of 1,100 PSOE votes in the La Coruña constituency deprived the Socialists from a 17th seat.[2] Of the nationalist parties, only the Galician National-Popular BlocGalician Socialist Party (BNPG–PSG) and Galician Left (EG) secured parliamentary representation, with 3 and 1 seat respectively.

An agreement between AP and UCD allowed Xerardo Fernández Albor to be elected as President of the Regional Government of Galicia, at the head of a minority cabinet with UCD's external support.[3] The 1981 Galician election marked the beginning of the end for the UCD as a relevant political force in Spanish politics, confirming its ever more dwindling support among voters and AP's growth at its expense.[4][5] The 1982 Andalusian election held seven months later would signal a further blow to UCD, accelerating the internal decomposition of the party into the next general election.

OverviewEdit

Electoral systemEdit

The Parliament of Galicia was the devolved, unicameral legislature of the autonomous community of Galicia, having legislative power in regional matters as defined by the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the regional Statute of Autonomy, as well as the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a President of the Regional Government.[6]

Transitory Provision First of the Statute established a specific electoral procedure for the first election to the Parliament of Galicia, to be supplemented by the provisions within Royal Decree-Law 20/1977, of 18 March, and its related regulations. Voting for the Parliament was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen, registered in Galicia and in full enjoyment of their civil and political rights. The 71 members of the Parliament of Galicia were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of La Coruña, Lugo, Orense and Pontevedra, with each being allocated a fixed number of seats: 22 for La Coruña, 15 for Lugo, 15 for Orense and 19 for Pontevedra.[6][7][8][9]

The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[10]

Election dateEdit

The Provisional Government of Galicia, in agreement with the Government of Spain, was required to call an election to the Parliament of Galicia within 120 days from the enactment of the Statute, with election day taking place within sixty days after the call.[6] As a result, an election could not be held later than the 180th day from the date of enactment of the Statute of Autonomy. The Statute was published in the Official State Gazette on 28 April 1981, setting the latest possible election date for the Parliament on Sunday, 25 October 1981.[11][12][13]

Initially, 15 or 18 October 1981 were considered as the most likely dates for the election, but members of the governing Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) did not rule out it taking place up to one week later,[14][15] with 25 October also being considered to have election day on a Sunday.[13] On 21 August, and after deliberation by the Provisional Government and in agreement with the State Government, President José Quiroga called the election for Tuesday, 20 October 1981.[8][16]

BackgroundEdit

Negotiations for a new Statute of Autonomy for Galicia had its roots in the 1936 Statute, voted in referendum and submitted to the Spanish parliament for ratification, but never enforced due to the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.[17] Galicia was granted a pre-autonomic regime after Francisco Franco's death in 1975 and during the Spanish transition to democracy,[18][19][20] together with the Valencian Country, Aragon and the Canary Islands and based on the examples of Catalonia and the Basque Country.[21][22] The establishment of the Regional Government of Galicia (Galician: Xunta de Galicia) was formalized with its official approval on 18 March 1978 and the appointment of the first provisional government under UCD's Antonio Rosón in June that year.[23][24] The subsequent Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the celebration in Spain of the first ordinary general election paved the way for the re-establishment of the "historical communities" of the Basque Country, Catalonia and Galicia, under the "fast-track" procedure of Article 151 of the Constitution, setting the first steps for the institutionalization of the so-called "State of the Autonomies".[25]

Negotiations between the various parties led to the signing of the "Hostel Pacts" (Spanish: Pacto del Hostal) on 26 September 1980,[26][27][28] and the subsequent approval of a draft Statute of Autonomy for Galicia that was to be ratified in referendum.[29] Above 70% of those voting in the referendum held on 21 December 1980 supported the Statute, albeit under a very low turnout of 28%.[30] The result prompted the UCD to remain alone in government, after the resignation of its only AP member and the PSOE's refusal to rejoin it—having left in November 1979 over disagreements on the Statute issue—without a profound renovation, which the UCD rejected.[31][32][33]

Plans to hold the first regional election by the end of April or the beginning of May 1981 were cast off as a result of a delay in the approval of the regional Statute, amid accusations that UCD was holding off the text from final ratification in the Cortes Generales over the party's deteriorating situation in Galicia as a result of the referendum's outcome.[34][35] The Statute was finally brought to the Congress where it passed on 17 February 1981 with 301 ayes, 3 abstentions and no negative votes,[36] being finally ratified by the Senate on 17 March.[37] As a result, executive procedures were initiated so as to establish the new autonomous community and hold the first Parliament election,[38][39] which was finally set for 20 October 1981.[40][41]

Parties and candidatesEdit

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within fifteen days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed secure the signature of at least one-thousandth of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election—with a compulsory minimum of 500 signatures—disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates.[7] A minimum of five deputies would be required for the constitution of parliamentary groups in the Parliament of Galicia.[42][43]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Gov. Ref.
UCD   José Quiroga
(President)
Christian democracy
Social democracy
Liberalism
 Y [44]
[45]
PSdG–PSOE   Francisco Vázquez Social democracy  N [45]
[46]
AP   Xerardo Fernández Albor Conservatism  N [45]
[47]
BNPGPSG   Bautista Álvarez Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
 N [48]
EG   Camilo Nogueira Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
 N [45]
PG   Alfonso Alvarez Gándara Galician nationalism
Social liberalism
 N [49]
[50]
PCE–PCG   Joaquín Alvarez Corbacho Eurocommunism  N [51]

José María David Suárez Núñez, rector of the University of Santiago de Compostela, had been initially proposed by UCD as their leading candidate replacing José Quiroga,[52][53] but in an unexpected move Quiroga's supporters outnumbered Suárez Núñez's candidacy by two votes,[54] provoking a crisis within the Galician branch of the UCD over the disputed Quiroga's candidacy.[55][56] The various UCD factions reached a compromise to put off internal quarrelling to prevent giving voters an image of disunity, by maintaining Quiroga as candidate over the difficulties in finding a replacement before the deadline for presenting lists of candidates expired.[57]

The Socialists' Party of Galicia (PSdG–PSOE) included many Galician intellectuals within their lists,[58] while the People's Alliance (AP) chose Xerardo Fernández Albor as their leading candidate.[47] While an electoral coalition between UCD and AP was considered, both parties discarded such a possibility.[59][60] In July 1980, the Galician Socialist Party (PSG) and the constituent parties of the Galician National-Popular Bloc (BNPG), the Galician People's Union (UPG) and the Galician National-Popular Assembly (ANPG), agreed to form an alliance.[48] The Galicianist Party (PG) had sufferent an important internal crisis in June 1981.[49][50]

A total of 986 candidates from 18 political parties stood for election, with eleven candidacies running in all four provinces: the main parties UCD, PSOE, AP, BNPG–PSG, EG, PG and PCE, as well as the Galician Socialist Unity–PSOE (historical) (USG–PSOE), the Revolutionary Communist LeagueCommunist Movement (LCR–MCG) alliance, the Spanish Ruralist Party (PRE) and the Workers' Socialist Party (PST).[61]

CampaignEdit

The campaign was dominated by the perception that the ruling Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) would achieve a precarious victory, as well as on the question of turnout, as it was feared that the high abstention rates that had dominated elections and referendums in Galicia up until that time would be repeated: 39.3% in the 1977 general election, 49.8% in the 1978 constitutional referendum, 50.8% in the 1979 general election and 71.7% in the 1980 Statute referendum.[62][63]

Party slogans
Candidacies Original slogan English translation Ref.
UCD « Defiende lo tuyo » "Defend what is yours" [64][62][65]
PSdG–PSOE « Galicia quiere vivir »
« Haz Galicia viva »
"Galicia wants to live"
"Make Galicia alive"
[64][62]
AP « Galegos coma ti » "Galician like yourself" [64][62]
PG « Somos gallegos » "We are Galician" [64]

The UCD emphasized the defense of values such as personal freedom and regional culture, the modernization of key economic sectors such as fishing and agriculture, the identity of the Spanish nation and an efficient autonomy for Galicia. The party's aim was to maintain the regional hegemony that it obtained in the 1977 and 1979 by preserving the vote from conservative, small landowners.[62][66] The UCD campaign was notable for keeping with a policy of inauguration of public works and the involvement of several high-ranking ministers and members,[67] such as Prime Minister Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo,[68] or his predecessor Adolfo Suárez.[69][70] Politically, the party failed at targeting a single rival: some members sought to minimize losses to AP whereas others advocated for discrediting the PSOE as a viable government alternative to UCD,[71] while concurrently discarding any-post election alliance with either party.[72][73]

The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), the main opposition party of Spain at the time, advocated for an improvement of the Statute and in presenting a renewed image of moderation ahead of incoming elections throughout the rest of the country.[62] Party leader Felipe González campaigned throughout Galicia with the aim of consolidating the party's gains in opinion polls,[74][75] while the party considered the eventuality of a UCD–PSOE post-election arrangement as "unlikely", convinced that the UCD would chose to pact with AP instead.[76]

The right-wing People's Alliance (AP) focused on the personal appeal of its national leader, Manuel Fraga—of Galician descent—a move which received criticism from other political parties, which dubbed it as "a trap to the electorate", because Fraga was not standing as candidate in the election.[62] AP also tried to highlight the party's alleged "Galician personality" by campaigning extensively throughout rural areas—which had remained UCD strongholds in previous elections—aiming at securing strong gains in the region at the expense of the ruling party.[77][78] The party's secretary general Jorge Verstrynge went on to claim that AP was "entirely committed to the Galician election".[79]

The various Galician nationalist parties—mainly the Galician National-Popular BlocGalician Socialist Party (BNPG–PSG) alliance, the Galicianist Party (PG) and Galician Left (EG)—had little prospects of posing a challenge to the main Spanish political parties as a result of internal infighting, a shortage of economic resources and a small membership.[80] Concurrently, the Regional Government of Galicia launched a 120 million Pta-worth institutional campaign under the "Vote for yours" (Spanish: Vota a los tuyos) slogan to try to fire up turnout.[64] The Galician Businessmen Confederation launched their own campaign by investing 110 million Pta into prompting turnout while showing their rejection of proposals from left-wing parties.[81] Galician bishops also entered the campaign by asking to vote "for the options that, at least, will not act against some of the fundamental elements that integrate the common good from the perspective of the Christian faith".[82]

At the end of their respective campaigns, UCD and AP denounced each other for foul playing: the UCD accused AP of using Calvo-Sotelo's image in their benefit, whereas the latter accused the former of handing out leaflets falsely claiming that Fraga was asking for voting UCD.[83][84][85] Calls for tactical voting were also common from UCD, PSOE and AP.[86]

Opinion pollsEdit

he tables below lists opinion polling results in reverse chronological order, showing the most recent first and using the dates when the survey fieldwork was done, as opposed to the date of publication. Where the fieldwork dates are unknown, the date of publication is given instead. The highest percentage figure in each polling survey is displayed with its background shaded in the leading party's colour. If a tie ensues, this is applied to the figures with the highest percentages. The "Lead" column on the right shows the percentage-point difference between the parties with the highest percentages in a given poll.

Voting intention estimates

The table below lists weighted voting intention estimates. When available, seat projections are also displayed below (or in place of) the voting estimates in a smaller font; 36 seats were required for an absolute majority in the Parliament of Galicia.

Voting preferences

The table below lists raw, unweighted voting preferences.

Victory likelihood

The table below lists opinion polling on the perceived likelihood of victory for each party in the event of a regional election taking place.

ResultsEdit

OverallEdit

Summary of the 20 October 1981 Parliament of Galicia election results
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
People's Alliance (AP) 301,039 30.52 n/a 26 n/a
Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) 274,191 27.80 n/a 24 n/a
Socialists' Party of Galicia (PSdG–PSOE) 193,456 19.62 n/a 16 n/a
Galician National-Popular BlocGalician Socialist Party (BNPG–PSG) 61,870 6.27 n/a 3 n/a
Galician Left (EG) 33,497 3.40 n/a 1 n/a
Galicianist Party (PG) 32,623 3.31 n/a 0 n/a
Communist Party of Galicia (PCE–PCG) 28,927 2.93 n/a 1 n/a
Workers' Socialist Party (PST) 18,249 1.85 n/a 0 n/a
Galician Socialist Unity–PSOE (USG–PSOE) 12,709 1.29 n/a 0 n/a
La Coruña Capital Defense Independents (IDC) 5,486 0.56 n/a 0 n/a
Galician Brotherhood (IG) 4,929 0.50 n/a 0 n/a
Revolutionary Communist LeagueCommunist Movement (LCR–MCG) 4,858 0.49 n/a 0 n/a
Spanish Ruralist Party (PRE) 4,291 0.44 n/a 0 n/a
New Force (FN) 3,950 0.40 n/a 0 n/a
Spanish Democratic Right (DDE) 2,022 0.21 n/a 0 n/a
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS) 1,498 0.15 n/a 0 n/a
Liberated Galiza (GC) 1,433 0.15 n/a 0 n/a
Communist Party of Spain (Marxist–Leninist) (PCE (m–l)) 1,216 0.12 n/a 0 n/a
Blank ballots 0 0.00 n/a
Total 986,244 71 n/a
Valid votes 986,244 98.01 n/a
Invalid votes 19,978 1.99 n/a
Votes cast / turnout 1,006,222 46.28 n/a
Abstentions 1,168,024 53.72 n/a
Registered voters 2,174,246
Sources[87][88]
Popular vote
AP
30.52%
UCD
27.80%
PSdG–PSOE
19.62%
BNPGPSG
6.27%
EG
3.40%
PG
3.31%
PCG–PCE
2.93%
PST
1.85%
USG–PSOE
1.29%
Others
3.01%
Blank ballots
0.00%
Seats
AP
36.62%
UCD
33.80%
PSdG–PSOE
22.54%
BNPGPSG
4.23%
EG
1.41%
PCG–PCE
1.41%

Distribution by constituencyEdit

Constituency AP UCD PSdG BPSG EG PCG
% S % S % S % S % S % S
La Coruña 32.7 9 19.5 5 24.0 6 6.7 1 3.3 3.4 1
Lugo 31.4 5 35.0 6 16.1 3 8.0 1 0.9 1.5
Orense 28.0 5 42.7 7 16.4 3 5.2 0.5 2.0
Pontevedra 28.6 7 28.2 6 17.2 4 5.5 1 5.9 1 3.4
Total 30.5 26 27.8 24 19.6 16 6.3 3 3.4 1 2.9 1
Sources[87][88]

AftermathEdit

AnalysisEdit

The victory of AP over UCD caught many by surprise. The then-ruling party of Spain had not been able to win in one its most favourable regions, scoring third in the most populous province of Galicia, La Coruña—taking 19.5% of the vote, behind PSOE's 24.0% and AP's 32.7%—while also narrowly failing to win in the other Atlantic province of Pontevedra. The party was able to keep its primacy in the provinces of Lugo and Orense, but it did so with much reduced majorities when compared to its results in the region at the 1979 general election. AP went on to win much of the urban vote, with UCD support mostly confined to the rural areas.[89][90]

The success of AP was attributed to Fraga's personal charisma in his home region, but also on the scale of the UCD collapse,[91] a result of a poor popular perception of the UCD's action of government at the national level—first under Adolfo Suárez, then under Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo—its handling of economic crisis, the autonomic process—including the party's past stance on the Galician statute—and internal conflicts over the party's future and direction since its first electoral defeats in 1980—namely, in the Basque and Catalan elections and in the Andalusian referendum.[92] However, Galicia was considered a safe UCD stronghold, and while it was expected that the party would lose ground, an electoral defeat under AP had not been foreseen.[63][93] As a result, the election outcome came as a shock to the ruling party in Spain and aggravated the internal crisis between the different party families.[94][95][96]

In the aftermath of the Galician election, Calvo-Sotelo would oust Agustín Rodríguez Sahagún as UCD national president to take the reins of the party himself,[97][98] just as the government's parliamentary standing would weaken over a number of defections within the party's caucuses in the Cortes Generales: on the one hand, former justice minister Francisco Fernández Ordóñez would leave in November 1981, together with other nine Congress deputies, to establish the Democratic Action Party (PAD);[99][100] on the other hand, three further deputies would defect to AP in January 1982.[101] Going into 1982, the UCD would be trailing the PSOE in opinion polls at the national level by double digits, with a sustainable migration of voters to AP being detected by pollsters after the Galician election. In the May 1982 Andalusian election, the UCD would further collapse to third place behind both PSOE and AP, and by the time of the October 1982 general election it would become a minor political force slightly below 7% nationally, all of which would eventually lead to the party's dissolution in February 1983.[102][103]

Government formationEdit

Under Article 15 of the Statute, investiture processes to elect the President of the Regional Government of Galicia required of an absolute majority—more than half the votes cast—to be obtained in the first ballot. If unsuccessful, a new ballot would be held 24 hours later requiring only of a simple majority—more affirmative than negative votes—to succeed. If the proposed candidate was not elected, successive proposals were to be transacted under the same procedure.[6][42]

After the election, AP sought an agreement with UCD and the implementation of their "natural majority" policy, under which the understanding of the right-of-centre political parties in Spain would lead to their eventual merging.[104][105] UCD leaders were split on whether accepting AP's offer of forming a full coalition government, limiting themselves to granting external support to a minority AP cabinet from or not supporting AP at all over fears that such a pact would "denature" UCD's centrist appeal and push it to the right.[106][107] Any government agreement between UCD or AP with the PSOE was discarded after the Socialists discarded themselves such possibility,[108][109] while the post-election crisis within UCD delayed the start of formal negotiations well into November.[110] The date of the regional Parliament's constitution was set for 19 December by the regional UCD government almost one month after the election, a move which received criticism from other political parties which considered it an improvisation,[111][112] but which allowed AP enough time to organize the future government's composition.[113][114]

AP and UCD formally agreed to have former UCD's regional president Antonio Rosón elected as the Parliament's new Speaker,[115][116] who was elected to the post with the support of 50 out of 71 votes.[117] Both parties reached an investiture agreement to elect AP candidate Xerardo Fernández Albor,[118] who was voted into office on 8 January 1982,[3][119] and sworn in on 21 January at the helm of a minority cabinet.[120][121][122]

Investiture
Xerardo Fernández Albor (AP)
Ballot → 8 January 1982
Required majority → 36 out of 71  Y
52 / 71
17 / 71
1 / 71
1 / 71
Sources[3][88]

The government's stability throughout its first year of tenure would remain tenuous, with UCD not pledging a stable support and forcing AP to seek it on a case-by-case basis to avoid parliamentary defeats by an uneasy UCD–PSOE collaboration.[123] This situation would last until the 1982 general election,[124][125] when UCD's collapse and subsequent dissolution as a political party in February 1983 would lead to 12 of its former deputies to sign an agreement with AP, providing the government with a stable majority in exchange for their incorporation as cabinet members.[126][127][128]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Undecided and/or abstentionists excluded.

ReferencesEdit

Opinion poll sources
  1. ^ "Escándalo en vísperas de acabar la campaña electoral gallega". Diario de Navarra (in Spanish). 18 October 1981.
  2. ^ "Galicia: Esperanza de que el esfuerzo realizado estimule a acudir a las urnas". ABC (in Spanish). 20 October 1981.
  3. ^ "La patronal gallega anunció ayer, a través de la CEOE, que Alianza Popular se alzará con la victoria en las elecciones al Parlamento gallego del próximo martes". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 17 October 1981.
  4. ^ "Calvo Ortega asegura que UCD no hará coalición en el Gobierno gallego". El País (in Spanish). 10 October 1981.
  5. ^ "Calvo-Sotelo reitera que no habrá pacto con AP en Galicia". ABC (in Spanish). 10 October 1981.
  6. ^ a b "Dos sondeos pronostican que los socialistas ganarán las elecciones gallegas". El País (in Spanish). 26 August 1981.
  7. ^ a b "El PSOE será la alternativa más votada en Galicia, según un sondeo". El País (in Spanish). 15 July 1981.
  8. ^ a b "AP y el Bloque Gallego serían los beneficiados de unas eventuales elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 9 June 1981.
  9. ^ a b "Preelectoral Galicia 1981 (II) (Estudio nº 1287. Octubre 1981)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 1 October 1981.
  10. ^ a b "Estudio 1286. Preelectoral Galicia 1981 (I)" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 1 September 1981.
  11. ^ "Estudio 1289. Situación social y política de Galicia (I)". CIS (in Spanish). 1 May 1981.
  12. ^ "Actitudes autonómicas de Galicia. Estudio nº 1241. Septiembre 1980" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). 1 October 1980.
Other
  1. ^ "Espectacular triunfo de Alianza Popular en Galicia a costa de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 21 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  2. ^ "Los comunistas gallegos obtienen un escaño en el Parlamento autónomo". El País (in Spanish). 29 October 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "Fernández Albor, elegido primer presidente de la Junta autonómica gallega". El País (in Spanish). 9 January 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  4. ^ Rodíguez-Arana Muñoz, Jaime (2003). "Veinte años de autonomía en Galicia" (PDF). Foro galego: revista xurídica (in Spanish). No. 191. Universidade da Coruña. pp. 631–636. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  5. ^ "UCD ya no es la misma". ABC (in Spanish). 31 December 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "Ley Orgánica 1/1981, de 6 de abril, de Estatuto de Autonomía para Galicia". Organic Law No. 1 of 6 April 1981. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Real Decreto-ley 20/1977, de 18 de marzo, sobre Normas Electorales". Royal Decree-Law No. 20 of 18 March 1977. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Decreto 30/81, de 21 de agosto, de convocatoria de eleccións ó Parlamento de Galicia" (PDF). Boletín Oficial da Xunta de Galicia (in Galician) (23): 1–2. 24 August 1981. ISSN 1139-4420. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  9. ^ "Real Decreto 1826/1981, de 20 de agosto, por el que se dictan las normas necesarias para la aplicación del Real Decreto-ley 20/1977, de 18 de marzo, a las elecciones al Parlamento de Galicia" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (202): 19404. 24 August 1981. ISSN 0212-033X. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  10. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  11. ^ "Las elecciones al Parlamento de Galicia se celebrarán en octubre". El País (in Spanish). 21 April 1981. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  12. ^ "Abierto el plazo para las próximas elecciones al Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 28 April 1981. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  13. ^ a b "El referéndum costará 450 millones". El País (in Spanish). 5 August 1981. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  14. ^ "Propuesta centrista para que las elecciones en Galicia se celebren entre el 15 y el 18 de octubre". El País (in Spanish). 3 May 1981. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  15. ^ "El Gobierno estudió la convocatoria de las elecciones gallegas". El País (in Spanish). 8 May 1981. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  16. ^ "El 20 de octubre, elecciones gallegas y referéndum andaluz". El País (in Spanish). 21 August 1981. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  17. ^ "Sinopsis del Estatuto de Galicia". congreso.es (in Spanish). Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  18. ^ "Proyecto de régimen transitorio de autonomía para Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 6 October 1977. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  19. ^ "Reservas en la izquierda gallega ante el proyecto autonómico de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 7 October 1977. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  20. ^ "Aprobadas las bases para negociar la autonomía de Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 12 October 1977. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  21. ^ "Galicia, un caso aparte". El País (in Spanish). 9 December 1979. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  22. ^ "La negociación constitucional de las autonomías estuvo condicionada por el "problema vasco" y la "cuestión catalana"". El País (in Spanish). 9 December 1979. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  23. ^ "Real Decreto-ley 7/1978, de 16 de marzo, por el que se aprueba el régimen preautonómico para Galicia". Royal Decree-Law No. 7 of 16 March 1978. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  24. ^ "Designado el Gobierno preautonómico gallego". El País (in Spanish). 13 June 1978. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  25. ^ "La España de las Autonomías. Galicia. Breve historia". El Mundo (in Spanish). June 2005. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  26. ^ "UCD y PSOE de Galicia coinciden en devolver el Estatuto al Congreso". El País (in Spanish). 26 September 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  27. ^ "Los partidos llegan a un acuerdo sobre el Estatuto gallego". El País (in Spanish). 27 September 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  28. ^ "Firmado el acuerdo para modificar el Estatuto gallego". El País (in Spanish). 30 September 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  29. ^ "El Estatuto gallego, modificado ayer, será sometido a referéndum el 21 de diciembre". El País (in Spanish). 30 October 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  30. ^ "Sólo el 20,80% de los gallegos convocados a las urnas el domingo dijeron "sí" al Estatuto". El País (in Spanish). 23 December 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  31. ^ "UCD monopoliza la Junta de Galicia, tras la dimisión del representante de AP". El País (in Spanish). 30 December 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  32. ^ "El PSOE, dispuesto a integrarse en una Junta renovada". El País (in Spanish). 11 February 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  33. ^ "UCD descarta la remodelación de la Junta de Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 13 February 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  34. ^ "Descartada una campaña unitaria para el referéndum gallego". El País (in Spanish). 5 November 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  35. ^ a b c "El PSOE reclama la ratificación del Estatuto por las Cortes". El País (in Spanish). 29 January 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  36. ^ "El Congreso ratificó el Estatuto gallego". El País (in Spanish). 18 February 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  37. ^ "El Senado ratifica el Estatuto de Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 18 March 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  38. ^ "UCD y PSOE preparan las elecciones al Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 28 March 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  39. ^ "Las elecciones al Parlamento de Galicia se celebrarán en octubre". El País (in Spanish). 21 April 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  40. ^ "Abierto el plazo para las próximas elecciones al Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 28 April 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  41. ^ "El 20 de octubre, elecciones gallegas y referéndum andaluz". El País (in Spanish). 21 August 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  42. ^ a b "Texto definitivo del Reglamento del Parlamento de Galicia" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Parlamento de Galicia (in Spanish) (16): 1–55. 30 June 1982. ISSN 1133-2727. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  43. ^ "Cinco diputados, mínimo establecido para formar grupo en el Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 5 January 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  44. ^ "Quiroga encabezará una candidatura al Parlamento". El País (in Spanish). 17 February 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  45. ^ a b c d "Cuatro candidatos se disputan la presidencia de la Junta autonómica de Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 13 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  46. ^ "El PSOE ultima su programa para las elecciones autonómicas". El País (in Spanish). 26 June 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  47. ^ a b "AP presentó sus candidaturas para las elecciones autonómicas". El País (in Spanish). 28 August 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  48. ^ a b "Nueva alianza en la Izquierda Nacionalista Gallega". El País (in Spanish). 22 July 1980. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  49. ^ a b "Moderados y radicales pugnan por el control del Partido Galleguista". El País (in Spanish). 4 June 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  50. ^ a b "Clausura del congreso galleguista". El País (in Spanish). 9 June 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  51. ^ "Tensiones en el PCE por las listas al Parlamento". El País (in Spanish). 8 September 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  52. ^ "Suarez Núñez, candidato de UCD a la presidencia de la Junta de Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 11 June 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  53. ^ "Perfilada la estrategia de UCD para las elecciones al Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 12 June 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  54. ^ "Antonio Rosón critica la candidatura de José Quiroga para presidir la Xunta". El País (in Spanish). 6 August 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  55. ^ "Miembros de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 7 August 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  56. ^ "UCD puede elegir otro candidato para la presidencia de la Junta". El País (in Spanish). 11 August 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  57. ^ "Tregua en la UCD gallega ante la proximidad de las elecciones autonómicas". El País (in Spanish). 8 September 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  58. ^ "Nacionalistas gallegos se integran en candidaturas socialistas y centristas". El País (in Spanish). 12 July 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  59. ^ "Alianza Popular acudirá en solitario a las elecciones autonómicas". El País (in Spanish). 17 June 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  60. ^ "Fraga mantiene su confianza en el electorado gallego". El País (in Spanish). 21 June 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  61. ^ "986 candidatos para los 71 escaños del Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 16 September 1981. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
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  63. ^ a b "El incremento de la abstención, directamente relacionado con la crisis del caciquismo". El País (in Spanish). 20 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  64. ^ a b c d e "Apatía, desinterés y cansancio ciudadano en el arranque de la campaña electoral". El País (in Spanish). 6 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  65. ^ "Rodríguez Sahagún: "Las elecciones gallegas son decisivas para Unión de Centro Democrático"". El País (in Spanish). 27 September 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  66. ^ "La imagen de Fraga significa una "trampa" al electorado gallego". ABC (in Spanish). 2 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  67. ^ "UCD sigue en Galicia su política de inauguraciones en vísperas electorales". El País (in Spanish). 11 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  68. ^ "El presidente del Gobierno hace campana entre citas cultas y profesión de galleguismo". El País (in Spanish). 6 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  69. ^ "El ex presidente revivió los "baños de multitud"". El País (in Spanish). 13 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  70. ^ "Suárez asegura que su retirada del protagonismo político es definitiva". El País (in Spanish). 13 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  71. ^ "Restar votos a Alianza Popular, principal objetivo de los centristas gallegos". El País (in Spanish). 8 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  72. ^ "Calvo Ortega asegura que UCD no hará coalición en el Gobierno gallego". El País (in Spanish). 10 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  73. ^ "Calvo Sotelo, Suárez y Rodríguez Sahagún marcan distancias con AP y PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 18 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  74. ^ "Los empresarios van a tener que acostumbrarse al triunfo socialista, afirma Felipe González". El País (in Spanish). 15 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  75. ^ "Felipe González intenta convencer a los gallegos para que voten". El País (in Spanish). 16 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  76. ^ "Guerra afirma que UCD trabaja para Alianza Popular en las elecciones gallegas". El País (in Spanish). 3 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  77. ^ "Euforia fraguista en la campaña de Alianza Popular por los pueblos de Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 10 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  78. ^ "Fraga convencido de que restará votos a UCD". El País (in Spanish). 13 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  79. ^ "Alianza Popular, volcada en Galicia, según Verstrynge". El País (in Spanish). 6 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  80. ^ "Los partidos nacionalistas tienen escasas perspectivas de éxito en estos comicios". El País (in Spanish). 18 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  81. ^ "Los empresarios iniciaron su campaña para promover la participación". El País (in Spanish). 16 September 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  82. ^ "Los obispos gallegos llaman al voto en las elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 4 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  83. ^ "Recurso de UCD contra un anuncio electoral de Fraga". El País (in Spanish). 18 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  84. ^ "UCD y AP finalizan la campaña en el juzgado de guardia". El País (in Spanish). 20 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  85. ^ "Secuestrado el diario "La Región" por pedir el voto para UCD". El País (in Spanish). 21 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  86. ^ "Las fuerzas mayoritarias llaman al voto útil". El País (in Spanish). 20 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
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  89. ^ "Espectacular crecimiento de AP en detrimento de UCD en las elecciones al Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 21 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  90. ^ "UCD pasa a ser en Galicia un partido ruralista". El País (in Spanish). 22 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  91. ^ "Los resultados de las urnas". El País (in Spanish). 21 October 1981. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  92. ^ "Los tropiezos electorales de Unión de Centro Democrático". El País (in Spanish). 22 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  93. ^ "Las causas del triunfo de AP". El País (in Spanish). 1 November 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  94. ^ "La victoria de Fraga en Galicia conmociona al partido del Gobierno". El País (in Spanish). 22 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  95. ^ "Las distintas familias centristas se acusan mutuamente de la derrota gallega". El País (in Spanish). 22 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  96. ^ "La Ejecutiva centrista culpa al Gobierno y al partido del fracaso electoral gallego". El País (in Spanish). 24 October 1981. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  97. ^ "Calvo Sotelo cuenta ya con la mayoría del Comité Ejecutivo de UCD". El País (in Spanish). 11 November 1981. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  98. ^ "Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo asume hoy la presidencia de UCD en sustitución de Rodríguez Sahagún". El País (in Spanish). 21 November 1981. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  99. ^ "Algunos diputados socialdemócratas pueden abandonar UCD "en cuestión de semanas"". El País (in Spanish). 28 October 1981. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  100. ^ "Fernández Ordóñez se muestra pesimista sobre la obtención de grupo parlamentario propio". El País (in Spanish). 21 January 1982. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  101. ^ "UCD lamenta las fugas de sus diputados, mientras que AP las recibe con satisfacción". El País (in Spanish). 29 January 1982. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  102. ^ "La crisis de UCD culmina con la decisión de disolverse como partido político". El País (in Spanish). 19 February 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  103. ^ "Exito y fracaso sin precedentes en la historia de las democracias". El País (in Spanish). 19 February 1983. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  104. ^ "AP, dispuesta a pactar "sin condiciones" con UCD". El País (in Spanish). 22 October 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  105. ^ "AP insiste en pactar con UCD el Gobierno de Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 31 October 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  106. ^ "El posible pacto con Alianza Popular divide a la dirección centrista". El País (in Spanish). 23 October 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  107. ^ "UCD y AP intensificarán sus contactos para el Gobierno gallego". El País (in Spanish). 1 November 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  108. ^ "AP inicia conversaciones con UCD y PSOE sobre el Gobierno gallego". El País (in Spanish). 3 November 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  109. ^ "Los socialistas, contra los programas de AP y UCD para la autonomía". El País (in Spanish). 22 November 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  110. ^ "La crisis centrista retrasa las negociaciones sobre el gobierno autonómico". El País (in Spanish). 6 November 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  111. ^ "Críticas a la Junta de Galicia por improvisar la constitución del Parlamento autónomo". El País (in Spanish). 13 November 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  112. ^ "La constitución del Parlamento gallego enfrenta a UCD y AP". El País (in Spanish). 17 November 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  113. ^ "Alianza Popular encuentra dificultades para incorporar independientes al Gobierno gallego". El País (in Spanish). 25 November 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  114. ^ "Alianza Popular se apoya en Galicia en altos cargos del franquismo". El País (in Spanish). 12 December 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  115. ^ "UCD pretende situar a Antonio Rosón en la presidencia del Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 15 December 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  116. ^ "Hoy se constituye el Parlamento autónomo en Santiago de Compostela". El País (in Spanish). 19 December 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  117. ^ "Antonio Rosón, elegido presidente del Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 20 December 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  118. ^ "El candidato de AP será presidente de la Junta gallega el próximo día 7". El País (in Spanish). 27 December 1981. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  119. ^ "Alianza Popular reivindica la modificación de la LOFCA por considerarla discriminatoria para Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 8 January 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  120. ^ ""Alianza Popular no utilizará su poder en Galicia como arma de presión", afirma Gerardo Fernández Albor". El País (in Spanish). 17 January 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  121. ^ "Mayoría de independientes en el Gobierno de AP para Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 21 January 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  122. ^ "El nuevo presidente del Gobierno autónomo gallego juró lealtad al Rey y a la Constitución". El País (in Spanish). 22 January 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  123. ^ "Centristas y socialistas derrotan a AP en el Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 30 April 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  124. ^ "El triunfo socialista puede alterar las alianzas en la autonomía gallega". El País (in Spanish). 30 October 1982. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  125. ^ "Antonio Rosón no descarta elecciones autonómicas anticipadas en Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 14 February 1983. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  126. ^ "Alianza Popular consigue mayoría absoluta en el Parlamento gallego". El País (in Spanish). 4 March 1983. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  127. ^ "Importante reestructuración de la Xunta para dar entrada a ex miembros de UCD en el Gobierno autónomo gallego". El País (in Spanish). 8 March 1983. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  128. ^ "La Xunta de Galicia reduce el número consejerías". El País (in Spanish). 19 September 1983. Retrieved 17 December 2019.