Vanwall (Formula One team)

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Vanwall was a British motor racing team and racing car constructor that was active in Formula One during the 1950s. Founded by Tony Vandervell, the Vanwall name was derived by combining the name of the team owner with that of his Thinwall bearings produced at the Vandervell Products factory at Acton, London. Originally entering modified Ferraris in non-championship races, Vanwall constructed their first cars to race in the 1954 Formula One season. The team achieved their first race win in the 1957 British Grand Prix, with Stirling Moss and Tony Brooks sharing a VW 5, earning the team the distinction of constructing the first British-built car to win a World Championship race. Vanwall won the inaugural Constructors' Championship in Formula One in 1958, in the process allowing Moss and Brooks to finish second and third in the Drivers' Championship standings, each winning three races for Vanwall. Vandervell's failing health meant 1958 would be the last full season; the squad ran cars in a handful of races in the following years, but finished racing in 1961.

Full nameUnited Kingdom Vanwall
BaseActon, London, United Kingdom
Founder(s)Tony Vandervell
Noted staffColin Chapman
Frank Costin
Noted driversUnited Kingdom Stirling Moss
France Maurice Trintignant
United States Harry Schell
United Kingdom Stuart Lewis-Evans
United Kingdom Tony Brooks
Formula One World Championship career
First entry1954 British Grand Prix
Races entered29 (28 starts)
1 (1958)
Race victories9
Pole positions7
Fastest laps6
Final entry1960 French Grand Prix
Vanwall as a Formula One engine manufacturer
Formula One World Championship career
First entry1954 British Grand Prix
Last entry1960 French Grand Prix
Races entered29 (28 starts)
Constructors' Championships1 (1958)
Race victories9
Pole positions7
Fastest laps6
The fourth, and last, Thinwall Special. Used between 1952 and 1954.
The winning Vanwall VW5 before the 1957 British Grand Prix.

History edit

Tony Vandervell's Vanwall Company made Babbit bearings (UK White Metal bearings) under licence from the Cleveland Graphite Bronze Company; W. A. Robotham of Rolls-Royce said that "it was an exceedingly difficult task ... knowing the American company well".[1]

Tony Vandervell was one of the original backers of British Racing Motors. In the early 1950s he entered a series of modified Ferraris in Formule Libre races under the name "Thinwall Special".[2]

The first actual Vanwalls were known as Vanwall Specials and were built for the new Formula 1 regulations in 1954 at Cox Green, Maidenhead. The chassis was designed by Owen Maddock and built by the Cooper Car Company. The 2.0 L engine was designed by Norton engineer Leo Kuzmicki, and was essentially four Manx[3] single-cylinder 498 cc (30.4 cu in) (86.1 mm × 85.6 mm (3.39 in × 3.37 in)) engines with a common waterjacket, cylinder head (a copy of the Norton's) and valvetrain,[3] with induction by four AMAL motorcycle carburetors.[3] This combination was fitted to a Rolls-Royce B40 military engine crankcase, copied in aluminium.[4] Designed for Formula Two, which was supplanted before it appeared,[4] the car debuted in a Grande Epreuve in the 1954 British Grand Prix. Against 2½ litre Formula One competition, it was at a decided disadvantage. The Goodyear disc brakes (built by Vanwall) proved successful,[4] but the front suspension and fuel and cooling systems were troublesome.[4] Development continued with a switch to Bosch fuel injection (thanks to Vandervell's "persuading" Daimler-Benz, a major Bosch customer, to allow it),[5] while retaining the AMAL throttle bodies; they were plagued with throttle linkage trouble, due to vibration from the big four-cylinder.[4] Vanwall also increased the capacity of the engines, first to 2,237 cc (137 cu in) (91.0 mm × 86.0 mm (3.58 in × 3.39 in)) for Peter Collins at Monaco 1955, and then a full 2,489 cc (151.9 cu in) (96.0 mm × 86.0 mm (3.78 in × 3.39 in)). Vanwalls then ran for a season in F1 without much in the way of success. At the end of the 1955 season, it was plain that the engine was sound, but that the Ferrari-derived[4] chassis needed improvement. It was suggested to Vandervell that he should hire the services of a young up-and-coming designer to improve their cars. The designer was Colin Chapman.

The new 1956[4] cars designed by Chapman (along with the aerodynamicist Frank Costin) were of space frame construction, the De Dion rear axle's unsprung weight reduced and front torsion bar added.[4] (None of these ideas were revolutionary, but Chapman was happy simply to be meticulous.)[6] Furthermore, a fifth gear and Porsche synchromesh were added to the transmission.[4] The driving seat was placed above this and could not be reduced below 13 in (330 mm) above the road, making the height very problematic (the top of the driver's helmet was fully 50 in (1,270 mm) from the road surface, while the vertically mounted engine made a reduction impractical in any case),[4] and the handling was suspect despite Chapman's best efforts.[4] The solution which today is obvious, mounting the engine behind the driver, would take two more years to be accepted. Costin made the most of it, and produced a car "much faster in a straight line than any of its rivals".[7]

The new car showed early promise in 1956 by winning the non-championship F1 race at Silverstone against strong opposition. It set the lap record at Syracuse[7] Stirling Moss drove the car to victory in what was his only drive for Vanwall that year, as he was still contracted to drive for Maserati in F1. Talented drivers Harry Schell and Maurice Trintignant were the full-timers for the season. However, neither of them had much success although the car showed obvious potential.

With the car developing and becoming ever more competitive, Moss eventually decided to drive for the team in 1957. He was joined by two Englishmen, Tony Brooks and Stuart Lewis-Evans. As the 1957 season unfolded, the cars became faster and more reliable. Moss and Brooks duly shared Vanwall's first Grand Prix victory in Britain at Aintree, and Moss went on to win both the Italian (where only being piloted by Fangio enabled the Maserati to run with the Vanwalls, for Moss finished with 41 seconds in hand even after a pit stop)[7] and Pescara Grands Prix.

At the end of 1957, alcohol fuels were banned and replaced by a compulsory 130-octane aviation gasoline. This caused problems for Vanwall and BRM with their large bore engines that required methanol for engine cooling. As a result, the Vanwall's power dropped from 290 bhp (220 kW) at 7,500 rpm[7] (308 bhp with nitromethane) to 278 bhp (207 kW) on the test bed. During the race, where revs were reduced, only 255–262 bhp at 7,200–7,400 rpm was available. This put them at a disadvantage to the new Dino Ferrari V6 cars with a claimed 290 PS (286 bhp) at 8,300 rpm. The Vanwall's superior road holding (thanks to suspension changes, new steel wheels, and new nylon-cord Dunlop R5 racing tyres),[7] streamlining, 5-speed gearbox, and disc brakes helped to offset this.

All three drivers stayed with the team in 1958, and Moss (wins in the Netherlands, Portugal and Morocco) and Brooks (wins in Belgium, Germany and Italy) each won three championship races that season. Vanwall became the first team to win the Constructors' Championship, held for the first time that season. However, Moss lost out to Mike Hawthorn in the Drivers' Championship by a single point to finish second, with Brooks ending the season in third. Their triumph at the end of the season was sadly marred when, during the final race of the year in Morocco, Lewis-Evans was fatally injured in an accident.

The 1958 season was the last one in which Vanwall entered every race. Vandervell's health was failing and he had been advised by his doctors to rest. The team continued half-heartedly. Brooks made one appearance in a lower and lighter Vanwall at 1959 British Grand Prix, proving less successful against the new mid-engined Coopers, and the team tried again with another car in the 1960 French Grand Prix. These efforts lacked the seriousness of the past however and they were unsuccessful.

The last racing Vanwall was an "unwieldy"[7] rear-engined machine produced for the 1961 3.0 litre Intercontinental Formula. Although showing promise when campaigned by John Surtees in two races, development was stopped short when the formula did not find success in Europe. The engine was enlarged to 2,605 cc (159 cu in) (96.0 mm × 90.0 mm (3.78 in × 3.54 in)), rated at 290 bhp (220 kW) on 100 octane petrol.

The Donington Collection had a complete example of each model, including the rear-engined car.

In 2003 Vanwall Cars was formed by Arthur Wolstenholme, producing the Vanwall GPR V12, a single-seater road-legal car bearing a strong resemblance to early Vanwall racing cars, and the Sports Racer, a two-seater of a similar style.[8] In 2012 the trademark was acquired from Mahle Engine Systems UK by Sanderson International Marketing Ltd. In Summer 2016 Vanwall completed and sold an official replica 1957 Vanwall and then in October 2020 Vanwall 1958 Ltd, majority owned by Iain Sanderson, announced the commissioning of Hall & Hall to build 6 original 1958 specification 'continuation cars'.[9][10]

Formula One World Championship results edit


Year Chassis Engine Tyres Driver 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Points WCC
1954 Vanwall Special Vanwall L4 P ARG 500 BEL FRA GBR GER SUI ITA ESP n/a n/a[a]
  Peter Collins Ret 7 DNS
1955 Vanwall VW 55 Vanwall L4 P ARG MON 500 BEL NED GBR ITA n/a n/a[a]
  Mike Hawthorn Ret Ret
  Ken Wharton 9[b] Ret
  Harry Schell 9[b] Ret
1956 Vanwall VW 2 Vanwall L4 P ARG MON 500 BEL FRA GBR GER ITA n/a n/a[a]
  Maurice Trintignant Ret Ret Ret Ret
  Harry Schell Ret 4 10[b] Ret Ret
  Mike Hawthorn 10[b]
  Colin Chapman DNS
  José Froilán González Ret
  Piero Taruffi Ret
1957 Vanwall VW 5 Vanwall L4 P ARG MON 500 FRA GBR GER PES ITA n/a n/a[a]
  Stirling Moss Ret 1PF[b] 5 1F 1
  Tony Brooks 2 1[b] 9 Ret 7F
  Stuart Lewis-Evans Ret 7 Ret 5 RetP
  Roy Salvadori Ret
1958 Vanwall VW 5 Vanwall L4 D ARG MON NED 500 BEL FRA GBR GER POR ITA MOR 48
  Stirling Moss Ret 1F Ret 2 RetP RetF 1P RetP 1F
  Tony Brooks RetP Ret 1 Ret 7 1 Ret 1 Ret
  Stuart Lewis-Evans Ret RetP 3 Ret 4 3 Ret Ret
1959 Vanwall VW 59 Vanwall L4 D MON 500 NED FRA GBR GER POR ITA USA 0 NC
  Tony Brooks Ret
1960 Vanwall VW 11 Vanwall L4 D ARG MON 500 NED BEL FRA GBR POR ITA USA 0 NC
  Tony Brooks Ret

Non-championship Formula One results edit


Year Chassis Engine Driver 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
  Alberto Ascari DNA
  Alan Brown Ret
  Peter Collins DNA 2
  Mike Hawthorn 2
1955 Vanwall VW 1/
  Mike Hawthorn DNA Ret
  Ken Wharton Ret 2
  Harry Schell 2 1 Ret 1PF
  Desmond Titterington 3
1956 Vanwall VW 1/
  Harry Schell DNA Ret
  Stirling Moss DNA 1PF
1957 Vanwall VW 1/
  Stirling Moss 3F RetP DNS
  Tony Brooks Ret 6F DNA Ret
  Stuart Lewis-Evans 3 2
  Roy Salvadori 5
1960 Vanwall VW 5 Vanwall L4 GLV INT SIL LOM OUL
  Tony Brooks 7 DNA
Lotus 18 DNS

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c d The Constructors' Championship was not awarded until 1958.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Shared drive

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Robotham, William Arthur (1970). Silver Ghosts and Silver Dawn. London: Constable. pp. 113, 114.
  2. ^ Carter, Anthony (2011). Motor racing : the pursuit of victory, 1930-1962. Dorchester, England: Veloce Publications. p. 72. ISBN 9781845842796.
  3. ^ a b c Setright, L. J. K. "Vanwall: The End of an Era", in Northey, Tom, ed. World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Vol. 21, p.2461.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Setright, p.2462.
  5. ^ With a threat to withhold Thinwall bearings. Setright, p.2462.
  6. ^ Setright, L.J.K. "Lotus: The Golden Mean", in Northey, Volume 11, p.1230.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Setright, p.2463.
  8. ^ "Vanwall name lives again". Gigmag. 11 March 2005. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  9. ^ "Buy a brand new Vanwall F1 car for £1.6m".
  10. ^ "Vanwall Brand Brought Back From The Dead, Will Launch Six 1958 F1 Continuation Cars". Carscoops. 19 October 2020.

Bibliography edit

External links edit

Sporting positions
Preceded by
None (inaugural champion)
Formula One Constructors' Champion
Succeeded by