Åland (Swedish: [ˈǒːland] ; Finnish: Ahvenanmaa) is an autonomous and demilitarised region of Finland. Receiving its autonomy by a 1920 decision of the League of Nations,[1] it is the smallest region of Finland by both area (1,580 km2) and population (30,129), constituting 0.51% of Finland's land area and 0.54% of its population. Its only official language is Swedish and the capital city is Mariehamn.

Region of Åland
Landskapet Åland (Swedish)
Ahvenanmaan maakunta (Finnish)
Anthem: "Ålänningens sång" (Swedish)
(English: "Song of the Ålander")
Location of Åland within Finland
Location of Åland within Finland
Autonomy granted7 May 1920[1]
First Regional Assembly (Autonomy Day)9 June 1922[2][3]
EU accession1 January 1995
and largest city
60°07′N 019°54′E / 60.117°N 19.900°E / 60.117; 19.900
Official languagesSwedish
  • Ålandic/Ålandish
  • Ålander
  • Ålänning
  • Åländare
  • Ahvenanmaalainen
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary autonomous region
• Governor
Peter Lindbäck
• Premier
Katrin Sjögren
• MP
Mats Löfström
• Total
1,580[4] km2 (610 sq mi) (unranked)
Highest elevation
129.1 m (423.6 ft)
• 2020 estimate
30,129[5] (223rd)
• Density
19.07/km2 (49.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2007 estimate
• Total
$1.563 billion[6]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
€1.1 billion
• Per capita
HDI (2017)0.900[8]
very high
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)
UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+358 18
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD.ax

Åland is situated in a Finnish archipelago, called the Åland Islands, at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea. It comprises Fasta Åland, on which 90% of the population resides,[9] and about 6,500 skerries and islands to its east,[10] of which about 60–80 are inhabited. Fasta Åland is separated from the coast of Roslagen in Sweden by 38 kilometres (20+12 nautical miles) of open water to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is contiguous with the Finnish archipelago. Åland's only land border is located on the uninhabited skerry of Märket, which it shares with Sweden.[11] From Mariehamn, there is a ferry distance of about 160 kilometres (86 nautical miles) to Turku, a coastal city of mainland Finland, and also to Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.

Åland's autonomous status means that those provincial powers normally exercised by representatives of the central Finnish Government are largely exercised by its own government. The current demilitarised, neutral position of Åland dates back to the Paris Peace Treaty after the Åland War in the 1850s.[12]


The autonomous status of Åland was affirmed by a decision made by the League of Nations in 1921 following the Åland Islands dispute. It was reaffirmed within the treaty admitting Finland to the European Union. By law, Åland is politically neutral and entirely demilitarised, and residents are exempt from conscription to the Finnish Defence Forces. Åland was granted extensive autonomy by the Parliament of Finland in the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920, which was later replaced by new legislation of the same name in 1951 and 1991. The constitution of Finland defines a "constitution of Åland" by referring to this act. Åland remains exclusively Swedish-speaking by this act.[13] Although a referendum to join the European Union had been held in mainland Finland on 16 October 1994, Åland held a separate vote on 20 November as they were a separate customs jurisdiction. EU membership was approved by 73.64% of voters.[14] In connection with Finland's admission to the European Union, a protocol was signed concerning Åland that stipulates, among other things, that provisions of the European Community Treaty shall not force a change of the existing restrictions for foreigners (i.e., persons who do not enjoy "home region rights"—hembygdsrätt—in Åland) to acquire and hold real property or to provide certain services.[15]


Åland's original name was in the Proto-Norse language *Ahvaland. Proto-Germanic ahwō is related to the Latin word for water, aqua. In Swedish, this first developed into Áland and eventually into Åland, literally 'river land'—even though rivers are not a prominent feature of Åland's geography. The Finnish and Estonian names of the area, Ahvenanmaa and Ahvenamaa ("perch-land", from Finnish ahven, for the type of fish), are seen to preserve another form of the old name.[16]

The Finnish word Ahvenanmaa has several theories in regards to the Åland name, with them varying from it being a Finnish variant of the Swedish Åland, it being the original name that Åland derived from, and it having formed independently.[17]

The official name, Landskapet Åland, means "the Region of Åland"; landskap is cognate to English landscape.


Swedish Map of Åland from before 1667 with shipping lanes, harbours, churches and various boundaries marked

Members of the Neolithic Comb Ceramic culture started settling the archipelago some 7000 years ago, after the islands had begun to re-emerge from the sea after being pushed down by the weight of the continental ice of the latest ice-age. Two Neolithic cultures met on Åland: the Comb Ceramic culture and the later Pit-Comb Ware culture which spread from the west.[18]

Stone Age and Bronze Age people obtained food by hunting seals and birds, fishing, and gathering plants. They also started agriculture early on. From the Iron Age, Åland has six hillforts. From the Viking age there are over 380 documented burial sites.[18]

Construction of the Kastelholm Castle began in the 1380s. In 1505 it was captured by the Danish naval officer Soren Norby. In 1665 and 1668 the Kastelholm witch trials took place.

The coat of arms of Åland was originally to be granted to the Swedish island province of Öland in 1560; the two had been mixed up by mistake. It displays a golden red deer (which does not live in Åland) on a blue field.[19] This is traditionally surmounted by a comital coronet of the elder Swedish style.[20]

Along with Finland, Åland formed part of the territory ceded to Russia by Sweden under the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in September 1809. As a result, they became part of the newly established Grand Duchy of Finland that existed until 1917. During negotiations, Sweden failed to secure a provision that the islands not be fortified.

The Åland Islands during the Crimean War. It was here that the Battle of Bomarsund was fought.

In 1832, Russian Empire started to fortify the islands, with the great fortress of Bomarsund. In 1854, as part of the campaign in the Baltic during the Crimean War against Russia, a combined British and French force of warships and marines captured and destroyed the fortress during the Åland War. The 1856 Treaty of Paris demilitarised the entire Åland archipelago.[12]

Swedish artillerymen in Haraldsby during the Invasion of Åland in 1918.

During the Finnish Civil War, in 1918, Swedish troops intervened as a peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands and "White" and "Red" Finnish troops who came from Finland over the frozen sea. Within weeks, the Swedish troops gave way to German troops who occupied Åland at the request of the "White" (conservative) Senate of Finland. The only remarkable battle fought in Åland during the civil war included the Battle of Godby [fi] near the village of Godby in Finström.[21]

Åland (blue) with historical and modern (yellow lines) provinces of the rest of Finland (gray) juxtaposed.

After 1917, the residents of Åland worked towards having them ceded to Sweden. In 1919 96.4% of the voters in Åland signed a petition for secession from Finland and for integration with Sweden, with over 95% in favour.[22] Swedish nationalist sentiments had strengthened particularly as a result of the anti-Swedish tendencies in Finland and as a result of Finnish nationalism fueled by Finland's struggle to retain its position as an autonomous grand duchy due to beginning of country's active Russification.[23] The conflict between the Swedish-speaking minority and the Finnish-speaking majority on the Finnish mainland, prominent in Finnish politics since the 1840s, contributed to the apprehension of the Åland population about a future within Finland.

Finland, however, declined to cede the islands and instead offered the islanders an autonomous status. Nevertheless, the residents did not approve the offer, and in 1921 the dispute over the islands went before the newly formed League of Nations. The latter decided that Finland should retain sovereignty over the province, but that Åland should be made an autonomous territory.[24] One of the important proponents of a diplomatic solution to the case was Nitobe Inazō, who was one of the Under-Secretaries General of the League and the director of the International Bureaux Section, in charge of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.[25] The Åland convention of 20 October 1921, signed by Sweden, Finland, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Denmark, Poland, Estonia, and Latvia, was the first international agreement achieved by the League.[26] Thus, Finland was obliged to ensure the residents of Åland the right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. The convention of 1921 established the neutral status of Åland by international treaty, prohibiting the placing of military installations or forces on the islands.[27] Åland's Regional Assembly convened for its first plenary session in Mariehamn on 9 June 1922;[2] today, the day is celebrated as Self-Government Day of Åland.[3]

Åland Islands status shown in public signage, Mariehamn

Because of the condition of neutrality under the 1921 Convention, the islanders enjoyed safety at sea during World War II, as their merchant fleet sailed both for the Allied countries and for Nazi Germany. Consequently, Åland shipping was not generally attacked, as the various military forces rarely knew which cargo was being carried or to whom.

Finland marked the 150th anniversary of the demilitarisation of Åland by issuing a high-value commemorative coin, the €5 150th Anniversary of Demilitarisation of Åland commemorative coin, minted in 2006. The obverse depicts a pine tree, a typical feature of Åland. The reverse features a boat's stern and rudder, with a dove perched on the tiller, a symbol of 150 years of peace.


The Parliament of Åland with the flags of the European Union, Åland, Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Germany, Estonia, Russia, Lithuania, and Latvia.

Åland is governed according to the Act on the Autonomy of Åland and international treaties. These laws guarantee the region's autonomy from Finland, which has ultimate sovereignty over them, as well as a demilitarised status. The Government of Åland, or Landskapsregering, answers to the Parliament of Åland, or Lagting, in accordance with the principles of parliamentarism.[13]

Åland has its own flag and has issued its own postage stamps since 1984.[28] It runs its own police force, and is an associate member of the Nordic Council.[29] Åland is demilitarised, and the population is exempt from conscription. Although Åland's autonomy preceded the creation of the regions of Finland, the autonomous government of Åland also has responsibility for the functions undertaken by Finland's regional councils. Åland Post provides postal services to the islands, and is a member of the Small European Postal Administration Cooperation. Åland is considered a separate entity for amateur radio purposes and have their own call sign prefixes granted by Finland: OH0, OF0 and OG0 (last character is zero).[30]

Åland is guaranteed representation in the Finnish parliament, to which they elect one representative. Åland also has a different system of political parties from the mainland.

Homeschooling, which has been effectively banned in Sweden since 2011, is allowed by the Finnish government. Due to the islands' proximity to Sweden and because they are Swedish-speaking, a number of Swedish homeschooling families have moved from the Swedish mainland to Åland, including Jonas Himmelstrand, the chairman of the Swedish association for homeschooling.[31]

After a reform of the electoral law, Åland was to introduce internet voting in 2019 for expat voters in the parliamentary elections, considering opening the use of the same system for the next elections (2023) to all the voters.[32] However, its use was cancelled at the last minute due to a lack of evidence of the trustability of the system.[33]

Åland's parties include a separatist party called the Future of Åland (Swedish: Ålands Framtid), whose main program includes driving autonomous Åland into a completely independent state.[34][35]

Åland and the EU

Åland held its own referendum on membership of the European Union on 20 November 1994. A majority of Ålanders voted in favour of membership, and it followed Finland into the Union in 1995. A special Åland protocol regulates Åland's position within the EU. It has some important exceptions, concerning the right of non-Ålanders to own real estate and the right of non-Ålandic companies to establish themselves in the region, and concerning EU tax legislation. The last item's derogation means that Åland is considered a third country for tax purposes, which has had the most important effect of allowing the profitable sale of tax-exempt goods on ferries to and from Sweden and Finland to continue.


An Åland licence plate

The State Department of Åland represents the Finnish central government and performs many administrative duties. It has a somewhat different function from the other Regional Administrative Agencies, owing to its autonomy. Before 2010, the state administration was handled by the Åland State Provincial Office.

Åland has its own postal administration but still uses the Finnish five-digit postal code system, using the number range 22000–22999, with the prefix AX. The lowest numbered postal code is for the capital Mariehamn, AX 22100, and the highest AX 22950 for Jurmo.


Åland contains 16 municipalities. Over forty percent of all inhabitants live in Mariehamn, the capital.[36]

Population as 31 December 2023.[37]


Geographical features and municipalities of Åland
People hiking in Åland

Åland occupies a position of strategic importance, as it commands one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm, as well as the approaches to the Gulf of Bothnia, in addition to being situated near the Gulf of Finland.

The Åland archipelago includes nearly three hundred habitable islands, of which about 60–80 are inhabited; the remainder are merely some 6,200 skerries and desolate rocks.[10] The archipelago is connected to the Åboland archipelago in the east (Finnish: Turunmaan saaristo, Swedish: Åbolands skärgård)—the archipelago adjacent to the southwest coast of Finland. Together they form the Archipelago Sea. To the west of Åland is the Sea of Åland and to the north is the Bothnian Sea.

The Degersand Beach in Eckerö.[38]

The surface of the islands is generally rocky and the soil thin due to glacial stripping at the end of the most recent ice age.[10] The islands also contain many meadows that are home to many different kinds of insects, such as the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

Åland's landmass occupies a total area of 1,527 square kilometres (589+12 sq mi).[39] Ninety percent of the population live on Fasta Åland, which is also the site of the capital town of Mariehamn. Fasta Åland is the largest island in the archipelago. Its area is difficult to estimate due to its irregular shape and coastline, but estimates range from 740 square kilometres[10] to 879 square kilometres[40] to over 1,010 square kilometres, depending on what is included or excluded. There are several harbours.

Sheep grazing on a small island

During the Åland Islands dispute, the parties sought support from different maps of the area. On the Swedish map, the most densely populated main island dominated, and many skerries were left out. On the Finnish map, many smaller islands or skerries were, for technical reasons, given a slightly exaggerated size. The Swedish map made the islands appear to be closer to the mainland of Sweden than to Finland; the Finnish map stressed the continuity of the archipelago between the main island and mainland Finland, while a greater gap appeared between the islands and the archipelago on the Swedish side. One consequence is the often repeated number of "over 6,000" skerries that was given authority by the outcome of the arbitration.[citation needed]

Many animals that live in the islands are not native. Animals such as elk and other species of deer were introduced in the 20th century.


Åland has a humid continental climate (Dfb) that is influenced by its maritime position, especially in summer. While summers are cooler than on both the Swedish and Finnish mainland, winters see little difference to the adjacent parts of Sweden and are only narrowly milder than in mainland Finland.

Climate data for Mariehamn Airport (normals 1991–2020, extremes 1914–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 1.0
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −4.3
Record low °C (°F) −32.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 53
Average precipitation days 17 13 12 9 10 10 9 13 12 16 17 17 155
Mean monthly sunshine hours 39 74 130 207 297 296 312 235 163 91 41 26 1,911
Source 1: FMI climatological normals for Finland 1991–2020[41]
Source 2: record highs and lows 1961– present[42]

FMI(record highs and lows 1914–1961)[43]


Mariehamn Airport in Jomala
Ferry port in Överö [sv], Föglö
The sailing ship Linden (center) in Östra Hamnen, Mariehamn's eastern port

Åland's economy is heavily dominated by shipping, trade and tourism. Shipping represents about 40% of the economy, with several international carriers owned and operated from Åland. Most companies aside from shipping are small, with fewer than ten employees. Farming and fishing are important in combination with the food industry. A few high-profile technology companies contribute to a prosperous economy. Wind power is rapidly developing, aiming at reversing the direction in the cables to the mainland in coming years. In December 2011, wind power accounted for 31.5% of Åland's total electricity usage.[citation needed]

The main ports are the Western Harbour of Mariehamn (south), Berghamn (west) and Långnäs on the eastern shore of the Main Island. Fasta Åland has the only four highways in Åland: Highway 1 (from Mariehamn to Eckerö), Highway 2 (from Mariehamn to Sund), Highway 3 (from Mariehamn to Lumparland) and Highway 4 (from Finström to Geta).

Mariehamn served as the base for the last large oceanic commercial sailing-ships in the world. Their final tasks involved bringing Australian wheat to Great Britain, a trade which Åland shipowner Gustaf Erikson kept going until 1947. The ships latterly made only one round-trip from South Australia to Britain per year, (the grain race), after each marathon voyage going back to Mariehamn to lay up for a few months. The ship Pommern, now a museum in Mariehamn, was one of these last vessels.

The abolition of tax-free sales on ferry boats travelling between destinations within the European Union made Finland demand an exception for Åland on the European Union value-added tax rules. The exception allows for maintained tax-free sales on the ferries between Sweden and Finland (provided they stop at Mariehamn or Långnäs) and at the airport, but has also made Åland a different tax-zone, meaning that tariffs must be levied on goods brought to the islands. Two million people visit Åland every year – but most of them just for a few hours before the ferry returns again, or the passengers change from one ship to another.[44]

Unemployment was 3.9% in January 2014;[45] the employment rate was 79.8% in 2011 and 84.2% in 2021.[46]

Torggatan, a pedestrian street in the city of Mariehamn
The Bank of Åland at Nygatan in the city of Mariehamn

The Finnish State also collects taxes, duties and fees in Åland. In return, the Finnish Government places a sum of money at the disposal of the Åland Parliament. The sum is 0.5% of total Government income, excluding Government loans. If the sum paid to the Finnish state exceeds 0.5%, then any amount above goes back to the Parliament of Åland as "diligence money".[47] In 2010 the amount of taxes paid by Åland Islanders comprised 0.7% of the total taxes paid in Finland.[48]

The euro is the sole legal tender (as with the rest of Finland), although most businesses in Åland unofficially accept the Swedish krona.[49] According to Eurostat, as of 2006 Åland was the 20th-wealthiest of the EU's 268 regions, and the wealthiest in Finland, with a GDP per inhabitant 47% above the EU mean.[50][51]

Bank of Åland is headquartered on the island, and the government of Åland owns Paf, a gambling operator with headquarters in Mariehamn.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused a sharper decrease in the total volume of the economy of Åland than for neighbouring Sweden or Finland. Since the pandemic, the economy of Åland has been on a trajectory of recovery.[52]


Ethnicity and language

Languages in Åland (2021)
Languages percent

Most inhabitants speak Swedish (the sole official language) as their first language: 86% in 2021, while less than 5% spoke Finnish. The language of instruction in publicly financed schools is Swedish. (In the rest of Finland, bilingual municipalities provide schooling both in Finnish and in Swedish.) For information about the dialect, see Åland Swedish.

The ethnicity of the Ålanders and the correct linguistic classification of their language remain somewhat sensitive and controversial. Ålanders may be considered either ethnic Swedes or Swedish-speaking Finns, but their language is closer to the Uppländska dialect of Sweden than to Finland Swedish.[citation needed] (See Languages of Sweden.)

Regional citizenship or the right of domicile (hembygdsrätt) is a prerequisite for voting, standing as a candidate for the Legislative Assembly, or owning and holding real estate situated in unplanned areas of Åland.[13]

17.3% of Ålanders have a foreign-background, which is the highest proportion of any region in Finland. Most of them are from Sweden, with 7% of Ålanders having a Swedish-background. There are also sizable Romanian and Latvian communities.[53]

Residents by country of origin (2021)
Country Population
Total residents 30,344
  Finland 25,099
Foreign-background 5,245
  Sweden 2,135
  Romania 557
  Latvia 477
  Estonia 211
  Thailand 169
  Russia 146
  Germany 126
  Former Yugoslavia 114
  Iran 104
  Philippines 98
  Poland 83
  United Kingdom 71
  Ukraine 65
  Syria 55
  Morocco 54
  Lithuania 43
  Norway 43
  United States 38
  Brazil 35
  Vietnam 35
Other 586

Structure of the population

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2021) (Population statistics are compiled from registers.):[54]
Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 15 039 15 198 30 237 100
0–4 751 731 1 482 4.90
5–9 888 855 1 743 5.76
10–14 897 860 1 757 5.81
15–19 818 755 1 572 5.20
20–24 708 524 1 232 4.07
25–29 816 781 1 597 5.28
30–34 1 008 941 1 949 6.45
35–39 963 961 1 923 6.36
40–44 951 944 1 895 6.27
45–49 1 010 958 1 967 6.51
50–54 1 024 1 067 2 091 6.92
55–59 1 036 1 055 2 091 6.92
60–64 896 1 031 1 926 6.37
65–69 941 1 037 1 977 6.54
70–74 905 959 1 864 6.16
75–79 715 714 1 429 4.73
80–84 397 481 877 2.90
85–89 221 330 551 1.82
90–94 80 159 239 0.79
95–99 19 55 74 0.24
100+ 2 6 8 0.03
0–14 2 536 2 446 4 982 16.48
15–64 9 223 9 011 18 234 60.30
65+ 3 280 3 741 7 021 23.22


Ålands lyceum, a gymnasium in Mariehamn

In 2010, there were 22 primary schools in Åland. Eight of them covered both upper and lower secondary schools, two were upper secondary schools and 12 were primary schools (grades 1–6).[55] There exists two places of post-primary studies on the islands: the traditional high school of Ålands lyceum [sv] or the Åland vocational high school, which offers a double degree in high school and vocational studies. Of these, Ålands lyceum is a relatively large high school; according to the 2018 statistics of the education administration, as many as 432 high school students studied there.[56] The schools on Åland also include Ålands folkhögskola [sv] and other several primary and secondary schools.[57] Åland University of Applied Sciences teaches about 600 students[58] in maritime, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, IT, finance, hotels, restaurants and health care.[59] The maritime education of Åland are all part of Alandica Shipping Academy.[60]

The education in Åland is similar to that of Finland and the Nordics, and the language of education on Åland is officially Swedish. Finnish language has been a compulsory subject in upper secondary school, but optional in primary school; however, 80 per cent of students have chosen it. In 2006, it was proposed to remove the compulsory Finnish language from upper secondary schools.[61]


The St. Olaf's Church, Jomala, is the oldest in Åland

The majority of the population, 70.5%, belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland.[62] Åland contains Finland's oldest Christian churches, including St. Olaf's Church, Jomala, which dating from the late 13th century is likely to be the oldest in Finland.[63] Åland's largest church is the Church of St. John in Sund, dating from shortly after.[64]



The most famous writers in Åland are Anni Blomqvist, known for her five-volume Stormskärs-Maja series,[65] Sally Salminen, whose best-known work is the 1936 novel Katrina,[66] and Ulla-Lena Lundberg, who has described her native Kökar. Each of these works are set in Åland.

Cinema and television

A 2016 historical drama film Devil's Bride, directed by Saara Cantell, takes place in the 17th century in Åland during the witch hunts.[67] It won the Best Foreign Language Film Award at the Toronto Female Eye Film Festival in 2017.[68] Also, a 2013 drama film Disciple, directed by Ulrika Bengts [sv; fi], is set in Åland.[69][70]


Wiklof Holding Arena

In association football Åland national team competes in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1991 and 2009. Åland also hosted the 1974 and 1977 Women's Nordic Football Championship. Competitions and teams are organised by the Åland Football Association which also organise the Ålands Cup for clubs.

Women's football club Åland United, founded in 2004, and men's IFK Mariehamn are Åland's leading football clubs. IFK play in the Veikkausliiga, Finland's highest football league. Both clubs play at the Wiklöf Holding Arena in Mariehamn.

Other smaller clubs include FC Åland, IF Finströms Kamraterna, IF Fram and Lemlands IF.

Åland hosted the 2017 and 2018 Paf Masters, an annual bonspiel-women's curling tournament hosted in Eckerö.

The Åland Stags is Åland's only rugby union club.

Disc golf is popular in Åland.


The coat of arms of Åland features a golden red deer on a blue field. This is traditionally surmounted by a comital coronet of the elder Swedish style.[20] The arms borne today by Åland were originally by mistake granted to the island province of Öland in 1560, displaying a golden red deer on a blue field.[19]

Notable people

Georg August Wallin, portrait made in 1853
Sally Salminen, 1941
Daniel Sjölund, 2010


See also

Further reading


  1. ^ a b Hurst Hannum (1993). "Agreement between Sweden and Finland Relating to Guarantees in the Law of 7 May 1920 on the Autonomy of the Aaland Islands". Basic Documents on Autonomy and Minority Rights. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 141. ISBN 0-7923-1977-X. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Ahvenanmaa pähkinänkuoressa". Ahvenanmaa – ahaa! (in Finnish). 2007. p. 3.
  3. ^ a b "Ahvenanmaan historiaa lyhyesti". Pohjola Norden (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  4. ^ "Ennakkoväkiluku sukupuolen mukaan alueittain, helmikuu.2016". Pxnet2.stat.fi. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
  5. ^ Tilastokeskus. "Population". tilastokeskus.fi. Archived from the original on 10 July 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  6. ^ "Välkommen till ÅSUB! – Ålands statistik- och utredningsbyrå". Asub.ax. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  7. ^ "Facts about Åland | Nordic cooperation". norden.org. Archived from the original on 9 August 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  8. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  9. ^ "The Aland Islands". Osterholm.info. 9 May 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  10. ^ a b c d Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 3. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.
  11. ^ An account of the border on Märket and how it was redrawn in 1985 appears in Hidden Europe Magazine, 11 (November 2006) pp. 26–29, ISSN 1860-6318
  12. ^ a b "Uneasy Sweden and the Menace of Prussianism; An Analysis of the Scandinavian Situation in View of Kaiser's Reported Ambition to Make the Baltic a German Lake" (PDF). Query.nytimes.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  13. ^ a b c "Act on the Autonomy of Åland" (PDF). Finlex. 1991. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  14. ^ Åland-Inseln (Finnland), 20. November 1994 : Beitritt zur EU Archived 16 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine Direct Democracy
  15. ^ "Åland in the European Union". Europe Information. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. 2013. p. 7. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  16. ^ Virrankoski, Pentti (2001). Suomen historia. Ensimmäinen osa. SKS. ISBN 951-746-321-9. p. 59.
  17. ^ Lars Hulden (2001) Finlandssvenska bebyggelsenamn; Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. ISBN 951-583-071-0.
  18. ^ a b "åland, the history". Aland Museum. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  19. ^ a b Nevéus, Clara; Wærn, Jacques de (1992). Ny Svensk Vapenbok (in Swedish). Stockholm, Sweden: Streiffert & Co Bokförlag HB. p. 32. ISBN 91-7886-092-X.
  20. ^ a b "Maakuntien vaakunat" (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 21 February 2007. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  21. ^ Harjula, Mirko (2010). Itämeri 1914–1921: Itämeren laivastot maailmansodassa sekä Venäjän vallankumouksissa ja sisällissodassa (in Finnish). Helsinki: Books on Demand. ISBN 978-952-49838-3-9.
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60°15′N 20°22′E / 60.250°N 20.367°E / 60.250; 20.367