Udupi, otherwise spelt Udipi and also known as Odipu, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Udupi District. It is one of the fastest growing cities in Karnataka and has various educational institutions. Udupi is one of the top tourist attractions in Karnataka. It is notable for the Krishna Temple. It lends its name to the popular Udupi cuisine. It is also known as Lord Parashurama Kshetra, and is famous for Kanakana kindi. A centre of pilgrimage, Udupi is known as Rajata Peetha and Shivalli (Shivabelle). It is also known as the temple city.[3] Udupi is situated about 55 km (34 mi) north of the educational, commercial & industrial hub Mangalore and about 422 km (262 mi) west of state capital Bangalore by road.

Udupi

Odipu
City
Udupi Sri Krishna Temple
Udupi Sri Krishna Temple
Udupi is located in Karnataka
Udupi
Udupi
Coordinates: 13°20′20″N 74°44′42″E / 13.3389°N 74.7451°E / 13.3389; 74.7451Coordinates: 13°20′20″N 74°44′42″E / 13.3389°N 74.7451°E / 13.3389; 74.7451
CountryIndia
StateKarnataka
RegionTulu Nadu
Member of the ParliamentShobha Karandlaje
Member of Legislative AssemblyK. Raghupati Bhat
Area
 • City68.23 km2 (26.34 sq mi)
Elevation
27 m (89 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1][2]
 • City215,401
 • Density3,200/km2 (8,200/sq mi)
 • Metro
436,208
Languages
 • AdministrativeKannada
 • RegionalTulu, Konkani, Nawayathi, Beary
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
576101 – 576108
Telephone code0820
Vehicle registrationKA-20
Websitewww.udupicity.mrc.gov.in

EtymologyEdit

The name Udupi is the stylized form of the city's original Tulu name Odipu. The latter name is still used by the Tuluva majority.

HistoryEdit

In the 13th century, Vaishnavite saint Madhvacharya founded the Sri Krishna Temple.[4] He set up eight mathas - Ashta Mathas- In Kannada - ಅಷ್ಟ ಮಠಗಳು in Udupi to propagate the Dvaita Vedanta philosophy, and this caused a vibrant temple culture to take root in present-day Udupi district.[4] Significant migration of Brahmins to the region took place subsequently, and they came to comprise 10 per cent of the region's population, three times higher than elsewhere in South India.[4]

DemographicsEdit

Religions in Udupi city
source: Census 2011

  Hindus (85.72%)
  Muslims (8.22%)
  Christians (5.59%)
  Jains (0.39%)
  Not stated (0.04%)
  Sikh (0.02%)
  Buddhist (0.01%)
  Other (0.01%)

Udupi is one of the districts of Karnataka in India. There are seven[5] taluks, 233 villages and 21 towns in Udupi district.

As per the Census India 2011, Udupi district has 253,078 households, population of 1,177,361 of which 562,131 are males and 615,230 are females. The population of children between age 0-6 is 103,160 which is 8.76% of the total population.

The sex-ratio of Udupi district is around 1094 compared to 973 which is average of Karnataka state. The literacy rate of Udupi district is 78.69% out of which 82.85% males are literate and 74.89% females are literate. The total area of Udupi is 3,582 km2 (1,383 sq mi) with a population density of 329 km2 (127 sq mi).

Out of the total population, 71.63% of the population lives in the Urban area and 28.37% lives in Rural area. There are 6.41% Scheduled Caste (SC) and 4.49% Scheduled Tribe (ST) of the total population in Udupi district.

Dalit, Sthanika Brahmins, Shivalli Brahmins, Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSB), Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins (RSB), Vishwa Brahmins (vishwakarma community),Mogaveeras, Billavas, Bunts, Mangalorean Catholics, Daivadnyas, Bearys, Devadigas, Padmashalis, Ramakshatriyas are some prominent communities in Udupi.[citation needed]

Udupi, which previously had a Town Municipal Council now has a City Municipal Council which came into existence in 1995. Areas around Udupi, such as Manipal,[6] Parkala, Malpe, Udyavara and Santhekatte were merged to form the City Municipal Council.

Udupi was carved out as a separate district from the erstwhile Dakshina Kannada district on 25 August 1997. Udupi, Kundapura and Karkala were bifurcated from the Dakshina Kannada District and the Udupi District was formed. Dinakar Babu and Sheela K Shetty of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are the current president and vice-president of the Udupi Zilla Panchayat, respectively, after the election held at the Zilla Panchayat on 27 April 2016. In February 2018, the district was split to into 3 more taluks, with Byndoor being carved out of Kundapur taluk and the Udupi taluk being split into three parts. Along with the initial Udupi taluk, Kaup, Brahmavar and Hebri were created.

The most spoken language in Udupi town is Tulu. Kundagannada, Konkani and Beary are also spoken. A dialect of Kannada (Kundagannada) is the most spoken language in northern Udupi district.

Geography and climateEdit

Udupi has an elevation of 27 m (89 ft) above mean sea level.[7] The climate in Udupi is hot in summers and pleasant in winter. During summers (from March to May) the temperature reaches up to 38 °C (100 °F) and in winters (from December to February) it is usually between 32 and 20 °C (90 and 68 °F). As it is a coastal area, there are a few beaches which are a tourist attraction. Kaup beach, Malpe beach are two of the famous beaches in Udupi.

The monsoon period is from June to September, with rainfall averaging more than 4,000 mm (160 in) every year and heavy winds.

Climate data for Udupi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32.8
(91.0)
33.5
(92.3)
33.6
(92.5)
34.2
(93.6)
33.3
(91.9)
29.7
(85.5)
28.0
(82.4)
28.4
(83.1)
29.5
(85.1)
30.9
(87.6)
32.3
(90.1)
32.8
(91.0)
31.6
(88.8)
Average low °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
21.8
(71.2)
23.6
(74.5)
25
(77)
25.1
(77.2)
23.4
(74.1)
22.9
(73.2)
23
(73)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.4
(72.3)
21.2
(70.2)
23.0
(73.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.1
(0.04)
0.2
(0.01)
2.9
(0.11)
24.4
(0.96)
183.2
(7.21)
1,177.2
(46.35)
1,350.4
(53.17)
787.3
(31.00)
292.1
(11.50)
190.8
(7.51)
70.9
(2.79)
16.4
(0.65)
4,096.9
(161.30)
[citation needed]

CultureEdit

 
Yakshagana in Udupi
 
Nagapatri at Belle Brahmastana

Bhuta Kola, Aati kalenja, Karangolu, and Nagaradhane are some cultural traditions of Udupi. The residents celebrate festivals such as Makara Sankranti, Nagara Panchami, Krishna Janmashtami, Navaratri, Deepavali, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr and Christmas. Folk arts like Yakshagana are also popular.

Rathabeedhi Geleyaru and Kalavrinda are local non-profit organisations, founded to encourage creative pursuits, especially those that keep alive the traditions of the region. Its primary focus has been historical dramas.

During Krishna Janmashtami, Pili Yesa, a traditional folk dance originated in Udupi is demonstrated on the streets. "Pili Yesa" translates to Tiger costume in Tulu (a local language).

CuisineEdit

 
Masala dosa is a part of Udupi cuisine.

The term Udupi (also Udipi) is synonymous with vegetarian food now found all over the world.[citation needed] The origin of this cuisine is linked to Krishna Matha (Mutt). Lord Krishna is offered food of different varieties every day, and there are certain restrictions on ingredients during Chaturmasa (a four-month period during the monsoon season). These restrictions coupled with the requirement of variety led to innovation, especially in dishes incorporating seasonal and locally available materials.[8] This cuisine was developed by Shivalli Madhwa Brahmins who cooked food for Lord Krishna, and at Krishna Matha in Udupi, the food is provided free of cost. Restaurants specialised in Udupi cuisine can be seen widely in most metropolitan and large cities around the length and breadth of India.

Although popular for its vegetarian cuisine, Udupi has its fair share of non-vegetarian dishes that are similar to Tuluva or Mangalorean cuisine. Some of these include Kori Roti, Neer Dosa, Kori Pulimunchi, Chicken Sukka, Fish Curry, Fish Fry and more.

 
Town gate

EconomyEdit

Udupi is becoming a major town in Karnataka. Udupi is the birthplace of the Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank and Harsha Retail, the leading retailer of coastal Karnataka.[9][10] Udupi's economy also consists of agriculture and fishing. Small-scale industries like the cashew industry, and other food industries and milk cooperatives are the most prominent. Recently, Udupi is also making its mark in the real estate industry, greatly influenced by its neighboring spearhead Mangalore.

The Karnataka government had signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Cogentrix Light and Power Industry to set up a thermal power plant in the district at Nandikur. However, because of stiff opposition from citizens and environmentalist groups, the project has been temporarily suspended. An attempt by the Nagarjuna Power Corporation to set up a similar plant at nearby Padubidri also met strong opposition. Now, the power plant has been set up, generating 1,200 MW of power under the name of Udupi Power Corporation Limited (UPCL), a subsidiary of Lanco Infra, an Andhra Pradesh-based infrastructure major. Adani Power has taken over from Lanco Infra in 2014 for a sum of Rs 6,000 crores.[11] The opposition, however, continues.[12][13]

Manipal, a suburb of Udupi, is home to the headquarters of Syndicate Bank. It is renowned as an education and medical hub. Kasturba Medical College[14] and MIT (Manipal Institute of Technology)[15] are situated here.

TEBMA Shipyards Ltd is located in Malpe harbour complex. It is involved in building multipurpose platform supply vessels (MPSVs), platform supply vessel, geotechnical research vessel, dredgers and tugs for Indian as well as export markets.[16]

Udupi has a local handloom sari industry. Made of pure cotton and lightweight, the sari has art silk design on its border and pallu besides butta of art silk dotting it. Hard work, low returns, and competition from power loom has led to a drop in the number of weavers of nearly 95% over three decades.[17] A geographical indication tag for Udupi sarees is under examination with the Geographical Indications Registry of India.[18]

TransportEdit

National Highway NH 66 and NH 169A passes through Udupi. Other significant roads include the State Highways to Karkala and Dharmastala and to Sringeri. The NH-66 provides a link to Mangalore and Karwar via Kundapur and NH-169A Malpe and Hebri to Agumbe to Thirthahalli and to Shivamogga. Private as well as government buses connect Udupi to parts of Karnataka. Udupi has a railway station on the Konkan Railway. The nearest International Airport to Udupi is Mangalore International Airport, which is approx. 58.5 km away.

City and suburban transport is available for travel within Udupi and suburbs. The buses originate from the suburban bus stand (City Bus Stand). There are private bus operators as well as KSRTC city service buses too.

The nearest harbour/port to Udupi is Malpe, which is 5 km away, and Gangolli (Byndoor), which is 36 km away. The New Mangalore Port is 50 km away from Udupi.

Udupi railway station is managed by the Konkan Railways. It is in Indrali[19] about 4 km from Udupi city and is on the Kanyakumari-Mumbai rail route. Direct trains are available to Bengaluru, Mumbai, New Delhi, Amritsar, Chandighar, Pune, Ajmer, Jaipur, Rajkot, Ahmedabad, Okha. Cities like Mysore, Belgaum, Jodhpur, Agra, Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam, Kollam(Quilon) etc. also connected with Udupi. Konkan has a beautiful scenic view throughout its way.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Udupi District Population Census 2011, Karnataka literacy sex ratio and density". census2011.co.in. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  3. ^ "The Hindu : Karnataka / Udupi News : Temple town gearing up for the grand Paryaya". The Hindu. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  4. ^ a b c Chinmay Tumbe, India Moving: A History of Migration (2019), p.42
  5. ^ "Thimmappa inaugurates four new taluks in Udupi". The Hindu. 15 February 2018. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  6. ^ Udupi Manipal Archived 4 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine from Manipal World News
  7. ^ "Elevation of Udupi town, Karnataka". Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  8. ^ http://www.newskarnataka.com/udupi/jackfruit-mela-2015-brings-jackfruit-lovers-together
  9. ^ "Brief history of Syndicate Bank". Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  10. ^ "History of Corporation Bank". Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  11. ^ "Adani buys Lanco plant in Rs 6,000 crore deal". The Times of India. 24 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  12. ^ PANIYADI, GURURAJ A (31 May 2020). "Activists ready to oppose expansion of Udupi Power Corporation Limited plant". Deccan Chronicle. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  13. ^ Kulkarni, Chiranjeevi (30 August 2019). "Amid NGT riders, Adani UPCL revives expansion bid". Deccan Herald. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  14. ^ "KMC Manipal". Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  15. ^ "MIT Manipal". Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ "It's Udupi's finest, but who's to weave them?, The Hindu". Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  18. ^ "Status of GI Application Pending before the GI Registry as on March 31, 2015, pg 1" (PDF). Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  19. ^ "Railway station | Udupi District | India". Retrieved 17 July 2020.

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit