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List of ethnic groups in China

  (Redirected from Nationalities of China)

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, the area claimed by both the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

The Han (汉) people are the largest ethnic group in mainland China. In 2010, 91.51% of the population were classified as Han (~1.2 billion)[1]. Besides the Han-Chinese majority, 55 other ethnic (minority) groups are categorized in present China, numbering approximately 105 million people (8%), mostly concentrated in the bordering northwest, north, northeast, south, and southwest but with some in central interior areas.

The major minority ethnic groups in China are Zhuang (16.9 million), Hui (10.5 million), Manchu (10.3 million), Uyghur (10 million), Miao (9.4 million), Yi (8.7 million), Tujia (8.3 million), Tibetan (6.2 million), Mongol (5.9 million), Dong (2.8 million), Buyei (2.8 million), Yao (2.7 million), Bai (1.9 million), Korean (1.8 million), Hani (1.6 million), Li (1.4 million), Kazakh (1.4 million), and Dai (1.2 million).[2]

There are also undistinguished ethnic groups, for example: Chuanqing Ren (穿青人).

Ethnic groups recognized by the People's Republic of ChinaEdit

The following are the 56 ethnic groups (listed by population) officially recognized by the People's Republic of China (39 in 1954; 54 by 1964; with the addition of the Jino people in 1979).[3]

English Name
Standard Romanization
CodeA
Mandarin Pinyin
Simplified Chinese
2010 National Shares 2010 PopulationB
2000 PopulationB
1990 PopulationB
Year of recognitionC
Han1 Han HA Hàn Zú 汉族 91.6474% 1,220,844,520 1,139,773,008 1,042,482,187 1954
Zhuang Zhuang ZH Zhuàng Zú 壮族 1.2700% 16,926,381 16,187,163 15,489,630 1954
Hui2 Hui HU Huí Zú 回族 0.7943% 10,586,087 9,828,126 8,602,978 1954
Manchu Man MA Mǎn Zú 满族 0.7794% 10,387,958 10,708,464 9,821,180 1954
Uyghur Uygur UG Wéiwú'ěr Zú 维吾尔族 0.7555% 10,069,346 8,405,416 7,214,431 1954
Miao (includes Hmong)3 Miao MH Miáo Zú 苗族 0.7072% 9,426,007 8,945,538 7,398,035 1954
Yi Yi YI Yí Zú 彝族 0.6538% 8,714,393 7,765,858 6,572,173 1954
Tujia Tujia TJ Tǔjiā Zú 土家族 0.6268% 8,353,912 8,037,014 5,704,223 1964
Tibetan4 Zang ZA Zàng Zú 藏族 0.4713% 6,282,187 5,422,954 4,593,330 1954
Mongol Mongol MG Měnggǔ Zú 蒙古族 0.4488% 5,981,840 5,827,808 4,806,849 1954
Dong5 Dong DO Dòng Zú 侗族 0.2161% 2,879,974 2,962,911 2,514,014 1954
Bouyei Bouyei BY Bùyī Zú 布依族 0.2153% 2,870,034 2,973,217 2,545,059 1954
Yao Yao YA Yáo Zú 瑶族 0.2098% 2,796,003 2,638,878 2,134,013 1954
Bai Bai BA Bái Zú 白族 0.1451% 1,933,510 1,861,895 1,594,827 1954
Korean Chosŏn CS Cháoxiǎn Zú 朝鲜族 0.1374% 1,830,929 1,929,696 1,920,597 1954
Hani6 Hani HN Hāní Zú 哈尼族 0.1246% 1,660,932 1,440,029 1,253,952 1954
Li Li LI Lí Zú 黎族 0.1098% 1,463,064 1,248,022 1,110,900 1954
Kazakh Kazak KZ Hāsàkè Zú 哈萨克族 0.1097% 1,462,588 1,251,023 1,111,718 1954
Dai7 Dai DA Dǎi Zú 傣族 0.0946% 1,261,311 1,159,231 1,025,128 1954
She She SH Shē Zú 畲族 0.0532% 708,651 710,039 630,378 1964
Lisu Lisu LS Lìsù Zú 傈僳族 0.0527% 702,839 635,101 574,856 1954
Dongxiang Dongxiang DX Dōngxiāng Zú 东乡族 0.0466% 621,500 513,826 373,872 1954
Gelao Gelao GL Gēlǎo Zú 仡佬族 0.0413% 550,746 579,744 437,997 1964
Lahu Lahu LH Lāhù Zú 拉祜族 0.0365% 485,966 453,765 411,476 1954
Wa Wa WA Wǎ Zú 佤族 0.0322% 429,709 396,709 351,974 1954
Sui Sui SU Shuǐ Zú 水族 0.0309% 411,847 407,000 345,993 1954
Nakhi8 Naxi NX Nàxī Zú 纳西族 0.0245% 326,295 309,477 278,009 1954
Qiang Qiang QI Qiāng Zú 羌族 0.0232% 309,576 306,476 198,252 1954
Tu Tu TU Tǔ Zú 土族 0.0217% 289,565 241,593 191,624 1954
Mulao9 Mulao ML Mùlǎo Zú 仫佬族 0.0162% 216,257 207,464 159,328 1964
Xibe Xibe XB Xībó Zú 锡伯族 0.0143% 190,481 189,357 172,847 1954
Kyrgyz Kirgiz KG Kē'ěrkèzī Zú 柯尔克孜族 0.0140% 186,708 160,875 141,549 1954
Jingpo10 Jingpo JP Jǐngpō Zú 景颇族 0.0111% 147,828 132,158 119,209 1954
Daur Daur DU Dáwò'ěr Zú 达斡尔族 0.0099% 131,992 132,747 121,357 1964
Salar Salar SL Sālā Zú 撒拉族 0.0098% 130,607 104,521 87,697 1954
Blang Blang BL Bùlǎng Zú 布朗族 0.0090% 119,639 91,891 82,280 1964
Maonan11 Maonan MN Máonán Zú 毛南族 0.0076% 101,192 107,184 71,968 1964
Tajik12 Tajik TA Tǎjíkè Zú 塔吉克族 0.0038% 51,069 41,056 33,538 1954
Pumi Pumi PM Pǔmǐ Zú 普米族 0.0032% 42,861 33,628 29,657 1964
Achang Achang AC Āchāng Zú 阿昌族 0.0030% 39,555 33,954 27,708 1964
Nu Nu NU Nù Zú 怒族 0.0028% 37,523 28,770 27,123 1964
Evenki Ewenki EW Èwēnkè Zú 鄂温克族 0.0023% 30,875 30,545 26,315 1954
Gin13 Gin GI Jīng Zú 京族 0.0021% 28,199 22,584 18,915 1964
Jino Jino JN Jīnuò Zú 基诺族 0.0017% 23,143 20,899 18,021 1979
De'ang14 Deang DE Dé'áng Zú 德昂族 0.0015% 20,556 17,935 15,462 1964
Bonan Bonan BO Bǎo'ān Zú 保安族 0.0015% 20,074 16,505 12,212 1954
Russian Russ RS Éluósī Zú 俄罗斯族 0.0012% 15,393 15,631 13,504 1954
Yugur Yugur YG Yùgù Zú 裕固族 0.0011% 14,378 13,747 12,297 1954
Uzbek Uzbek UZ Wūzībiékè Zú 乌孜别克族 0.0008% 10,569 12,423 14,502 1954
Monba Monba MB Ménbā Zú 门巴族 0.0008% 10,561 8,928 7,475 1964
Oroqen Oroqen OR Èlúnchūn Zú 鄂伦春族 0.0006% 8,659 8,216 6,965 1954
Derung Derung DR Dúlóng Zú 独龙族 0.0005% 6,930 7,431 5,816 1964
Hezhen15 Hezhen HZ Hèzhé Zú 赫哲族 0.0004% 5,354 4,664 4,245 1964
Gaoshan16 Gaoshan GS Gāoshān Zú 高山族 0.0003% 4,009 4,488 2,909 1954
Lhoba Lhoba LB Luòbā Zú 珞巴族 0.0003% 3,682 2,970 2,312 1965
Tatars Tatar TT Tǎtǎ'ěr Zú 塔塔尔族 0.0003% 3,556 4,895 4,873 1954
Undistinguished none Wèi Shìbié Mínzú 未识别民族 0.0480% 640,101 734,438 749,341
Naturalized Citizen none Wàiguórén Jiārù Zhōngguójí 外国人加入中国籍 0.0001% 1,448 941 3,421

AGB 3304-91 "Names of ethnicities of China in romanization with codes";[4]
BThe population only includes mainland China and Taiwan;
CFor ethnic groups officially recognised in 1964 or earlier, this is the year of first inclusion in the national census, which were in 1954[5] and 1964;[6]
1Also included are the Chuanqing;
2Also includes Utsuls of Hainan, descended from Cham refugees;
3A subset of which is also known as Hmong (Thus, Hmong peoples worldwide are NOT only Miao);
4including Amdowa and Khampa, as well as roughly half of Pumi speakers, the remainder of whom are classified as a separate Pumi ethnicity;
5Also known as Kam;
6Also included are the Sangkong;
7This category includes several different Tai-speaking groups historically referred to as Bai-yi [in fact, the Dai nationalities are actually speakers of Shan languages varieties -for example : Tai Lue and Tai Nuea peoples are actually Shan peoples subgroups]. Although that, the speakers of Bumang are also included in this Dai nationality. ;
8Also included are the Mosuo;
9Also included are the Qago (木佬人);
10Known as Kachin in Myanmar;
11Also included are the Then;
12Actually not Tajik people but Pamiri people;
13The same group as Vietnamese or Kinh people in Sino-Vietnamese;
14Known as Palaung in Myanmar;
15The same group as Nanai on the Russian side of the border;
16A collective name for all Taiwanese aborigine groups in Taiwan. In fact, the numbers of Gaoshan in census covers only for those who lives in Mainland China (mainly in Fujian) and consists of Amis (autonym : Pangcah), Paiwan and Bunun peoples

Taiwanese aboriginesEdit

The People's Republic of China government officially refers to all Taiwanese aborigines (Chinese: 原住民族; pinyin: Yuánzhùmínzú), as Gaoshan (Chinese: 高山族; pinyin: Gāoshānzú), whereas the Republic of China (Taiwan) recognizes 16 groups of Taiwanese aborigines. The term Gaoshan has a different connotation in Taiwan than it does in mainland China. While several thousands of these aborigines have migrated to Fujian province in mainland China, most remain in Taiwan.[7] Due to the contested political status and legal status of Taiwan, the PRC classification of Taiwanese aborigines may be controversial.

"Undistinguished" ethnic minority groupsEdit

 
Part of a poster in Beijing showing the 56 ethnic groups of China

This is a list of ethnic groups in China that are not officially recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China.

  • Äynu people (艾努人 Àinǔ rén)
  • Gejia ( 家人 Gèjiā rén)
  • Bajia (八甲人 Bājiǎ rén)
  • Deng (僜人 Dèng rén)
  • Hu (户人 Hù rén)
  • Khmu (克木人 Kèmù rén)
  • Kucong (Yellow Lahu / Lahu Shi; 苦聪人 / 苦聰人 Kǔcōng rén)
  • Mang (芒人 Máng rén)
  • Sherpas (夏尔巴人 / 夏爾巴人 Xià'ěrbā rén)
  • Tankas (疍家人 / 蜑家人 Dànjiā rén) including Fuzhou Tanka
  • Tebbu people (迭部人 Diébù rén)
  • Tuvans (图瓦人 Túwǎ rén)
  • Waxiang (瓦乡人 Wǎxiāng rén)
  • Jews (犹太人 / 猶太人 Yóutài rén) (Jewish people of China and Jews in general)
  • Yamatos (大和民族 Dàhé mínzú) and Ryukyuans (琉球民族 Liúqiú mínzú) living as permanent residents in Taiwan and Northeast China[citation needed]
  • Macanese (土生葡人 Tǔshēng pú rén), mixed race Catholic Portuguese speakers who lived in Macau since 16th century of various ethnic origins
  • Utsuls (回辉人 Huíhuī rén), descendants of Cham Muslims who fled Vietnamese invasions of Champa
  • Yakuts (雅库特人 Yǎ kù tè rén)
  • Teleuts(铁列乌特人 Tiě liè wū tè rén)
  • Kalmyks (卡尔梅克人 Kǎ'ěr méi kè rén)

During the Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000), 734,438 persons in the Chinese mainland, 97% of them in Guizhou, were specifically recorded as belonging to "Undistinguished ethnic groups".[8] Presumably, other members of such groups may have been counted within larger "recognized" groups.

Ethnic groups in Hong Kong and MacauEdit

Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China. The governments of Hong Kong and Macau do not use the official PRC ethnic classification system, nor does the PRC's official classification system take ethnic groups in Hong Kong and Macau into account. As a result, minority groups such as Europeans (mainly English), and South or Southeast Asians (mainly Filipinos, Indians, Bangladeshis, Indonesians, Nepalese, and Pakistanis) live in Hong Kong.

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Han Chinese proportion in China's population drops: census data (2011-04-28)". Xinhua News (English). Archived from the original on 11 July 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  2. ^ "index". www.stats.gov.cn.
  3. ^ 胡鸿保; 张丽梅 (2009). 民族识别原则的变化与民族人口. Southwest University for Nationalities University Press.
  4. ^ GB 3304-91 Names of nationalities of China in romanization with codes.
  5. ^ First National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  6. ^ Second National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  7. ^ 曹晓轩. "高山族_中国概况_中国政府网". www.gov.cn.
  8. ^ 第五次人口普查数据(2000年). 表1—6. 省、自治区、直辖市分性别、民族的人口 ( Fifth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2000). Table 1-6: Population of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities by ethnicity). (in Chinese)

External linksEdit