Wounded Knee Massacre
The Wounded Knee Massacre (also called the Battle of Wounded Knee) was a domestic massacre of several hundred Lakota Indians, mostly women and children, by soldiers of the United States Army. It occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the U.S. state of South Dakota, following a botched attempt to disarm the Lakota camp.
|Wounded Knee Massacre|
|Part of the Ghost Dance War and the Sioux Wars|
Mass grave for the murdered Lakota after the massacre
|Commanders and leaders|
|James W. Forsyth||Spotted Elk †|
7th U.S. Cavalry:
22 artillerymen with four 1.65–inch guns
30 Oglala Indian scouts
|Casualties and losses|
39 wounded (6 fatally)
Native American losses include civilian casualties
|The largest domestic massacre in U.S history.|
The previous day, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them 5 miles (8.0 km) westward to Wounded Knee Creek, where they made camp. The remainder of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, led by Colonel James W. Forsyth, arrived and surrounded the encampment. The regiment was supported by a battery of four Hotchkiss mountain guns.
On the morning of December 29, the U.S. Cavalry troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle, claiming he had paid a lot for it. Simultaneously, an old man was performing a ritual called the Ghost Dance. Black Coyote's rifle went off at that point, and the U.S. army began shooting at the Native Americans. The Lakota warriors fought back, but many had already been stripped of their guns and disarmed.
By the time the massacre was over, between 250 and 300 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 were wounded (4 men and 47 women and children, some of whom died later); some estimates placed the number of dead at 300. Twenty-five soldiers also died, and thirty-nine were wounded (six of the wounded later died). Twenty soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor. In 2001, the National Congress of American Indians passed two resolutions condemning the military awards and called on the U.S. government to rescind them.
The Wounded Knee Battlefield, site of the massacre, has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Department of the Interior. In 1990, both houses of the U.S. Congress passed a resolution on the historical centennial formally expressing "deep regret" for the massacre.
- 1 Prelude
- 2 Fight and ensuing massacre
- 3 Eyewitness accounts
- 4 Aftermath
- 5 Medal of Honor controversy
- 6 Remembrance
- 7 Popular culture
- 8 Order of battle
- 9 Gallery
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
In the years leading up to the conflict, the U.S. government had continued to seize Lakota lands. The once-large bison herds, a staple of the Great Plains indigenous peoples, had been hunted to near-extinction by European settlers. Treaty promises to protect reservation lands from encroachment by settlers and gold miners were not implemented as agreed. As a result, there was unrest on the reservations. During this time, news spread among the reservations of a Paiute prophet named Wovoka, founder of the Ghost Dance religion. He had a vision that the Christian Messiah, Jesus Christ, had returned to Earth in the form of a Native American.
According to Wovoka, the Messiah would raise all the Native American believers above the earth. During this time, the white invaders would disappear from Native lands, the ancestors would lead them to good hunting grounds, the buffalo herds and all the other animals would return in abundance, and the ghosts of their ancestors would return to Earth—hence the word ghost in "Ghost Dance". They would then return to earth to live in peace. All this would be brought about by performance of the slow and solemn Ghost Dance, performed as a shuffle in silence to a slow, single drumbeat. Lakota ambassadors to Wovoka, Kicking Bear and Short Bull taught the Lakota that while performing the Ghost Dance, they would wear special Ghost Dance shirts as seen by Black Elk in a vision. Kicking Bear said the shirts had the power to repel bullets.
U.S. settlers were alarmed by the sight of the many Great Basin and Plains tribes performing the Ghost Dance, worried that it might be a prelude to armed attack. Among them was the U.S. Indian agent at the Standing Rock Agency where Chief Sitting Bull lived. U.S. officials decided to take some of the chiefs into custody in order to quell what they called the "Messiah craze". The military first hoped to have Buffalo Bill—a friend of Sitting Bull—aid in the plan, to reduce the chance of violence. Standing Rock agent James McLaughlin overrode the military and sent the Indian police to arrest Sitting Bull.
On December 15, 1890, 40 Native American policemen arrived at Sitting Bull's house to arrest him. When Sitting Bull refused to comply, the police used force on him. The Sioux in the village were enraged. Catch-the-Bear, a Lakota, shouldered his rifle and shot Lt. Bullhead, who reacted by firing his revolver into the chest of Sitting Bull. Another police officer, Red Tomahawk, shot Sitting Bull in the head, and he dropped to the ground. He died between 12 and 1 p.m. After Sitting Bull's death, 200 members of his Hunkpapa band, fearful of reprisals, fled Standing Rock to join Chief Spotted Elk (later known as "Big Foot") and his Miniconjou band at the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation.
Former Pine Ridge Indian agent Valentine T. McGillycuddy was asked his opinion of the "hostilities" surrounding the Ghost Dance movement, by General Leonard Wright Colby, commander of the Nebraska National Guard (portion of letter dated January 15, 1891):
"As for the 'Ghost Dance' too much attention has been paid to it. It was only the symptom or surface indication of a deep rooted, long existing difficulty; as well treat the eruption of small pox as the disease and ignore the constitutional disease."
"As regards disarming the Sioux, however desirable it may appear, I consider it neither advisable, nor practicable. I fear it will result as the theoretical enforcement of prohibition in Kansas, Iowa and Dakota; you will succeed in disarming and keeping disarmed the friendly Indians because you can, and you will not succeed with the mob element because you cannot."
"If I were again to be an Indian agent, and had my choice, I would take charge of 10,000 armed Sioux in preference to a like number of disarmed ones; and furthermore agree to handle that number, or the whole Sioux nation, without a white soldier. Respectfully, etc., V.T. McGillycuddy.
"P.S. I neglected to state that up to date there has been neither a Sioux outbreak or war. No citizen in Nebraska or Dakota has been killed, molested or can show the scratch of a pin, and no property has been destroyed off the reservation."
General Miles's telegram
"The difficult Indian problem cannot be solved permanently at this end of the line. It requires the fulfillment of Congress of the treaty obligations that the Indians were entreated and coerced into signing. They signed away a valuable portion of their reservation, and it is now occupied by white people, for which they have received nothing."
"They understood that ample provision would be made for their support; instead, their supplies have been reduced, and much of the time they have been living on half and two-thirds rations. Their crops, as well as the crops of the white people, for two years have been almost total failures."
"The dissatisfaction is wide spread, especially among the Sioux, while the Cheyennes have been on the verge of starvation, and were forced to commit depredations to sustain life. These facts are beyond question, and the evidence is positive and sustained by thousands of witnesses."
Fight and ensuing massacreEdit
After being called to the Pine Ridge Agency, Spotted Elk of the Miniconjou Lakota nation and 350 of his followers were making the slow trip to the agency on December 28, 1890, when they were met by a 7th Cavalry detachment under Major Samuel M. Whitside southwest of Porcupine Butte. John Shangreau, a scout and interpreter who was half Sioux, advised the troopers not to disarm the Indians immediately, as it would lead to violence. The troopers escorted the Native Americans about five miles westward (8 km) to Wounded Knee Creek where they told them to make camp. Later that evening, Colonel James W. Forsyth and the rest of the 7th Cavalry arrived, bringing the number of troopers at Wounded Knee to 500. In contrast, there were 350 Lakota: 230 men and 120 women and children. The troopers surrounded Spotted Elk's encampment and set up four rapid-fire Hotchkiss-designed M1875 mountain guns.
At daybreak on December 29, 1890, Forsyth ordered the surrender of weapons and the immediate removal of the Lakota from the "zone of military operations" to awaiting trains. A search of the camp confiscated 38 rifles, and more rifles were taken as the soldiers searched the Indians. None of the old men were found to be armed. A medicine man named Yellow Bird allegedly harangued the young men who were becoming agitated by the search, and the tension spread to the soldiers.
Specific details of what triggered the massacre are debated. According to some accounts, Yellow Bird began to perform the Ghost Dance, telling the Lakota that their "ghost shirts" were bulletproof. As tensions mounted, Black Coyote refused to give up his rifle; he spoke no English and was deaf, and had not understood the order. Another Indian said: "Black Coyote is deaf," and when the soldier persisted, he said, "Stop. He cannot hear your orders." At that moment, two soldiers seized Black Coyote from behind, and (allegedly) in the struggle, his rifle discharged. At the same moment, Yellow Bird threw some dust into the air, and approximately five young Lakota men with concealed weapons threw aside their blankets and fired their rifles at Troop K of the 7th. After this initial exchange, the firing became indiscriminate.
According to commanding General Nelson A. Miles, a "scuffle occurred between one deaf warrior who had [a] rifle in his hand and two soldiers. The rifle was discharged and a battle occurred, not only the warriors but the sick Chief Spotted Elk, and a large number of women and children who tried to escape by running and scattering over the prairie were hunted down and killed."
At first all firing was at close range; half the Indian men were killed or wounded before they had a chance to get off any shots. Some of the Indians grabbed rifles from the piles of confiscated weapons and opened fire on the soldiers. With no cover, and with many of the Indians unarmed, this lasted a few minutes at most. While the Indian warriors and soldiers were shooting at close range, other soldiers used the Hotchkiss guns against the tipi camp full of women and children. It is believed that many of the soldiers were victims of friendly fire from their own Hotchkiss guns. The Indian women and children fled the camp, seeking shelter in a nearby ravine from the crossfire. The officers had lost all control of their men. Some of the soldiers fanned out and finished off the wounded. Others leaped onto their horses and pursued the Natives (men, women, and children), in some cases for miles across the prairies. In less than an hour, at least 150 Lakota had been killed and 50 wounded. Historian Dee Brown, in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, mentions an estimate of 300 of the original 350 having been killed or wounded and that the soldiers loaded 51 survivors (4 men and 47 women and children) onto wagons and took them to the Pine Ridge Reservation. Army casualties numbered 25 dead and 39 wounded.
- Thomas Tibbles (1840–1928), journalist:
"Suddenly, I heard a single shot from the direction of the troops. Then three or four. A few more. And immediately, a volley. At once came a general rattle of rifle firing then the Hotchkiss guns."
"... then many Indians broke into the ravine; some ran up the ravine and to favorable positions for defense."
- Black Elk (1863–1950); medicine man, Oglala Lakota:
"I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes young. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream ... the nation's hope is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead."
- American Horse (1840–1908); chief, Oglala Lakota:
"There was a woman with an infant in her arms who was killed as she almost touched the flag of truce ... A mother was shot down with her infant; the child not knowing that its mother was dead was still nursing ... The women as they were fleeing with their babies were killed together, shot right through ... and after most all of them had been killed a cry was made that all those who were not killed or wounded should come forth and they would be safe. Little boys ... came out of their places of refuge, and as soon as they came in sight a number of soldiers surrounded them and butchered them there."
- Edward S. Godfrey; captain; commanded Co. D of the 7th Cavalry:
"I know the men did not aim deliberately and they were greatly excited. I don't believe they saw their sights. They fired rapidly but it seemed to me only a few seconds till there was not a living thing before us; warriors, squaws, children, ponies, and dogs ... went down before that unaimed fire." (Godfrey was a lieutenant in Captain Benteen's force during the Battle of the Little Bighorn.)
- Hugh McGinnis; First Battalion, Co. K, 7th Cavalry:
"General Nelson A. Miles who visited the scene of carnage, following a three-day blizzard, estimated that around 300 snow shrouded forms were strewn over the countryside. He also discovered to his horror that helpless children and women with babies in their arms had been chased as far as two miles from the original scene of encounter and cut down without mercy by the troopers. ... Judging by the slaughter on the battlefield it was suggested that the soldiers simply went berserk. For who could explain such a merciless disregard for life? ... As I see it the battle was more or less a matter of spontaneous combustion, sparked by mutual distrust ..."
Following a three-day blizzard, the military hired civilians to bury the dead Lakota. The burial party found the deceased frozen; they were gathered up and placed in a mass grave on a hill overlooking the encampment from which some of the fire from the Hotchkiss guns originated. It was reported that four infants were found alive, wrapped in their deceased mothers' shawls. In all, 84 men, 44 women, and 18 children reportedly died on the field, while at least seven Lakota were mortally wounded. Miles denounced Forsyth and relieved him of command. An exhaustive Army Court of Inquiry convened by Miles criticized Forsyth for his tactical dispositions but otherwise exonerated him of responsibility. The Court of Inquiry, however, was not conducted as a formal court-martial.
The Secretary of War concurred with the decision and reinstated Forsyth to command of the 7th Cavalry. Testimony had indicated that for the most part, troops attempted to avoid non-combatant casualties. Miles continued to criticize Forsyth, whom he believed had deliberately disobeyed his commands in order to destroy the Indians. Miles promoted the conclusion that Wounded Knee was a deliberate massacre rather than a tragedy caused by poor decisions, in an effort to destroy the career of Forsyth. This was later whitewashed and Forsyth was promoted to major general.
The American public's reaction to the massacre at the time was generally favorable. Many non-Lakota living near the reservations interpreted the battle as the defeat of a murderous cult; others confused Ghost Dancers with Native Americans in general. In an editorial response to the event, the young newspaper editor L. Frank Baum, later the author of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, wrote in the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer on January 3, 1891:
The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extermination of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries, we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth. In this lies future safety for our settlers and the soldiers who are under incompetent commands. Otherwise, we may expect future years to be as full of trouble with the redskins as those have been in the past.
Soon after the event, Dewey Beard, his brother Joseph Horn Cloud, and others formed the Wounded Knee Survivors Association, which came to include descendants. They sought compensation from the U.S. government for the many fatalities and injured. Today the association is independent and works to preserve and protect the historic site from exploitation, and to administer any memorial erected there. Papers of the association (1890–1973) and related materials are held by the University of South Dakota and are available for research. It was not until the 1990s that a memorial to the Lakota was included in the National Historic Landmark.
More than 80 years after the massacre, beginning on February 27, 1973, Wounded Knee was the site of the Wounded Knee incident, a 71-day standoff between militants of the American Indian Movement—who had chosen the site for its symbolic value—and federal law enforcement officials.
Stranded 9th CavalryEdit
The battalion of 9th Cavalry was scouting near the White River (Missouri River tributary) about 50 miles north of Indian agency at Pine Ridge when the Wounded Knee Massacre occurred, and rode south all night to reach the reservation. In the early morning of December 30, 1890, F, I, and K Troops reached the Pine Ridge agency, however, their supply wagon guarded by D Troop located behind them was attacked by 50 Sioux warriors near Cheyenne Creek (about 2 miles from the Indian agency). One soldier was immediately killed. The wagon train protected itself by circling the wagons. Corporal William Wilson volunteered to take a message to the agency at Pine Ridge to get help after the Indian scouts refused to go. Wilson took off through the wagon circle with Sioux in pursuit and his troops covering him. Wilson reached the agency and spread the alarm. The 9th Cavalry within the agency came to rescue the stranded troopers and the Sioux dispersed. For his actions, Corporal Wilson received the Medal of Honor.
Drexel Mission FightEdit
Historically, Wounded Knee is generally considered to be the end of the collective multi-century series of conflicts between colonial and U.S. forces and American Indians, known collectively as the Indian Wars. It was not however the last armed conflict between Native Americans and the United States.
The Drexel Mission Fight was an armed confrontation between Lakota warriors and the United States Army that took place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation on December 30, 1890, the day following Wounded Knee. The fight occurred on White Clay Creek approximately 15 miles north of Pine Ridge, where Lakota fleeing from the continued hostile situation surrounding the massacre at Wounded Knee had set up camp.
Company K of the 7th Cavalry—the unit involved at Wounded Knee—was sent to force the Lakotas to return to the areas they were assigned on their respective reservations. Some of the "hostiles" were Brulé Lakota from the Rosebud Indian Reservation. The 7th Cavalry was pinned down in a valley by the combined Lakota forces and had to be rescued by the 9th Cavalry, an African American regiment nicknamed the "Buffalo Soldiers".
Among the Lakota warriors was a young Brulé from Rosebud named Plenty Horses, who had recently returned from five years at the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. A week after this fight, Plenty Horses shot and killed army lieutenant Edward W. Casey, commandant of the Cheyenne Scouts (Troop L, 8th Cavalry). The testimony introduced at the trial of Plenty Horses and his subsequent acquittal also helped abrogate the legal culpability of the U.S. Army for the deaths at Wounded Knee.
The 9th Cavalry were stationed on the Pine Ridge reservation through the rest of the winter of 1890–1891 until March 1891, lodging in their tents. By then, the 9th Cavalry was the only regiment on the reservation after being the first to arrive in November 1890.
Medal of Honor controversyEdit
For this 1890 offensive, the army awarded twenty Medals of Honor, its highest commendation. In the governmental Nebraska State Historical Society's summer 1994 quarterly journal, Jerry Green construes that pre-1916 Medals of Honor were awarded more liberally; however, "the number of medals does seem disproportionate when compared to those awarded for other battles." Quantifying, he compares the three awarded for the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain's five-day siege, to the twenty awarded for this short and one-sided action.
Native American activists have urged the medals be withdrawn, calling them "medals of dishonor". According to Lakota tribesman William Thunder Hawk, "The Medal of Honor is meant to reward soldiers who act heroically. But at Wounded Knee, they didn't show heroism; they showed cruelty." In 2001, the National Congress of American Indians passed two resolutions condemning the Medals of Honor awards and called on the U.S. government to rescind them.
Some of the citations on the medals awarded to the troopers at Wounded Knee state that they went in pursuit of Lakota who were trying to escape or hide. Another citation was for "conspicuous bravery in rounding up and bringing to the skirmish line a stampeded pack mule."
Medal of Honor citations, Wounded Knee
Monuments to Native American deadEdit
St. John's Episcopal Mission Church was built on the hill behind the mass grave in which the victims had been buried, some survivors having been nursed in the then-new Holy Cross Mission Church. In 1903, descendants of those who died in the battle erected a monument at the gravesite. The memorial lists many of those who died at Wounded Knee along with an inscription that reads:
"This monument is erected by surviving relatives and other Ogalala and Cheyenne River Sioux Indians in memory of the Chief Big Foot massacre December 29, 1890. Col. Forsyth in command of US troops. Big Foot was a great chief of the Sioux Indians. He often said, 'I will stand in peace till my last day comes.' He did many good and brave deeds for the white man and the red man. Many innocent women and children who knew no wrong died here."
Beginning in 1986, the group named "Big Foot Memorial Riders" was formed where they will go to continue to honor the dead. The ceremony has attracted more participants each year and riders and their horses live with the cold weather, as well as the lack of food and water, as they retrace the path that their family members took to Wounded Knee. They carry with them a white flag to symbolize their hope for world peace, and to honor and remember the victims so that they will not be forgotten.
Seventh Cavalry RegimentEdit
When the 7th Cavalry Regiment returned to duty at Fort Riley from Pine Ridge, South Dakota, the soldiers of the regiment raised money for a monument for members of the regiment killed at Wounded Knee. About $1,950 was collected, and on July 25, 1893, the monument was dedicated with 5,500 people in attendance. Today, the stone edifice still stands near Waters Hall.
Massacre or battleEdit
The incident was initially referred to as the "Battle of Wounded Knee". Some American Indian groups have objected to this description and refer to it as the "Wounded Knee Massacre". The location of the conflict is officially known as the "Wounded Knee Battlefield". The U.S. Army currently refers to it as "Wounded Knee".
Bury my heart at Wounded KneeEdit
In his 1931 poem "American Names", Stephen Vincent Benet coined the phrase "Bury my heart at Wounded Knee". The poem is about his love of American place names, not making reference to the "battle." However, when the line was used as the title of historian Dee Brown's 1970 best-selling book, awareness was raised and Benet's phrase became popularly associated with the incident.
Since the publication of the book, the phrase "Bury my heart at Wounded Knee" has been used many times in reference to the battle, especially in music.
In other musicEdit
Artists who have written or recorded songs referring to the battle at Wounded Knee include: Walela "Wounded Knee" from their 1997 self-titled album. Nightwish ("Creek Mary's Blood" from their 2004 album "Once" featuring John Two-Hawks); Manowar ("Spirit Horse Of The Cherokee" from the 1992 album The Triumph Of Steel ); Grant Lee Buffalo ("Were You There?" from the album Storm Hymnal 2001); Johnny Cash (1972's "Big Foot," which is strongly sympathetic); Gordon Lightfoot ("Protocol" from his 1976 album Summertime Dream); The Indigo Girls (a 1995 cover of Sainte-Marie's song); Charlie Parr ("1890" on his 2010 album When the Devil Goes Blind); Nik Kershaw ("Wounded Knee" on his 1989 album The Works); Southern Death Cult ("Moya"); The Waterboys ("Bury My Heart"); Uriah Heep; Primus; Nahko and Medicine for the People; Patti Smith; Robbie Robertson; Five Iron Frenzy wrote the 2001 song "The Day We Killed" with mentions of Custard, Black Kettle, and quotes Black Elk's account from Black Elk Speaks on their album Five Iron Frenzy 2: Electric Boogaloo; Toad the Wet Sprocket; Marty Stuart; Bright Eyes; and "Pocahontas" by Neil Young. On Sam Roberts' 2006 Chemical City album, the song "The Bootleg Saint" contains line critical of Knee Massacre. There is also a Welsh song called "Gwaed Ar Yr Eira Gwyn" by Tecwyn Ifan on this incident. The song "American Ghost Dance" by the Red Hot Chili Peppers makes extensive reference to the massacre as well.
In 1973, the American rock band Redbone, formed by Native Americans Patrick and Lolly Vasquez, released the song, "We Were All Wounded at Wounded Knee". The song ends with the subtly altered sentence, "We were all wounded by Wounded Knee." The song reached the number-one chart position across Europe. In the U.S., the song was initially withheld from release and then banned by several radio stations. Richard Stepp's 2008 Native American Music Awards Native Heart nominated album, The Sacred Journey, has "Wounded Knee" as its final track.
The massacre has been referred to in films, including Thunderheart (1992), Legends of the Fall (1994), The Last Samurai (2003), Hidalgo (2004), and Hostiles (2017). The 2005 TNT mini-series Into the West included scenes of the massacre. In 2007, HBO Films released a film adaptation of the Dee Brown bestseller Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.
In the 1996 DC comic book Saint of Killers, written by Garth Ennis, the main character becomes a surrogate Angel of Death, reaping souls whenever men kill other men violently. The story is set in the 1880s and, near the end of chapter 4, it is said that "four years later" he was called upon at Wounded Knee.
Order of battleEdit
- Adjutant: 1st Lt. Lloyd S. McCormick
- Quartermaster: 1st Lt. Ezra B. Fuller
- Assistant Surgeon & Medical Director: Cpt. John Van Rennselaer Hoff
- Assistant Surgeon: 1st Lt. James Denver Glennan
Maj Samuel Whitside
- Adjutant: 1st Lt. W.J. Nicholson
Cpt. Charles S. Isley
- Adjutant: 1st Lt. W.W. Robinson II
Battery E, 1st U.S. Artillery
Captain Allyn Capron
- 2nd Lt. Harry L. Hawthorne (2nd U.S. Artillery)
- 4 Hotchkiss Breech-Loading Mountain Rifles
Troop A, Indian Scouts
- 1st Lt. George W. Taylor (9th U.S. Cavalry)
- 2nd Lt. Guy H. Preston (9th U.S. Cavalry)
US Attorney General Eric Holder laying a wreath at the site of the Wounded Knee Memorial
- Utley, p. 201.
- Brown, p. 178, Brown states that at the army camp, "the Indians were carefully counted." Utley, p. 204, gives 120 men, 230 women and children; there is no indication how many were warriors, old men, or incapacitated sick like Foot.
- "Plains Humanities: Wounded Knee Massacre". Retrieved December 9, 2014.
resulted in the deaths of more than 250, and possibly as many as 300, Native Americans.
- Nelson A. Miles to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, March 13, 1917, "The official reports make the number killed 90 warriors and approximately 200 women and children."
- "National Historic Landmarks Program: Wounded Knee". National Park Service. Retrieved January 10, 2008.
- Liggett, Lorie (1998). "Wounded Knee Massacre – An Introduction". Bowling Green State University. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
- Parsons, Randy. "The Wounded Knee Massacre – December 1890". Lastoftheindependents.com. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- "PBS – The West – Like Grass Before the Sickle". www.pbs.org.
- Wounded Knee & the Ghost Dance Tragedy by Jack Utter, p. 25 Publisher: National Woodlands Publishing Company; 1st edition (1991) Language: English ISBN 0-9628075-1-6
- Green, Jerry (1994). "The Medals of Wounded Knee" (PDF). Nebraska State Historical Society, also available in Nebraska History #75, pp. 200–208. Nebraska State Historical Society History. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
- "Lakota~WOUNDED KNEE: A Campaign to Rescind Medals: story, pictures and information". Footnote.com. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- AP (October 29, 1990). "Congress Adjourns – Century Afterward, Apology For Wounded Knee Massacre". Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (Sd); United States: NYTimes.com. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Hall, Kermit L (ed.), The Oxford Guide to the Supreme Court of the United States, Oxford Press, 1992; section: "Native Americans," p. 580 ISBN 0-19-505835-6
- To this day, the Sioux have refused to accept compensation for the Black Hills land seized from them. A 1980 Supreme Court decision (United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians) ruled the taking was illegal and awarded compensation, increased by interest to $757 million, but not the return of the land which the Sioux sought. The Lakota have refused to take the money, demanding instead the return of the land.
- "Wovoka." PBS: New Perspectives on the West. (retrieved August 6, 2010)
- Viola, Herman J. Trail to Wounded Knee: The Last Stand of the Plains Indians 1860–1890. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 2003.
- Annual report, Part 2 By Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology, John Wesley Powell, Matthew Williams, pp. 831–833 (1896)
- The ghost-dance religion and the Sioux outbreak of 1890, by James Mooney, p. 833
- United States Congress (1937). Hearings Before the Committee on Indian Affairs. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 28. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
- Russell, Major Samuel L., "Selfless Service: The Cavalry Career of Brigadier General Samuel M. Whitside from 1858 to 1902." MMAS Thesis, Fort Leavenworth: U.S. Command and General Staff College, 2002.
- Axelrod, Alan. (1993) Chronicles of the Indian Wars: From Colonial Times to Wounded Knee. (p. 254).
- Utley, p. 211.
- Utley, Robert (1963). "The Last Days of the Sioux Nation". Yale University Press. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
- Phillips, Charles. December 29, 1890. American History. December 2005 40(5) pp. 16–68.
- Bateman, Robert (June 2008), "Wounded Knee", Military History, 24 (4): 62–67
- Derived from Nelson Miles' report of some 300 snow covered forms during his inspection of the field three days later, Miles in a letter states: "The official reports make the number killed 90 warriors and approximately 200 women and children.".
- Brown, pp. 179–180
- Series Prologue "Wounded Knee Legacy & the Ancestors." 500 Nations, episode 1, The 500 Nations Encore Venture, 1994.
- Eli Seavey Ricker, Voices of the American West: The Indian interviews of Eli S. Ricker, 1903–1919
- Black Elk, John Gneisenau Neihardt (2008) . Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. SUNY Press. p. 281.
- "Lakota Accounts of the Massacre at Wounded Knee". pbs.org. 2000.
- Edward S. Godfrey, "Cavalry Fire Discipline," Journal of the Military Service Institution of the United States 19 (1896): 259.
- William S. E. Coleman, Voices of Wounded Knee, p. 278
- Hugh McGinnis, "I Took Part In The Wounded Knee Massacre", Real West Magazine, January 1966; at Our Family History Website
- Josephy, Jr., Alvin M., Trudy Thomas, and Jeanne Eder. Wounded Knee: Lest We Forget. Billings, Montana: Buffalo Bill Historical Center, 1990.
- Ostler, Jeffrey. (2004) The Plains Sioux and U.S. Colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee. (p. 354).
- Giago, Tim (Nanwica Kciji). "The Man Who Called for the Extermination of the Lakota", Notes from Indian Country © 2014 Native Sun News, at HuffPost. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
- "Wounded Knee Survivors Association, Papers (1890–1973)", Archives and Special Collections, University of South Dakota, accessed June 7, 2011
- James Parsons, "AIM Indians with 'story to tell' made Wounded Knee the medium", Minneapolis Tribune, March 25, 1973. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
- Schubert, Frank N. (1997). Black Valor: Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870–1898. Scholarly Resources Inc. pp. 121–132. ISBN 978-0842025867.
- Jeffrey Ostler: The Plains Sioux and U.S. colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee, pp. 357–358, Cambridge University Press (2004) ISBN 0-521-60590-3
- Congressional edition By United States. Congress, p. 132. April 26, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Roger L. Di Silvestro: In the Shadow of Wounded Knee: The Untold Final Story of the Indian Wars, p. 198, Walker & Company (2007) ISBN 0-8027-1514-1
- Doctor Sally Wagner Testifies At Wounded Knee Hearings Part Two.
- "U.S. Army Indian Wars, Medal of Honor citations". History.army.mil. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Hill, Richard (October 7, 1999). "Wounded Knee, A Wound That Won't Heal". First Nations issues of consequence. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- "History of Holy Cross Church Pine Ridge, SD".
- The Last days of the Sioux Nation, by Robert M. Utley, p. 5 Publisher: Yale University Press; 2 edition (July 11, 2004) Language: English ISBN 0-300-10316-6
- Mackale, William and Robert Smith(2003) "Images of America: Fort Riley". Retrieved January 11, 2014.
- Gathering the Dead at the Battle of Wounded Knee (Photograph Annotation) Retrieved 29 May. 2014
- Medal of Honor Recipients – Indian Wars  Retrieved May 6, 2014
- Izzo, David Garrett; Konkle, Lincoln (2002). Stephen Vincent Benet: Essays on His Life and Work. McFarland. p. 120. ISBN 978-0786413645. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
- Patti Smith Group, "Ghost Dance". On Easter, Arista AB 4171, released 1978.
- Robbie Robertson, "Ghost Dance", on Music for the Native Americans, Cema/Capitol 28295, 1994.
- Sam Roberts. "Sam Roberts – The Bootleg Saint Lyrics MetroLyrics". MetroLyrics. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "We Were All Wounded at Wounded Knee", Redbone's unofficial discography site, with lyrics. Webpage found March 31, 2010.
- "NAMA 10". NativeAmericanMusicAwards.com. Native American Music Awards. 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Goldfarb, Andrew (December 21, 2012). "The Evolution of BioShock Infinite". IGN. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- Miller, Matt (April 9, 2013). "Free Will And Hope In BioShock Infinite". Game Informer. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
- Utley p. 201
- L. Frank Baum editorial that appeared in the Aberdeen (SD) Saturday Review on January 3, 1891, just five days after the massacre. The author wrote about those terrible "Redskins," his favorite word for Indians. He wrote, "The Pioneer has before declared that our only safety depends upon the total extermination of the Indians. Having wronged them for centuries we had better, in order to protect our civilization, follow it up by one or more wrong and wipe these untamed and untamable creatures from the face of the earth."
- Andersson, Rani-Henrik. The Lakota Ghost Dance of 1890. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2009.ISBN 978-0-8032-1073-8.
- Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West, Owl Books (1970). ISBN 0-8050-6669-1.
- Champlin, Tim. A Trail To Wounded Knee : A Western Story. Five Star (2001).
- Coleman, William S.E. Voices of Wounded Knee, University of Nebraska Press (2000). ISBN 0-8032-1506-1.
- Cozens, Peter. The Earth is Weeping: The Epic Story on the Indian wars for the American West, Atlantic Books (20160) ISBN 978-1-78649-151-0.
- Greene, Jerome A. American Carnage: Wounded Knee, 1890. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2014.
- Smith, Rex Alan. Moon of Popping Trees. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press (1981). ISBN 0-8032-9120-5.
- Utley, Robert M. Last Days of the Sioux Nation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press (1963).
- Utley, Robert M. The Indian Frontier 1846–1890. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press (2003). ISBN 0-8263-2998-5.
- Utley, Robert M. Frontier Regulars The United States Army and the Indian 1866–1891. New York: Macmillan Publishing (1973). ISBN 0-8032-9551-0.
- Yenne, Bill. Indian Wars: The Campaign for the American West, Westholme (2005). ISBN 1-59416-016-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wounded Knee Massacre|
(Pine Ridge Campaign).
- The Wounded Knee Museum in Wall, South Dakota
- "Walter Mason Camp Collection," includes photographs from the Battle of Wounded Knee Creek, Brigham Young University
- "A Dark Day" – Education Resource, Dakota Pathways
- "THE GHOST DANCE.; HOW THE INDIANS WORK THEMSELVES UP TO FIGHTING PITCH", eyewitness account by reporter, New York Times, November 22, 1890
- Army at Wounded Knee
- Remember the Massacre at Wounded Knee. Jacobin. December 29, 2016.