Xinxiang (simplified Chinese: 新乡; traditional Chinese: 新鄉; pinyin: Xīnxiāng [ɕín.ɕjáŋ]; postal: Sinsiang) is a prefecture-level city in northern Henan province, China.

Xinxiang
新乡市
Sinsiang
Xinxiang City.jpg
Xinxiang's location in Henan province
Xinxiang's location in Henan province
Xinxiang is located in Northern China
Xinxiang
Xinxiang
Location on the North China Plain
Xinxiang is located in China
Xinxiang
Xinxiang
Xinxiang (China)
Coordinates (Xinxiang municipal government): 35°18′13″N 113°55′36″E / 35.3036°N 113.9268°E / 35.3036; 113.9268Coordinates: 35°18′13″N 113°55′36″E / 35.3036°N 113.9268°E / 35.3036; 113.9268
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHenan
Municipal seatHongqi District
Government
 • Party ChiefWang Dengxi (王登喜)
 • MayorZhang Guowei (张国伟)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city8,629 km2 (3,332 sq mi)
 • Urban
431 km2 (166 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,390 km2 (1,310 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 census for total, 2018 otherwise)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city6,251,929
 • Density720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,179,400
 • Urban density2,700/km2 (7,100/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,743,200
 • Metro density810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code(s)0373
ISO 3166 codeCN-HA-07
GDP¥238.48 billion (2017)
Major NationalitiesHan
County-level divisions12
License plate prefixesG
Websitewww.xinxiang.gov.cn

It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to its southwest, Kaifeng to its southeast, Hebi and Anyang to its north, Jiaozuo to its west, and the provinces of Shanxi and Shandong to its northwest and east respectively.

Its total population was 6,251,929 as of the 2020 Chinese Census. As of the 2018 estimation, 2,743,200 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 4 urban districts (Weibin, Hongqi, Muye, Fenquan), Yanjin county, Xinxiang county and Huixian City which are now being conurbated as the city is expanding very quickly.[2]

HistoryEdit

Xinxiang was site of the Battle of Muye where the Shang Dynasty was overthrown by the Zhou.[citation needed] Xinxiang dates from the Sui dynasty (581-618) and was a small market center before being developed as an industrial center in the 1950s.[citation needed] It also served as the capital of the short-lived Pingyuan Province, which covered neighbouring cities -Anyang, Hebi, Puyang, Jiaozuo and Heze, between 1949 and 1952, for the purpose of exterminating Nationalist guerillas.[citation needed]

In July 2021, Xinxiang was harshly impacted by the flooding in Henan, which affected about 470,000 people and over 55,000 hectares (140,000 acres) of cropland.[3]

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Xinxiang (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
9.0
(48.2)
14.5
(58.1)
21.8
(71.2)
27.0
(80.6)
31.5
(88.7)
31.6
(88.9)
30.4
(86.7)
26.7
(80.1)
21.4
(70.5)
13.7
(56.7)
7.3
(45.1)
20.0
(68.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
3.4
(38.1)
8.8
(47.8)
15.9
(60.6)
21.2
(70.2)
25.8
(78.4)
27.1
(80.8)
25.9
(78.6)
21.3
(70.3)
15.3
(59.5)
7.8
(46.0)
1.9
(35.4)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
3.6
(38.5)
10.2
(50.4)
15.7
(60.3)
20.3
(68.5)
23.1
(73.6)
22.1
(71.8)
16.9
(62.4)
10.4
(50.7)
3.1
(37.6)
−2.3
(27.9)
9.8
(49.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.7
(0.19)
7.1
(0.28)
18.6
(0.73)
25.3
(1.00)
49.3
(1.94)
64.0
(2.52)
150.9
(5.94)
122.4
(4.82)
58.7
(2.31)
31.8
(1.25)
15.9
(0.63)
5.2
(0.20)
553.9
(21.81)
Average relative humidity (%) 61 59 59 61 64 64 78 80 76 71 68 63 67
Source: China Meteorological Administration[4]

PollutionEdit

According to a 2015 report by Greenpeace, Henan (Xinxiang's province) has the most severe air pollution of all the provinces in China, with an average PM2.5 concentration of 103.3 μg/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter).[5] The report found that Xinxiang has the 13th most polluted city air in China, with a PM2.5 concentration of 114.6 μg/m3 (over 11 times the safe limit established by the WHO) during the first quarter of 2015.[citation needed] Swiss firm IQAir reported that Xinxiang suffered from an average PM2.5 concentration of 51.5 μg/m3 in 2020, ranking 31st in China,[6] and 89th in the world.[7]

In 2015, environmental non-governmental organization Airman (Chinese: 好空气保卫侠) purchased wheat samples farmed in the town of Wangcun, in Xinxiang, near a battery factory, and found it had cadmium levels up to 17 times the national safe limit.[8] The following year, the group again purchased wheat samples in the towns of Dakuai [zh] and Wangcun,[9] and found cadmium levels up to 34.1 times the national safe limit.[8][10][11] Following this report, the Xinxiang municipal government launched a program to purchase contaminated wheat, and convert the farmland to other purposes.[8] However, again in 2017, the group purchased additional wheat samples, and found them to have cadmium levels up to 18 times the national limit, with all samples purchased exceeding national safety limits.[8] In response, government officials from the town of Dakuai met with the group, and pledged to further investigate the samples and stop growing wheat on contaminated farmland.[citation needed]

ReligionEdit

Xinjiang Roman Catholics are served by the Apostolic Prefecture of Xinxiang (Latin: Sinsiang / Sinsiangen(sis)), which was established on July 7, 1936, on missionary territory split off from the then Apostolic Vicariate of Weihuifu (simplified Chinese: 卫辉府; traditional Chinese: 衛輝府) (now Diocese of Jixian). It is a pre-diocesan jurisdiction, which is exempt (i.e., directly subject to the Holy See and its missionary Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples), and not part of any ecclesiastical province.

It has had the following incumbent Apostolic Prefects of Xinxiang (Roman Rite) :

  • Father Thomas Megan (米干), Divine Word Missionaries S.V.D.) (born USA) (1936.07.07 – retired 1948), died 1951
  • Fr. Johannes Schütte (舒德), S.V.D. (born Germany) (1948 – death 1971.11.18), also Superior General of Society of the Divine Word (Divine Word Missionaries) (1958.03.28 – 1967.12.15) and Vice-Secretary of Pontifical Commission of Justice and Peace (1968–1971.11.18)
  • Joseph Zhang Wei-zhu (張維柱) (first Chinese and secular priest) (1992, with clandestine episcopal consecration)

MilitaryEdit

Xinxiang is the headquarters of the 83rd Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Jinan Military Region responsible for defence of the Yellow River plain.

AdministrationEdit

 
Map including Xinxiang (labeled 新鄉 HSIN-HSIANG (SINSIANG)) (AMS, 1955)

The prefecture-level city administers 4 districts, 3 county-level cities and 5 counties.

Map

EconomyEdit

Frestech, a major home appliance company, was located in Xinxiang prior to its liquidation in 2018.[citation needed] One of the business units spun off in Frestech's dissolution, Xinfei Electric Group, continues to operate in Xinxiang.[12] Xinfei Electric Group, now a wholly-owned subsidy of Aviation Industry Corporation of China, produces refrigerated trucks, military vehicles, RVs, modular building structures, precision equipment, refrigerators, air conditioners, and environmental control equipment.[12]

Other important enterprises located in Xinxiang include Golden Dragon Copper Group, Bailu Chemical Fibre, Henan Kelong Group, and AVIC XINHANG Industry Corporation.[citation needed]

Agriculture and textilesEdit

Textiles and processed food are also major products of Xinxiang.[citation needed] As an old textiles base, the cotton industry is very developed in Xinxiang.[citation needed]

TransportEdit

 
Heping Avenue, a major thoroughfare in Xinxiang

The city is a rail junction and industrial centre at the head of navigation on the Wei River. The river, made navigable for small vessels by river improvements in the 1950s, links the city with Tianjin, the main port for Beijing. Later, due to heavy industrial chemical pollution, the river course had been totally cut off and got filled up. After recent dredges, it is still no more than a man-made lake.

RailEdit

Xinxiang is located at the junction of the Beijing-Guangzhou, Xinxiang-Yueshan and the Xinxiang-Yanzhou Railways.

Xinxiang has two railway stations: Xinxiang Railway Station and Xinxiang East Railway Station.

EducationEdit

There are several universities and colleges located in the prefecture-level city.

Sister cityEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  2. ^ a b "China: Hénán (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2021-11-26.
  3. ^ "Flood toll rises in central China, as tens of thousands evacuated". www.aljazeera.com. 2021-07-22. Archived from the original on 2021-08-11. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  4. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-13.
  5. ^ Boren, Zach (2015-04-20). "China launches biggest ever smog monitoring drive — and what the data tells us". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 2021-08-05. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  6. ^ "World's Most Polluted Cities in 2020 - PM2.5 Ranking". IQAir. Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  7. ^ "World's Most Polluted Cities in 2020 - PM2.5 Ranking". IQAir. Archived from the original on 2021-08-11. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  8. ^ a b c d 2017年麦收河南新乡随机抽取12个麦样,全是“镉麦”. goufenxiang.cn (in Chinese). 2017-06-30. Archived from the original on 2021-08-14. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  9. ^ Yuan, Suwen; Li, Rongde (2017-08-15). "Battery Factory Boom Leaves Toxic Legacy". Caixin. Archived from the original on 2021-08-14. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  10. ^ 河南牧野环保局回应“镉麦”:政府已经全数收购 (in Chinese). Caixin. 2016-08-30. Archived from the original on 2021-08-14. Retrieved 2021-08-14.
  11. ^ Zhou, Tailai (2016-08-30). "NGO questions Xinxiang's claim it bought all cadmium-laced wheat". Caixin. Archived from the original on 2018-07-02. Retrieved 2021-08-11.
  12. ^ a b 集团概况 [Group overview]. www.xinfeijituan.com (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2021-08-11. Retrieved 2021-08-11.

Sources and external linksEdit