Heze, formerly known as Caozhou, is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Shandong province, China. It is home to 8,287,693 inhabitants, of whom 1,346,717 live in the built-up area around the seat of government in Mudan District.[3] The westernmost prefecture-level city in Shandong, it borders Jining to the east and the provinces of Henan and Anhui to the west and south respectively.

Heze
菏泽市
Hotseh
The crossroads in Heze,Shandong province.jpg
Location of Heze City jurisdiction in Shandong
Location of Heze City jurisdiction in Shandong
Coordinates (Heze municipal government): 35°14′03″N 115°28′47″E / 35.2343°N 115.4796°E / 35.2343; 115.4796Coordinates: 35°14′03″N 115°28′47″E / 35.2343°N 115.4796°E / 35.2343; 115.4796
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShandong
County-level divisions9
Township-level divisions158
Municipal seatMudan District
Government
 • MayorSun Aijun (孙爱军)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city12,256 km2 (4,732 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,416 km2 (547 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,416 km2 (547 sq mi)
Population
 (2019 census)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city8,781,700
 • Density720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,346,717
 • Urban density950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,346,717
 • Metro density950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
274000
Area code(s)0530
ISO 3166 codeCN-SD-17
Licence plate prefixes鲁R
Heze
Traditional Chinese菏澤
Simplified Chinese菏泽
Former names
Caozhou
Chinese
PostalTsaochow

NameEdit

In Chinese, the name of the city is sometimes miswritten as "", owing to the similarity of the characters.

HistoryEdit

Caozhou was at the center of the Nian Rebellion during the 1850s and 60s.

In August 1949, Heze was detached from Shandong and given to the experimental province of Pingyuan. It returned to Shandong just over three years later.

In April 1953, Heze and Jining gained counties from the former prefecture of Huxi after its abolishment.

City FlowerEdit

Mudan is the city flower of Heze. The earliest documentary of Mudan is in Classic of Poetry (诗经), which is almost 3,000 years away from now. Mudan is also called the King of flower from Bencao Gangmu(本草纲目). It is a symbol of honor, peace, wealth, love, aristocracy, and feminine beauty. There are 9 types of Mudan based on the colors: red, white, purple, yellow, blue, green, black, pink, and multi-colored.[4]

GeographyEdit

Heze has a monsoon-influenced climate that lies between the humid subtropical and humid continental zones (Köppen Cwa/Dwa), with four well-defined seasons. The city is warm and nearly rainless in spring, hot and humid in summer, crisp in autumn and cold and dry in winter. The mean annual temperature is 14.22 °C (57.6 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from −0.5 °C (31.1 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July. Nearly 70% of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 48% in July to 60% in May, the city receives 2,411 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Heze (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
(64.8)
23.2
(73.8)
28.5
(83.3)
33.7
(92.7)
38.1
(100.6)
42.0
(107.6)
41.8
(107.2)
38.4
(101.1)
36.0
(96.8)
32.7
(90.9)
26.8
(80.2)
20.6
(69.1)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
8.3
(46.9)
14.2
(57.6)
21.4
(70.5)
26.6
(79.9)
31.4
(88.5)
31.7
(89.1)
30.4
(86.7)
26.7
(80.1)
21.5
(70.7)
13.5
(56.3)
6.6
(43.9)
19.7
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
2.9
(37.2)
8.4
(47.1)
15.3
(59.5)
20.7
(69.3)
25.6
(78.1)
27.1
(80.8)
25.8
(78.4)
21.1
(70.0)
15.2
(59.4)
7.6
(45.7)
1.4
(34.5)
14.2
(57.6)
Average low °C (°F) −4.2
(24.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.6
(38.5)
10.1
(50.2)
15.3
(59.5)
20.3
(68.5)
23.3
(73.9)
22.2
(72.0)
16.9
(62.4)
10.6
(51.1)
3.2
(37.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
9.8
(49.7)
Record low °C (°F) −20.4
(−4.7)
−15.6
(3.9)
−11.3
(11.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
3.8
(38.8)
10.2
(50.4)
15.4
(59.7)
12.1
(53.8)
4.8
(40.6)
−1.3
(29.7)
−12.9
(8.8)
−17.5
(0.5)
−20.4
(−4.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.8
(0.27)
10.1
(0.40)
21.3
(0.84)
27.3
(1.07)
56.4
(2.22)
63.8
(2.51)
159.1
(6.26)
143.9
(5.67)
71.0
(2.80)
33.9
(1.33)
19.4
(0.76)
8.4
(0.33)
621.4
(24.46)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.6 3.7 5.3 5.7 6.6 8.0 11.8 9.0 7.2 6.0 4.3 3.6 73.8
Average relative humidity (%) 67 63 62 64 69 67 81 84 79 73 71 69 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 159.0 151.2 191.9 226.8 257.7 252.1 213.3 217.5 204.4 206.6 173.7 156.8 2,411
Percent possible sunshine 51 49 52 58 60 58 48 53 55 59 56 52 54
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)[5][6]

AdministrationEdit

The prefecture-level city of Heze administers nine county-level divisions. The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary are in Mudan District (牡丹区), together with CPC and Public Security bureaux.

There are two districts and seven counties:

These are further divided into 158 township-level divisions.

Map

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2010 population census, there were 8,287,693 people living in this area.

CultureEdit

Places of InterestsEdit

  • Caozhou Mudan Garden: It is the largest Mudan Garden in Heze with the most varieties.[7]
  • One Hundred Lion Square: It is famous for its column carved 100 different posture stone lions. It is the symbol of best wishes and longevities. The archway is 14 meters high and 9 meters wide. The 100 lions with different shapes represent superb architectural skills and immortal artistic value, which fully embodies the wisdom and strength of the ancient people.[8]
  • Shui Hu Hero City: It is famous for the teaching and communication of martial arts and ancient buildings. It is also the Chinese ancient residence museum, CCTV recommended tour routes, and the source of Water Margins.[9]

FoodsEdit

  • Shanxian Lamb Soup: The soup is founded in 1807. The taste is fresh but not mutton, and fragrant but not greasy. After more than 200 years of development and innovation of soup, it can be carried forward and accepted in many years. It is not only refreshing, but also functional in medicinal meal.[10]
  • Peony Cake: During the Flower Festival is the season when peonies are in full bloom, Wu Zetian led a maid to enjoy the flowers in the garden and ordered the maid to pluck a large number of flowers of various colors. After return to the palace, according to her design, she mashed them with rice, and steamed them to make a cake, which is called "Hundred Flower Cake". And she used this dessert as a gift to the officials.[11]
  • Pijia Roast Chicken: The sauce is in color red, and you can smell the rich roast chicken scent just a few feet away from the pot. Its outstanding characteristics are fresh, fragrant, and tender with consistent taste inside and out.[12]
  • Caozhou Sesame Cake: Its shape is round as moon, tender inside with a crispy crust. It has ingredients of wheat essence powder, sesame oil, salt, pepper, fennel powder and other ingredients made of oil flesh.[13]

TransportationEdit

  • Highway: China National Highway 220; China National Highway 105; China National Highway 106; China National Highway 240; China National Highway 327
  • Heze Airport:[14] The government has finished the building process on October 15, 2020 and it is planned to be open at the end of 2020.
  • Conventional rail services call at Heze railway station, Heze East railway station is currently under construction and will be served by high-speed trains.

Famous FiguresEdit

EconomyEdit

Heze is the largest center in China for the cultivation of the "national flower" peony, after which the Mudan District was named. Over 30% of its GDP comes from the sale of peony.

Sister CitiesEdit

Mobile, Alabama[15]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  2. ^ 最新人口信息 www.hongheiku.com (in Chinese). hongheiku. Retrieved 2021-01-12.
  3. ^ "China: Shāndōng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  4. ^ "牡丹起源和发展历史变迁 _中国". www.sohu.com. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  5. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  6. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  7. ^ "曹州牡丹园 - 菏泽旅游景点大全". wg365.org. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  8. ^ "牌坊城里有瑰宝 清代石雕建筑百寿坊、百狮坊全国罕见 - 焦点新闻 - 菏泽频道 - 鲁网". heze.sdnews.com.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  9. ^ "郓城水浒好汉城". www.haohancheng.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  10. ^ "单县经典羊汤是非物质文化遗产".
  11. ^ "牡丹饼-洛龙区特产牡丹饼专题". shop.bytravel.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  12. ^ "郓城美食——皮家烧鸡_陌上青禾_新浪博客". blog.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  13. ^ "曹州烧饼-牡丹区特产专题". m.bytravel.cn. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  14. ^ "菏泽机场预计2020年底通航运营投用后将开通10条航线_山东各地 _山东新闻_新闻_齐鲁网". news.iqilu.com. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  15. ^ "Sister Partnerships by US State – Asia Matters for America".

External linksEdit