Jiaozuo (Chinese: 焦作; pinyin: Jiāozuò [tɕjáu.tswô]; postal: Tsiaotso) is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Henan province, China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the south, Xinxiang to the east, Jiyuan to the west, Luoyang to the southwest, and the province of Shanxi to the north. Jiaozuo is one of the core cities of the Central Plains urban agglomeration and a regional central city along the Shanxi–Henan border area.
|Coordinates (Jiaozuo municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Jiefang District|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,000.9 km2 (1,544.8 sq mi)|
|• Urban||413.8 km2 (159.8 sq mi)|
|• Metro||896.3 km2 (346.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||139 m (456 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,590,700|
|• Metro density||1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HA-08|
|Major Nationalities||Han, Hui|
|License plate prefixes||豫H|
Its population was 3,590,700 as of the 2018 estimate whom 1,424,500 lived in the built-up area made of 4 urban districts (Jiefang, Shanyang, Zhongzhan and Macun) and Bo'ai County largely being urbanized.
- Jiefang District (解放区)
- Shanyang District (山阳区)
- Zhongzhan District (中站区)
- Macun District (马村区)
- Qinyang City (沁阳市)
- Mengzhou City (孟州市)
- Xiuwu County (修武县)
- Wuzhi County (武陟县)
- Wen County (温县)
- Bo'ai County (博爱县)
The city was founded on an industrial site left by the British after the First and Second Opium Wars (1839–1860). Jiaozuo was established as a city in 1953. Mao Zedong has written praise about the hard work of people from Jiaozuo in the coal industry.
Jiaozuo has a temperate semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with four distinct seasons; owing to the shielding influence of the Taihang Mountains, temperatures in the urban core of Jiaozuo are warmer than in Xinxiang and Zhengzhou. Winters are cool and relatively dry while summers are hot and often rainy. The normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 1.3 °C (34.3 °F) in January to 27.7 °C (81.9 °F) in July, with the annual mean temperature at 15.61 °C (60.1 °F).  Precipitation averages 552 mm (21.7 in) annually.
|Climate data for Jiaozuo (1981–2010 normals)|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−2.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||7.5
|Average relative humidity (%)||55||55||55||56||59||59||74||76||71||64||60||56||62|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
Jiaozuo is noted for its blast furnaces and machine construction industries. The total GDP of the city in 2017 was 234.28 billion yuan, an increase of 7.4% over the previous year. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 13.733 billion yuan, up 4.6%; the added value of the secondary industry was 13.841 billion yuan, up 6.7%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 81.143 billion yuan, up 9.1%. The per capita GDP reached 65,936 yuan. The three industrial structures changed from 6.4:59.3:34.3 of 2016 to 5.9:59.5:34.6.link
Jiaozuo is the northern terminus of the Jiaozuo-Liuzhou Railway and the southern terminus of the Taiyuan-Jiaozuo Railway. The city is linked via rail to nearby cities Luoyang, Xinxiang and Nanyang in Henan and Jincheng in Shanxi.
Colleges and universitiesEdit
Henan Polytechnic University (HPU), with a history of nearly 100 years, is the first mining university in Chinese history. Its former is Jiaozuo Coal Mining School which was established by the British Syndicate Co. Ltd., in 1909. It has changed its names several times in the course of development, namely, FuZhong Coal Mining University, Jiaozuo Private Institute of Technology, North-west Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo National Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo Mining Institute and Jiaozuo Institute of Technology. The University resumed its name of Henan Polytechnic University in 2004.
In the southern foothills of the Taihang Mountains in the northern part of Jiaozuo, there are about 500 square miles of gravel slopes. The geology is hard and stable, and the strata have great endurance. It is also close to mines, water sources, traffic arteries and cities and towns. It is an ideal industrial land. Very suitable for the construction of high-rise buildings.
In Shanyang distinct, Fengshanzhen mountain is a leisure and entertainment place for people living around it.
Yuntai Mountain, Qing Tian River, Qing Long Cape, Shen Nong Mountain, Feng Lin Cape, and so on.
Yuntai Mountain is said to have the waterfall with main cascade of 314 meters in height, together with numerous smaller cascades.
On February 13, 2004, Yuntai Mountain as the fifth in the world, the third in the country China, was named the world's first World Geopark by UNESCO and caused attention at home and abroad. Meanwhile, Yuntaishan is also a national scenic spot, National Civilized Scenic Area, the first national AAAAA-level scenic spot, national natural heritage, national forest parks, national macaque nature reserve. Yuntain Mountain also has Asia's highest head drop waterfall.
Amongst Jiaozuo's best sights are:
- Old city with tombs
- Old rocks-hanging Taiping temple with cave grottoes
- Giant red new Jiaozuo temple
- TV tower
- Large futuristic Jiaozuo Sport centre
- Renmin bridge
- Building of People's government
- City's tallest building
- "China: Hénán (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
- 焦作市城市总体规划(2011～2020年)获国务院批准_河南要闻_河南省人民政府门户网站. Henan People's Government.
- 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-13.
- 河南理工大学. Henan Polytechnic University.
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