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WikiProject Medicine

Welcome to WikiProject Medicine! We discuss, collaborate, and debate anything and everything relating to medicine and health on Wikipedia on our discussion page.
Everyone is welcome to join!

Guidelines and policies

An introductory video about how to edit Wikipedia and medicine.
  • Wikipedia is an encyclopedia and has a distinct style that may take some time getting used to.
  • It is important that we use the best sources and that we give them due weight. Setting us apart from scientific papers we prefer secondary sources over primary sources. We'd rather cite a review article than an original trial.
  • To get you started and to explain why this is important we have a number of guides and guidelines:
Reliable Sources      Manual of Style
Conflicts of Interest      How to edit
Our guides complement Wikipedia:Policies and guidelines and take great care to explain why they are relevant.
More resources

Wikipedia LibraryEdit

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The Wikipedia Medical Library
The Wikipedia Library is a resource for anyone who wants to use Wikipedia or to do research to help expand and improve Wikipedia.
Specialised resources for Medical editors coming soon

The Library


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  There is also a tool to find all our sub pages: Special:PrefixIndex/Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/ — only for the truly curious

The Translation Task Force is a global initiative by WikiProject Medicine and Translators Without Borders which has translated over 1900 articles into 100+ languages.
It doesn't matter if your first language is English or Swahili, there are always things you can help out with.
Head over to our project page!

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Offline Medical Wikipedia is a mobile app providing offline access to Wikipedia's health content. Built on Kiwix and supported by Wiki Project Med Foundation and Wikimedia Switzerland, the app is available for android, iOS, Windows, Mac, and Linux. It is available in several languages. The app includes medicine, anatomy, medication, and sanitation articles.

  • All versions of the app are free and available for download!

A fully offline distribution system known as Internet-in-a-Box is also available. These devices are made from a miniature computer that can be connected to via wifi. All the material that exists on the device can then be accessed.

Wikipedia can be a great resource for getting to know a field — and it can give you an encyclopaedic overview of a subject, acting as a spring-board letting you dive deeper. It should however not be used as your only source when performing research, and you should never blindly trust Wikipedia. Over the years a lot of research has been amassed surrounding the reliability and biases of Wikipedia. To see some of the studies that have been produced on the quality and scope of medical information on Wikipedia take a look at some of the research:

  1. Lagunes Garcia, Gerardo; Prieto Santamaria, Lucia; Garcia del Valle, Eduardo P.; Zanin, Massimiliano; Menasalvas Ruiz, Ernestina; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Alejandro (2019). Wikipedia Disease Articles: An Analysis of their Content and Evolution. IEEE. doi:10.1109/cbms.2019.00136. ISBN 978-1-7281-2286-1.
  2. Ngo, DH; Truran, D; Kemp, M; Lawley, M; Metke-Jimenez, A (8 Aug 2019). "Can Wikipedia Be Used to Derive an Open Clinical Terminology?". Studies in health technology and informatics. 266: 136–141. doi:10.3233/SHTI190785. ISSN 0926-9630. PMID 31397314.
  3. Weiner, Shira Schecter; Horbacewicz, Jill; Rasberry, Lane; Bensinger-Brody, Yocheved (18 March 2019). "Improving the Quality of Consumer Health Information on Wikipedia: Case Series". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 21 (3): e12450. doi:10.2196/12450. PMC 6441860.
  4. Jemielniak, D; Masukume, G; Wilamowski, M (18 January 2019). "The Most Influential Medical Journals According to Wikipedia: Quantitative Analysis". Journal of medical Internet research. 21 (1): e11429. doi:10.2196/11429. PMC 6356187. PMID 30664451.
  5. Jabaley, Craig S.; Groff, Robert F.; O'Reilly-Shah, Vikas N. (2019-02-15). "Asthma Information Seeking via Wikipedia between 2015 and 2018: Implications for Awareness Promotion". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 199 (4): 531–533. doi:10.1164/rccm.201809-1649LE. ISSN 1535-4970. PMID 30521354.
  6. Watad, Abdulla; Watad, Samaa; Mahroum, Naim; Sharif, Kassem; Amital, Howard; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad (2019-02-28). "Forecasting the West Nile Virus in the United States: An Extensive Novel Data Streams–Based Time Series Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling of Related Digital Searching Behavior". JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. 5 (1): e9176. doi:10.2196/publichealth.9176. ISSN 2369-2960. PMC 6416538. PMID 30601755.
  7. Miles, Randy C.; Baird, Grayson L.; Choi, Paul; Falomo, Eniola; Dibble, Elizabeth H.; Garg, Megha (April 2019). "Readability of Online Patient Educational Materials Related to Breast Lesions Requiring Surgery". Radiology. 291 (1): 112–118. doi:10.1148/radiol.2019182082. ISSN 0033-8419.
  8. Mittermeier, John C.; Roll, Uri; Matthews, Thomas J.; Grenyer, Richard (2019-03-05). Jordano, Pedro (ed.). "A season for all things: Phenological imprints in Wikipedia usage and their relevance to conservation". PLOS Biology. 17 (3): e3000146. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000146. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 6400330. PMID 30835729.
  9. Weiner, Shira Schecter; Horbacewicz, Jill; Rasberry, Lane; Bensinger-Brody, Yocheved (2019-03-18). "Improving the Quality of Consumer Health Information on Wikipedia: Case Series". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 21 (3): e12450. doi:10.2196/12450. ISSN 1438-8871. PMC 6441860. PMID 30882357.
  10. Oeberst, Aileen; von der Beck, Ina; Cress, Ulrike; Nestler, Steffen (2019-03-20). "Wikipedia outperforms individuals when it comes to hindsight bias". Psychological Research. doi:10.1007/s00426-019-01165-7. ISSN 0340-0727.
  11. Hutton, Mary O.; Dawson, Jennifer E.; Lee, Kachiu C.; Shumaker, Peter R.; Doney, Elizabeth; Dellavalle, Robert P. (March 2019). "Improving Wikipedia Skin Disease Content". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2019.03.063.
  12. Yun, Jinhyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hawoong (Feb 2019). "Early onset of structural inequality in the formation of collaborative knowledge in all Wikimedia projects". Nature Human Behaviour. 3 (2): 155–163. doi:10.1038/s41562-018-0488-z. ISSN 2397-3374.
  13. Joshi, Mihir; Verduzco, Rafael; Yogi, Sara; Garcia, Maite; Saxena, Sanskriti; Tackett, Sean; Dexter, Nadine; Dempsey, Angela; Whitaker, Evans; Azzam, Amin (2019). "Wikipedia Editing Courses at Three US Medical Schools in the 2017-2018 Academic Year". MedEdPublish. doi:10.15694/mep.2019.000146.1.
  14. London, Daniel A.; Andelman, Steven M.; Christiano, Anthony V.; Kim, Joung Heon; Hausman, Michael R.; Kim, Jaehon M. (2019-07-01). "Is Wikipedia a complete and accurate source for musculoskeletal anatomy?". Surgical and radiologic anatomy: SRA. doi:10.1007/s00276-019-02280-1. ISSN 1279-8517. PMID 31264001.
  15. Suwannakhan, Athikhun; Casanova-Martínez, Daniel; Yurasakpong, Laphatrada; Montriwat, Punchalee; Meemon, Krai; Limpanuparb, Taweetham (2019-06-24). "The Quality and Readability of English Wikipedia Anatomy Articles". Anatomical Sciences Education. doi:10.1002/ase.1910. ISSN 1935-9780. PMID 31233658.
  16. Brigo, Francesco; Lattanzi, Simona (2019). "Is it really epilepsy? Accuracy of images and videos conveying epilepsy-related information in Wikipedia". Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B. 96: 249–250. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.04.048. ISSN 1525-5069. PMID 31130497.
  17. Rigamonti, L.; Dolci, A.; Galetta, F.; Stefanelli, C.; Hughes, M.; Bartsch, M.; Seidelmeier, I.; Bonaventura, K.; Back, D. A. (2019-05-09). "Social media and e-learning use among European exercise science students". Health Promotion International. doi:10.1093/heapro/daz046. ISSN 1460-2245. PMID 31071200.

  1. Apollonio, Dorie E.; Broyde, Keren; Azzam, Amin; De Guia, Michael; Heilman, James; Brock, Tina (2018-11-20). "Pharmacy students can improve access to quality medicines information by editing Wikipedia articles". BMC medical education. 18 (1): 265. doi:10.1186/s12909-018-1375-z. ISSN 1472-6920. PMC 6245851. PMID 30454046.
  2. Meka, Jennifer; Vigliotti, Alyssa (2018). "Should Crowdsourced, Unvetted Content on Wikipedia Be Used in Health Sciences Teaching and Learning?". AMA journal of ethics. 20 (11): E1033–1040. doi:10.1001/amajethics.2018.1033. ISSN 2376-6980. PMID 30499431.
  3. Hunter, Julia Alexandra; Lee, Taehoon; Persaud, Navindra (2 July 2018). "A comparison of the content and primary literature support for online medication information provided by Lexicomp and Wikipedia". Journal of the Medical Library Association. 106 (3). doi:10.5195/jmla.2018.256. PMC 6013145. PMID 29962913.
  4. Mietchen, Daniel; Wodak, Shoshana; Wasik, Szymon; Szostak, Natalia; Dessimoz, Christophe (31 May 2018). "Submit a Topic Page to PLOS Computational Biology and Wikipedia". PLOS Computational Biology. 14 (5): e1006137. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006137.
  5. Holtz, Peter; Fetahu, Besnik; Kimmerle, Joachim (10 May 2018). "Effects of Contributor Experience on the Quality of Health-Related Wikipedia Articles". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 20 (5): e171. doi:10.2196/jmir.9683. PMC 5968213. PMID 29748161.
  6. Antonio Mouriño García, Marcos; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido Rifón, Luis (May 2018). "Leveraging Wikipedia knowledge to classify multilingual biomedical documents". Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. doi:10.1016/j.artmed.2018.04.007.
  7. Modiri, Omeed; Guha, Daipayan; Alotaibi, Naif M.; Ibrahim, George M.; Lipsman, Nir; Fallah, Aria (March 2018). "Readability and quality of wikipedia pages on neurosurgical topics". Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. 166: 66–70. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2018.01.021.
  8. Brigo, F.; Lattanzi, S.; Bragazzi, N.; Nardone, R.; Moccia, M.; Lavorgna, L. (February 2018). "Why do people search Wikipedia for information on multiple sclerosis?". Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 20: 210–214. doi:10.1016/j.msard.2018.02.001.
  9. Brigo, Francesco; Lattanzi, Simona; Giussani, Giorgia; Tassi, Laura; Pietrafusa, Nicola; Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Nardone, Raffaele; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Mecarelli, Oriano (April 2018). "Italian Wikipedia and epilepsy: An infodemiological study of online information-seeking behavior". Epilepsy & Behavior. 81: 119–122. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.01.037.
  10. Mahroum, Naim; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Sharif, Kassem; Gianfredi, Vincenza; Nucci, Daniele; Rosselli, Roberto; Brigo, Francesco; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Watad, Abdulla (June 2018). "Leveraging Google Trends, Twitter, and Wikipedia to Investigate the Impact of a Celebrityʼs Death From Rheumatoid Arthritis". Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 24 (4): 188–192. doi:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000692.
  11. Tackett, Sean; Gaglani, Shiv; Heilman, James; Azzam, Amin (22 April 2018). "The reCAPTCHA of medical education". Medical Teacher: 1–3. doi:10.1080/0142159X.2018.1460463.

  1. Maggio, LA; Willinsky, JM; Steinberg, RM; Mietchen, D; Wass, JL; Dong, T (2017). "Wikipedia as a gateway to biomedical research: The relative distribution and use of citations in the English Wikipedia". PloS one. 12 (12): e0190046. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1290046M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190046. PMC 5739466. PMID 29267345.
  2. Church, Dawson; Feinstein, David (August 2017). "The Manual Stimulation of Acupuncture Points in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques". Medical Acupuncture. 29 (4): 194–205. doi:10.1089/acu.2017.1213.
    "In the early 2000s, a group of professional skeptics assumed control of the Wikipedia entries on complementary and alternative medicine..."
  3. Shafee, Thomas; Das, Diptanshu; Masukume, Gwinyai; Häggström, Mikael (2017-01-15). "WikiJournal of Medicine, the first Wikipedia-integrated academic journal". WikiJournal of Medicine. 4 (1). doi:10.15347/wjm/2017.001.
  4. Mandler, Michael D. (26 January 2017). "Glaring Chemical Errors Persist for Years on Wikipedia". Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode:2017JChEd..94..271M. doi:10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00478. ISSN 0021-9584.
  5. Shafee, Thomas; Mietchen, Daniel; Su, Andrew I. (2017-08-11). "Academics can help shape Wikipedia". Science. 357 (6351): 557–558. Bibcode:2017Sci...357..557S. doi:10.1126/science.aao0462. PMID 28798122. Archived from the original on 2017-10-29.
  6. Shafee, Thomas; Masukume, Gwinyai; Kipersztok, Lisa; Das, Diptanshu; Häggström, Mikael; Heilman, James (2017-10-29). "The evolution of Wikipedia's medical content: past, present and future". Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 71 (10). doi:10.1136/jech-2016-208601.

  1. Shane-Simpson, Christina; Che, Elizabeth; Brooks, Patricia J. (31 July 2016). "Giving Psychology Away: Implementation of Wikipedia Editing in an Introductory Human Development Course". Psychology Learning & Teaching. 15 (3): 268–293. doi:10.1177/1475725716653081.
  2. James, Richard (2016). "WikiProject Medicine: Creating Credibility in Consumer Health". Journal of Hospital Librarianship. 16 (4): 344–351. doi:10.1080/15323269.2016.1221284. ISSN 1532-3269.
  3. Azzam, Amin; Bresler, David; Leon, Armando; Maggio, Lauren; Whitaker, Evans; Heilman, James; Orlowitz, Jake; Swisher, Valerie; Rasberry, Lane; Otoide, Kingsley; Trotter, Fred; Ross, Will; McCue, Jack D. (2016). "Why Medical Schools Should Embrace Wikipedia". Academic Medicine: 1. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000001381. ISSN 1040-2446.
  4. Conell, J (December 2016). "Online information seeking by patients with bipolar disorder: results from an international multisite survey". International journal of bipolar disorders. 4 (1): 17. PMID 27552813. 33% preferred Wikipedia
  5. Back, DA; Behringer, F; Haberstroh, N; Ehlers, JP; Sostmann, K; Peters, H (20 August 2016). "Learning management system and e-learning tools: an experience of medical students' usage and expectations". International journal of medical education. 7: 267–73. PMID 27544782. The participants valued lecture notes (73.7%) and Wikipedia (74%) as their most important online sources for knowledge acquisition.
  6. Sebelefsky, C; Voitl, J; Karner, D; Klein, F; Voitl, P; Böck, A (18 August 2016). "Internet use of parents before attending a general pediatric outpatient clinic: does it change their information level and assessment of acute diseases?". BMC pediatrics. 16: 129. PMID 27538782. Most common online resources utilized for this purpose are websites run by doctors (61.3 %), the outpatient clinic's homepage (56.3 %), Google (40 %), Wikipedia (32.5 %)
  7. Saparova, D; Nolan, NS (January 2016). "Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning". Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA. 104 (1): 24–32. PMC 4722638. PMID 26807049. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. (Wikipedia, AccessMedicine, UpToDate)
  8. Torous, J; Franzan, J; O'Connor, R; Mathew, I; Keshavan, M; Kitts, R; Boland, R (December 2015). "Psychiatry Residents' Use of Educational Websites: A Pilot Survey Study". Academic psychiatry : the journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry. 39 (6): 630–3. PMID 26077007. Residents reported utilizing online resources on average 68 % of the time, in comparison to 32 % on average for printed materials. Residents reported UpToDate, PubMed, and Wikipedia as the most visited websites and ranked each highly but for different purposes.
  9. Masukume, Gwinyai; Heilman, James; Häggström, Mikael (24 May 2016). "Why getting medical information from Wikipedia isn't always a bad idea". The Conversation. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  10. Choi-Lundberg, DL; Low, TF; Patman, P; Turner, P; Sinha, SN (2016). "Medical student preferences for self-directed study resources in gross anatomy". Anatomical sciences education. 9 (2): 150–60. doi:10.1002/ase.1549. PMID 26033851.
  11. Kelton (February 2016), Pulse of Online Search Survey: Initial Data (PDF), Makovsky PR, retrieved 25 March 2016

  1. Putman, T.; Burgstaller, S.; Waagmeester, A.; Wu, C.; Su, A. I.; Good, B. (2015). "Centralizing content and distributing labor: a community model for curating the very long tail of microbial genomes". doi:10.1101/031286. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. Mitraka, E.; Waagmeester, A.; Burgstaller-Muehlbacher, S.; Schriml, L. M.; Su, A. I.; Good, B. M. (2015). "Wikidata: A platform for data integration and dissemination for the life sciences and beyond". doi:10.1101/031971. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. Pfundner, Alexander; Schönberg, Tobias; Horn, John; Boyce, Richard D; Samwald, Matthias (5 May 2015). "Utilizing the Wikidata System to Improve the Quality of Medical Content in Wikipedia in Diverse Languages: A Pilot Study". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 17 (5): e110. doi:10.2196/jmir.4163.
  4. Nowrouzi, Behdin; Gohar, Basem; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behnam; Garbaczewska, Martyna; Brewster, Keith (April 2015). "An Examination of Scope, Completeness, Credibility, and Readability of Health, Medical, and Nutritional Information on the Internet: A Comparative Study of Wikipedia, WebMD, and the Mayo Clinic Websites". Canadian Journal of Diabetes. 39: S71. doi:10.1016/j.jcjd.2015.01.267. (conference abstract in journal supplement)
  5. Herbert, Verena G; Frings, Andreas; Rehatschek, Herwig; Richard, Gisbert; Leithner, Andreas (2015). "Wikipedia – challenges and new horizons in enhancing medical education". BMC Medical Education. 15 (1). doi:10.1186/s12909-015-0309-2. ISSN 1472-6920. PMID 25879421.
  6. Azer, Samy A. (2015). "Is Wikipedia a reliable learning resource for medical students? Evaluating respiratory topics". Advances in Physiology Education. 39 (1): 5–14. doi:10.1152/advan.00110.2014. ISSN 1043-4046.
  7. Heilman, James M; West, Andrew G (2015). "Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 17 (3): e62. doi:10.2196/jmir.4069. ISSN 1438-8871. PMID 25739399.
  8. Venkatraman, Anand; Kumar, Nilay; Garg, Neetika (February 2015). "Greater freedom of speech on Web 2.0 correlates with dominance of views linking vaccines to autism". Vaccine. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.078.
  9. Murray, T. (2 February 2015). "WikiProject Medicine making progress". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187 (4): 245–245. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-4982.
  10. Brigo, F; Erro, R (18 January 2015). "The readability of the English Wikipedia article on Parkinson's disease". Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. PMID 25596713.
  11. Brigo, F; Otte, WM; Igwe, SC; Tezzon, F; Nardone, R (16 January 2015). "Clearly written, easily comprehended? The readability of websites providing information on epilepsy". Epilepsy & behavior : E&B. 44C: 35–39. PMID 25601720.

For older articles see Research publications

This list is incomplete. We try to keep the list free of bias, but encourage you not to take our word for it — so here are some suggested searches:


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These are the articles that have been edited the most within the last seven days. Last updated 20 October 2019 by HotArticlesBot.

Related projectsEdit

Design on 7/1/2016 by CFCF using the tools at WikiProject X. Report any bugs on my talk-page!
A copy of the old page is available at Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Old 2016.
An even older copy showcasing earlier efforts can be found at Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Old 2012