Top Gun

Top Gun is a 1986 American action drama film directed by Tony Scott, and produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer, in association with Paramount Pictures. The screenplay was written by Jim Cash and Jack Epps Jr., and was inspired by an article titled "Top Guns" published in California magazine three years earlier. The film stars Tom Cruise, Kelly McGillis, Val Kilmer, Anthony Edwards, and Tom Skerritt. Cruise plays Lieutenant Pete "Maverick" Mitchell, a young naval aviator aboard the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise. He and his Radar Intercept Officer, LTJG Nick "Goose" Bradshaw (Edwards) are given the chance to train at the US Navy's Fighter Weapons School at Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California.

Top Gun
Top Gun Movie.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byTony Scott
Written by
Based on"Top Guns"
by Ehud Yonay
Produced by
Starring
CinematographyJeffrey L. Kimball
Edited by
Music byHarold Faltermeyer
Production
company
Don Simpson/Jerry Bruckheimer Films
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release date
  • May 12, 1986 (1986-05-12) (New York City)
  • May 16, 1986 (1986-05-16) (United States)
[1]
Running time
110 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$15 million
Box office$357.1 million[1]

Top Gun was released on May 16, 1986.[2][3] Upon its release, the film received generally mixed reviews from film critics but many particularly praised the action sequences, the effects, the aerial stunts, and the acting performances with Cruise and McGillis receiving the most praise. Four weeks after release, the number of theaters showing it increased by 45 percent.[3] Despite its initial mixed critical reaction, the film was a huge commercial hit grossing US$356 million against a production budget of only US$15 million. The film maintained its popularity over the years and earned an IMAX 3D re-release in 2013. Additionally, the soundtrack to the film has since become one of the most popular movie soundtracks to date, reaching 9× Platinum certification. The movie won an Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Take My Breath Away" performed by Berlin.

In 2015, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[4] A sequel, titled Top Gun: Maverick is scheduled to be released on May 27, 2022, after facing multiple delays starting from a summer 2019 release in order to "allow the production to work out all the complex flight sequences", and the COVID-19 pandemic.[5][6][7]

PlotEdit

United States Naval Aviator LT Pete "Maverick" Mitchell and his Radar Intercept Officer (RIO) LTJG Nick "Goose" Bradshaw are stationed aboard the USS Enterprise, from which they fly the F-14A Tomcat. During an interception with two hostile MiG-28 aircraft (portrayed by USN F-5), Maverick gets missile lock on one, while the other hostile aircraft locks onto Maverick's wingman, Cougar. While Maverick drives off the remaining MiG-28, Cougar is too shaken to land, and Maverick, defying orders, shepherds him back to the carrier. Cougar gives up his wings, citing his newborn child that he has never seen. Despite his dislike for Maverick's recklessness, CAG "Stinger" sends him and Goose to attend TOPGUN, the Naval Fighter Weapons School at Naval Air Station Miramar.

At a bar the day before Topgun starts, Maverick, assisted by Goose, unsuccessfully approaches a woman. Maverick learns the next day that she is Charlotte "Charlie" Blackwood, an astrophysicist and civilian TOPGUN instructor. Charlie later becomes interested in Maverick upon learning of his inverted maneuver with the MiG-28, which disproves US intelligence on the enemy aircraft's performance.

During Maverick's first training hop he defeats instructor LCDR Rick "Jester" Heatherly but through reckless flying breaks a major rule of engagement and is reprimanded by chief instructor CDR Mike "Viper" Metcalf. Privately, Jester confides that he admires Maverick's skill, but does not know if he would trust him as a teammate in combat. Maverick also becomes a rival to top student LT Tom "Iceman" Kazansky, who considers Maverick's attitude "foolish" and his flying "dangerous"—as Maverick's tendency to abandon his team and pursue reckless objectives makes him "unsafe" to fly with. In class, Charlie also objects to Maverick's aggressive tactics but privately admits to him that she admires his flying and omitted it from her reports to hide her feelings for him, and the two begin a romantic relationship.

During another training hop (Hop 19), Maverick abandons his wingman "Hollywood" to chase Viper. Viper admits he is impressed with his flying abilities but Maverick is defeated when Viper maneuvers Maverick into a position from which his wingman Jester can shoot down Maverick from behind, demonstrating the value of teamwork over individual prowess. Jester publicly tells Maverick that his flying is excellent, but that he should "never leave [his] wingman".

Maverick and Iceman, now direct competitors for the TOPGUN Trophy, chase an A-4 in a later training engagement (Hop 31). Since part of the scoring in every flight in the course is the time taken for every dogfight to conclude, and after noticing that Iceman is pulling time during his chase after the A-4 so that his total score in the course will remain higher than Maverick's, Maverick pressures Iceman to break off his engagement with the A-4 they are both chasing so that he can shoot it down himself, but Maverick's F-14 flies through the jet wash of Iceman's aircraft and suffers a flameout of both engines, going into an unrecoverable flat spin. Maverick and Goose eject, but Goose hits the jettisoned aircraft canopy head-first and is killed.

Although the board of inquiry clears Maverick of responsibility for Goose's death, he is overcome by guilt and his flying skill diminishes. Charlie and others attempt to console him, but Maverick considers retiring. He seeks advice from Viper, who reveals that he served with Maverick's father Duke Mitchell on the USS Oriskany and was in the air battle in which Mitchell was killed. Contrary to official reports which faulted Mitchell, Viper reveals classified information that proves Mitchell died heroically and informs Maverick that he can succeed if he can regain his self-confidence. Maverick chooses to graduate, though Iceman wins the TOPGUN Trophy.

During the graduation party, Viper and Jester call in the newly graduated aviators with the orders to deploy. Iceman, Hollywood, and Maverick are ordered to immediately return to the Enterprise to deal with a "crisis situation", providing air support for the rescue of the SS Layton, a disabled ship that has drifted into hostile waters.

Maverick and Merlin (Cougar's former RIO) are assigned as back-up for F-14s flown by Iceman and Hollywood, despite Iceman's reservations over Maverick's state of mind. The subsequent hostile engagement with six MiGs sees Hollywood shot down; Maverick is scrambled alone due to a catapult failure and nearly retreats after encountering circumstances similar to those that caused Goose's death. Upon finally rejoining Iceman, the two are still badly outnumbered, but Maverick vocally refuses to leave Iceman without a wingman and manages to shoot down three MiGs. Iceman, shifting to offense, also shoots one down, which forces the other two to flee. Upon their triumphant return to Enterprise, Iceman and Maverick share newfound respect in each other, and Maverick throws Goose's dog tags overboard.

Offered any assignment he chooses, Maverick decides to return to TOPGUN as an instructor. At a bar in Miramar, Maverick and Charlie reunite.

CastEdit

  • Tom Cruise as LT Pete "Maverick" Mitchell, a US Navy pilot
  • Kelly McGillis as Charlotte "Charlie" Blackwood, instructor of Top Gun and Maverick's love interest. The character is based on a real-life person, Christine Fox, who worked at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar.[8]
  • Val Kilmer as LT Tom "Iceman" Kazansky, one of Top Gun's students and Maverick's rival turned wingman. Kilmer originally did not want to be in the film but was forced to by contractual obligations, and it became an iconic role in his career.[citation needed]
  • Anthony Edwards as LTJG Nick "Goose" Bradshaw, Maverick's Radar Intercept Officer, and best friend.
  • Tom Skerritt as CDR Mike "Viper" Metcalf, commanding officer and instructor of Top Gun. A veteran of the Vietnam War who served with Duke Mitchell, Maverick's father.
  • Michael Ironside as LCDR Rick "Jester" Heatherly, a Naval Aviator, and Top Gun instructor
  • John Stockwell as LT Bill "Cougar" Cortell, Maverick's former wingman
  • Barry Tubb as LTJG Henry "Wolfman" Ruth, Hollywood's Radar Intercept Officer
  • Rick Rossovich as LTJG Ron "Slider" Kerner, Iceman's Radar Intercept Officer
  • Tim Robbins as LTJG Sam "Merlin" Wells, Cougar's Radar Intercept Officer (Later Maverick's)
  • Clarence Gilyard as LTJG Marcus "Sundown" Williams, Chipper's Radar Intercept Officer (Later Maverick's)
  • Whip Hubley as LT Rick "Hollywood" Neven, a student from Top Gun and Iceman's wingman during the climax
  • James Tolkan as CDR Tom "Stinger" Jardian, Commander of the USS Enterprise Carrier Air Group
  • Meg Ryan as Carole Bradshaw, Goose's wife
  • Adrian Pasdar as LT Charles "Chipper" Piper, a Naval Aviator and student of Top Gun

ProductionEdit

BackgroundEdit

The primary inspiration for the film was the article "Top Guns" by Ehud Yonay, from the May 1983 issue of California magazine, which featured aerial photography by then-Lieutenant Commander Charles "Heater" Heatley.[9] The article detailed the life of fighter pilots at Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, self-nicknamed as "Fightertown USA". Numerous screenwriters allegedly turned down the project.[9] Bruckheimer and Simpson went on to hire Jim Cash and Jack Epps, Jr., to write the first draft. The research methods, by Epps, included attendance at several declassified Topgun classes at Miramar and gaining experience by being flown in an F-14. The first draft failed to impress Bruckheimer and Simpson, and is considered to be very different from the final product in numerous ways.[10] Tony Scott was hired to direct on the strength of a commercial he had done for Swedish automaker Saab in the early 1980s, where a Saab 900 turbo is shown racing a Saab 37 Viggen fighter jet.[11]

Actor Matthew Modine turned down the role of Pete Mitchell (that went to Tom Cruise) because he felt the film's pro-military stance went against his politics. The character of Chipper Piper was created just for Pasdar as Scott loved his performance.[12][13]

The producers wanted the assistance of the US Navy in the production of the film. The Navy was influential in relation to script approval, which resulted in changes being made. The opening dogfight was moved to international waters as opposed to Cuba, the language was toned down, and a scene that involved a crash on the deck of an aircraft carrier was also scrapped.[14] Maverick's love interest was also changed from a female enlisted member of the Navy to a civilian contractor with the Navy, due to the US military's prohibition of fraternization between officers and enlisted personnel.[9] The "Charlie" character also replaced an aerobics instructor from an early draft as a love interest for Maverick after producers were introduced to Christine "Legs" Fox, a civilian mathematician employed by the Center for Naval Analyses as a specialist in Maritime Air Superiority (MAS), developing tactics for aircraft carrier defense.[8]

Julianne Phillips was in consideration for the role of Charlie, and had been scheduled to perform a screen test opposite Tom Cruise.[15]

Rear Admiral Pete "Viper" Pettigrew, a former Navy aviator, Vietnam War veteran, and Topgun instructor served as a technical advisor on the film, and also made a cameo appearance in the film as a colleague of Charlie's.

Former Top Gun instructor pilot and Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham claimed to have been the inspiration for Pete Mitchell, although the film's producers have denied that the character was based on any specific Naval Aviator.[16]

FilmingEdit

 
F-14A Tomcats of Fighter Squadrons VF-51 "Screaming Eagles" and VF-111 "Sundowners", and F-5E/F Tiger IIs of the Navy Fighter Weapons School

The Navy made several aircraft from F-14 fighter squadron VF-51 "Screaming Eagles" (which Tom Skerritt mentions in the scene at his home) available for the film. Paramount paid as much as US$7,800 per hour (equivalent to $18,800 today) for fuel and other operating costs whenever aircraft were flown outside their normal duties. Shots of the aircraft carrier sequences were filmed aboard USS Enterprise, showing aircraft from F-14 squadrons VF-114 "Aardvarks" and VF-213 "Black Lions".[17] The majority of the carrier flight deck shots were of normal aircraft operations and the film crew had to take what they could get, save for the occasional flyby which the film crew would request. During filming, director Tony Scott wanted to shoot aircraft landing and taking off, back-lit by the sun. During one particular filming sequence, the ship's commanding officer changed the ship's course, thus changing the light. When Scott asked if they could continue on their previous course and speed, he was informed by the commander that it cost US$25,000 (equivalent to $60,000 today) to turn the ship, and to continue on course. Scott wrote the carrier's captain a US$25,000 check so that the ship could be turned and he could continue shooting for another five minutes.[18]

 
Filming and clapperboard of Top Gun on July 5, 1985.

Future NASA astronaut Scott Altman piloted F-14 aircraft for many of the film's stunt sequences, having been recently stationed at NAS Miramar at time of filming. Altman was the pilot seen "flipping the bird" in the film's well-known opening sequence, as well as piloting the aircraft shown "buzzing the tower" throughout the film.[19] [20]

Most of the sequences of the aircraft maneuvering over land were shot at Naval Air Station Fallon, in Nevada, using ground-mounted cameras. Air-to-air shots were filmed using a Learjet, piloted by Astrovision inventor and legendary pilot Clay Lacy. His name is misspelled in the closing credits, as Clay Lacey. Grumman, manufacturer of the F-14, was commissioned by Paramount Pictures to create camera pods to be placed upon the aircraft[21] that could be pointed toward either the front or rear of the aircraft providing outside shots at high altitude.[citation needed] The fictitious MIG-28 enemy aircraft was depicted by the Northrop F-5.[22]

In July 1985, Kansas City Barbeque served as a filming location for two scenes. The first scene features Goose and Maverick singing "Great Balls of Fire" while seated at the piano. The final scene, where "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" can be heard on the restaurant's jukebox, was also filmed at the restaurant. Both scenes were filmed consecutively. After release of the movie, the restaurant went on to collect a significant amount of memorabilia from the motion picture until a kitchen fire on June 26, 2008, destroyed much of the restaurant. Some memorabilia and props, including the original piano used in the film, survived the fire, and the restaurant re-opened in November 2008.[citation needed]

Renowned aerobatic pilot Art Scholl was hired to do in-flight camera work for the film. The original script called for a flat spin, which Scholl was to perform and capture on a camera on the aircraft. The aircraft was observed to spin through its recovery altitude, at which time Scholl radioed "I have a problem... I have a real problem". He was unable to recover from the spin and crashed his Pitts Special biplane into the Pacific Ocean off the Southern California coast near Carlsbad on September 16, 1985. Neither Scholl's body nor his aircraft was recovered, leaving the official cause of the accident unknown.[23] Top Gun was dedicated to Scholl's memory.[24]

The film was shot in the Super 35 format, as anamorphic lenses were too large to fit inside the cockpits of the fighter jets and also the cameras would fall off their mounts when the fighter jets maneuvered on their sides.[25]

Reshoots after Top Gun's filming wrapped conflicted with Made in Heaven, in which McGillis starred with brown hair. Top Gun's filmmakers were forced to hide her hair color, which for example resulted a scene shot in an elevator that featured McGillis in a baseball cap.[26][27]

MusicEdit

The Top Gun soundtrack is one of the most popular soundtracks to date, reaching 9× Platinum certification[28] and No. 1 on the Billboard Hot 200 albums chart for five nonconsecutive weeks in the summer and fall of 1986.[29] Harold Faltermeyer, who previously worked with both Jerry Bruckheimer and Don Simpson on Beverly Hills Cop, was sent the script of Top Gun by Bruckheimer before filming began. Giorgio Moroder and Tom Whitlock worked on numerous songs including the Oscar-winning "Take My Breath Away". Kenny Loggins performed two songs on the soundtrack, "Playing with the Boys", and "Danger Zone". Berlin recorded the song "Take My Breath Away", which would later win numerous awards, sending the band to international acclaim. After the release of Loggins's single "Danger Zone", sales of the album exploded, selling 7 million in the United States alone. On the re-release of the soundtrack in 2000, two songs that had been omitted from the original album (and had been released many years before the film was made), "Great Balls of Fire" by Jerry Lee Lewis and "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" by The Righteous Brothers, were added. The soundtrack also includes "Top Gun Anthem" and "Memories" by Faltermeyer, with Steve Stevens also performing on the former.

Other artists were considered for the soundtrack project but did not participate. Bryan Adams was considered as a potential candidate but refused to participate because he felt the film glorified war.[30] The band Toto was originally meant to record "Danger Zone", and had also written and recorded a song "Only You" for the soundtrack. However, there was a dispute between Toto's lawyers and the producers of the film, paving the way for Loggins to record "Danger Zone" and "Only You" being omitted from the film entirely.[31]

ReleaseEdit

TheatricalEdit

The film's premiere was held in New York City on May 12, 1986[32] with another held in San Diego on May 15.[15]

The film opened in the United States and Canada in 1,028 theaters on May 16, 1986, a week prior to the Memorial Day weekend, which was considered a gamble at the time.[1][33]

Home mediaEdit

In addition to its box office success, Top Gun went on to break further records in the then still-developing home video market. It was the first new-release blockbuster on video cassette to be priced as low as $26.95 and, backed by a massive $8 million marketing campaign, including a Top Gun-themed Diet Pepsi commercial,[34][35] the advance demand was such that the film became the best-selling videocassette in the industry's history on pre-orders alone, with over 1.9 million units ordered before its launch on March 10, 1987.[36] It eventually sold a record 2.9 million units.[37]

The film was first released in the U.S. on DVD under Paramount Pictures on October 21, 1998 and included the film in both Widescreen (non-anamorphic Univisium 2.00:1) and Full Screen (open matte) versions.[citation needed] Top Gun's home video success was again reflected by strong DVD sales, which were furthered by a Special Collector's Edition 2-disc DVD release on December 14, 2004 in both Widescreen (anamorphic 2.39:1) and Full Screen (open matte) versions, that include new bonus features. Special features comprise audio commentary by Bruckheimer, Tony Scott and naval experts, four music videos including the "Top Gun Anthem" and "Take My Breath Away", a six-part documentary on the making of Top Gun, and vintage gallery with interviews, behind-the-scenes and survival training featurettes.[38]

Subsequently, the film was first released on a Special Collector’s Edition Blu-ray disc on July 29, 2008 with the same supplemental features as the previous 2004 DVD.[39] A 2-disc limited edition 3D copy was issued on February 19, 2013.[citation needed] The remastered Blu-ray and Digital Copy version of the film was released on May 19, 2019 on Paramount Movies. Top Gun was released in the U.S. on remastered Blu-ray and 4K Ultra HD on May 19, 2020 with two new special features titled The Legacy of Top Gun and On Your Six: Thirty Years of Top Gun, with the remaining bonus features being carried over.[citation needed]

IMAX 3D re-releaseEdit

Top Gun was re-released in IMAX 3D on February 8, 2013, for six days.[40] A four-minute preview of the conversion, featuring the "Danger Zone" flight sequence, was screened at the 2012 International Broadcasting Convention in Amsterdam, Netherlands.[41]

2021 re-releaseEdit

Top Gun was re-released and screened by AMC Theatres on 153 screens on May 13, 2021. On the first weekend it grossed a total of $248,000 ranking at number 10. It grossed a total of $433,000 in a ten-day period.[42]

ReceptionEdit

Box officeEdit

The film quickly became a success and was the highest-grossing film of 1986. It would be six months before its theater count dropped below that of its opening week.[3] It was number one on its first weekend with a gross of US$8,193,052,[1] and went on to a total domestic gross of US$176,781,728.[1] Internationally it took in an estimated US$177,030,000[1] for a worldwide box office total of US$353,811,728.[1] The film sold an estimated 47,650,100 tickets in North America in its initial theatrical run.[43]

The film grossed an additional US$3,018,873 in its IMAX re-release in 2013 bringing its domestic gross to US$179,800,601 and its worldwide gross to US$356,830,601.[1]

Critical responseEdit

Upon the film's original release, critical response was mixed. On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 58% based on reviews from 59 critics, with an average rating of 5.90/10. The website's critical consensus states: "Though it features some of the most memorable and electrifying aerial footage shot with an expert eye for action, Top Gun offers too little for non-adolescent viewers to chew on when its characters aren't in the air."[44] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 50 out of 100 based on 15 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[45] Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.[46]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 2.5 out of 4 stars, saying that "Movies like Top Gun are hard to review because the good parts are so good and the bad parts are so relentless. The dogfights are absolutely the best since Clint Eastwood's electrifying aerial scenes in Firefox. But look out for the scenes where the people talk to one another."[47] American film critic Pauline Kael commented, "When McGillis is offscreen, the movie is a shiny homoerotic commercial: the pilots strut around the locker room, towels hanging precariously from their waists. It's as if masculinity had been redefined as how a young man looks with his clothes half off, and as if narcissism is what being a warrior is all about."[48]

AwardsEdit

The film was nominated for and won many awards, most prominently for its sound and effects. The film won the following awards:

Year Award Category Recipients
1986 Apex Scroll Awards Achievement in Sound Effects
1987 ASCAP Film and Television Music Awards Most Performed Songs from Motion Pictures Giorgio Moroder and Tom Whitlock for the song "Take My Breath Away".
1987 Academy Awards Best Original Song Giorgio Moroder (music) and Tom Whitlock (lyrics) for "Take My Breath Away".
1987 BRIT Awards Best Soundtrack
1987 Golden Globe Awards Best Original Song – Motion Picture Giorgio Moroder (music) and Tom Whitlock (lyrics) for the song "Take My Breath Away".
1987 Golden Screen Award
1987 Grammy Awards Best Pop Instrumental Performance (Orchestra, Group or Soloist) Harold Faltermeyer and Steve Stevens for "Top Gun Anthem".
1987 Motion Picture Sound Editors Golden Reel Award for Best Sound Editing
Best Sound Editing – Sound Effects
1987 People's Choice Awards Favorite Motion Picture
1988 Award of the Japanese Academy Best Foreign Language Film

The film was nominated for the following awards:

  • Academy Awards (1987)[49]
  • Apex Scroll Awards (1986)
    • Actress in a Supporting Role – Meg Ryan
    • Film Editing – Billy Weber and Chris Lebenzon
    • Best Original Song – Motion Picture – Giorgio Moroder (music) and Tom Whitlock (lyrics) for the song "Take My Breath Away".
    • Best Picture – Don Simpson, Jerry Bruckheimer
    • Achievement in Compilation Soundtrack
    • Achievement in Sound
  • Golden Globe Awards (1987)
    • Best Original Score – Motion Picture – Harold Faltermeyer
  • Award of the Japanese Academy (1988)
    • Best Foreign Language Film
  • Fennecus Awards (1986)
    • Achievement in Compilation Soundtrack
    • Best Original Song – Motion Picture – Giorgio Moroder (music) and Tom Whitlock (lyrics) for the song "Take My Breath Away".
    • Film Editing – Billy Weber and Chris Lebenzon
    • Achievement in Sound
    • Achievement in Sound Effects

In 2008, the film was ranked at number 455 in Empire's list of the 500 greatest films of all time.[50] Yahoo! Movies ranked Top Gun number 19 on their list of greatest action films of all-time.[51] The film was nominated multiple times for various AFI lists, but broke through only once. In 2005, the line "I feel the need... the need for speed!" was ranked 94 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes list.

American Film Institute list

Effect on military recruitingEdit

Movie producer John Davis said that Top Gun was a recruiting video for the Navy, that people saw the movie and said, "Wow! I want to be a pilot." The Navy had recruitment booths in some theaters to attract enthusiastic patrons.[52] After the film's release, the US Navy stated that the number of young men who joined wanting to be Naval Aviators went up by 500 percent.[53]

Chinese government plagiarismEdit

On January 23, 2011, China's state broadcaster China Central Television published a TV news story about the alleged efficiency of Chinese fighter pilots which incorporated footage from the Top Gun action sequences.[54] Chinese internet users noticed the plagiarism, whereupon the broadcast was immediately withdrawn. Ironically, this occurred shortly after the initiation of a Chinese campaign to purge such forged reports; CCTV has declined comments on this incident.[54]

In popular cultureEdit

Bomber jacket sales increased and Ray-Ban Aviator sunglasses jumped 40%, due to their use by characters in the film.[55]

The 1991 film Hot Shots! was a comedy spoof of Top Gun.[56]

The masculine theme of the film has been the subject of humorous examination, with the homoerotic subtext examined in a monologue performed by Quentin Tarantino in the 1994 film Sleep with Me.[57][58][59][60]

Top Gun is one of many war and action films, especially those by Jerry Bruckheimer, parodied in the 2004 comedy Team America: World Police.[61]

Top Gun along with A Few Good Men are recognized for being an inspiration for the TV series JAG and the subsequent NCIS franchise in turn. JAG and NCIS are also owned by Paramount.[62]

The DisneyToon Studios film Planes (2013), pays homage to Top Gun with Val Kilmer and Anthony Edwards appearing in the film as part of the voice cast.[63]

Two propaganda Chinese films, 2011's Jian Shi Chu Ji ("Skyfighters") and 2017's Kong Tian Lie ("Sky Hunter"), were based on Top Gun.[64]

SequelEdit

A sequel has been in active development since at least 2010.[65] However plans were complicated by Scott's death in 2012.[66] In 2013 Bruckheimer said, "For 30 years we've been trying to make a sequel and we're not going to stop. We still want to do it with Tom and Paramount are still interested in making it. What Tom tells me is that no matter where he goes in the world, people refer to him as Maverick. It's something he is excited about so as long as he keeps his enthusiasm hopefully we'll get it made."[67]

By September 2014 it was revealed that Justin Marks was in negotiations to write the screenplay,[68] which was confirmed that following June.[69] Marks would go on later to say that the film was a dream project for him, calling the original an "iconic film in my memory" due in part to it being one of the first films he remembers seeing in a movie theater.[70]

In May 2017, during the promotional tour for The Mummy, Cruise confirmed that a sequel to Top Gun will start filming in 2018.[71] By June of the same year, he said that the title will be Top Gun: Maverick with Faltermeyer back as composer for the sequel. Cruise further stated that, "Aviators are back, the need for speed. We're going to have big, fast machines. It's going to be a competition film, like the first one...but a progression for Maverick."[72] Later that month it was announced Joseph Kosinski, who directed Cruise in 2013's Oblivion, was set to direct the sequel.[73]

A trailer was released at ComicCon International on July 18, 2019.[74][75]

The release date has been pushed back several times due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The current release date is May 27, 2022. It will later be streamed on Paramount+, 45 days after its theatrical debut.

Video gamesEdit

Top Gun also spawned a number of video games for various platforms. The original game was released in 1986 under the same title as the film. It was released on Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC, and Atari ST. Another game, also titled Top Gun, was released in 1987 for Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) and Nintendo VS. System arcade cabinets. In the 1987 game, the player pilots an F-14 Tomcat fighter, and has to complete four missions. A sequel, Top Gun: The Second Mission, was released for the NES three years later.

Another game, Top Gun: Fire at Will, was released in 1996 for the PC and later for the Sony PlayStation platform. Top Gun: Hornet's Nest was released in 1998. Top Gun: Combat Zones was released for PlayStation 2 in 2001 and was subsequently released for the GameCube and Microsoft Windows. Combat Zones features other aircraft besides the F-14. In 2006, another game simply titled Top Gun was released for the Nintendo DS. A 2010 game, also titled Top Gun, retells the film's story. At E3 2011, a new game was announced, Top Gun: Hard Lock, which was released in March 2012 for Xbox 360, PC, and PlayStation 3.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Top Gun at Box Office Mojo
  2. ^ Thompson, Avery (August 19, 2021). "'Top Gun 2': The Release Date & All The Latest Updates About The Sequel". Hollywood Life. Retrieved August 27, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c "Top Gun Weekly". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 22, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  4. ^ Mike Barnes (December 16, 2015). "'Ghostbusters,' 'Top Gun,' 'Shawshank' Enter National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved December 16, 2015.
  5. ^ Anthony D'Alessandro (August 29, 2018). "'Top Gun: Maverick' Flies To Summer 2020 With 'A Quiet Place' Sequel & More: Paramount Release Date Changes". Deadline. Archived from the original on August 29, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2021. The pic had an original release date of July 12, 2019
  6. ^ Rubin, Rebecca (July 23, 2020). "A Quiet Place 2,' 'Top Gun: Maverick' Delayed Until 2021". Variety. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  7. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (April 9, 2021). "'Top Gun: Maverick' Schedules Departure From Fourth Of July Weekend; 'Mission: Impossible 7' Sets Memorial Day 2022 Launch". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
  8. ^ a b Richman, Alan (August 5, 1985). "Air Warfare Expert Christine Fox—Fighter Pilots Call Her "Legs"—Inspires the New Movie Top Gun". People Magazine. p. 115. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c "Top Gun". fast-rewind.com. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
  10. ^ Special Edition DVD, Interview with Jack Epps
  11. ^ "Jets, jeans and Hovis". The Guardian. June 12, 2015. Archived from the original on December 26, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  12. ^ Interview: Adrian Pasdar Phillymag.com
  13. ^ Murphy, Tim (June 15–22, 2009). "154 Minutes With Matthew Modine". New York magazine. Archived from the original on January 5, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  14. ^ Special Edition DVD, Interview with the producers
  15. ^ a b Top Gun at the American Film Institute Catalog
  16. ^ Roth, Alex (January 15, 2006). "down Cunningham's legend". The San Diego Union-Tribune. p. A-1. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2006.
  17. ^ Baranek, Dave "Bio", "Topgun Days" Archived June 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Skyhorse Publishing, 2010. ISBN 978-1-61608-005-1
  18. ^ Special Edition DVD, Interview with Tony Scott and Pete Pettigrew
  19. ^ John Zarrella (January 17, 2020). "Former 'Top Gun' leads Hubble repair mission". CNN. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  20. ^ "Tazewell County Photo of the Month - December 2000". www.tcghs.org. Archived from the original on July 23, 2020. Retrieved January 17, 2021.
  21. ^ Rogers, Pauline (1998). Contemporary Cinematographers on Their Art. CRC Press. p. 222. ISBN 9781136045776.
  22. ^ "Northrop F-5". pacificaviationmuseum.org. October 11, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  23. ^ Ashurst, Sam (November 4, 2008). Hollywood's deadliest stunts Archived October 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Total Film.
  24. ^ Top Gun – Abspann (Sat 1, 1989). YouTube. April 23, 2008.
  25. ^ Burum, Stephen, ed. (2007). "optics+allow+this+is+one+of+the+reasons" American Cinematographer Manual, Volume 1. ASC Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780935578317. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  26. ^ "Top Gun and the End of the Homoerotic Action Movie". Consequence of Sound. May 14, 2016. Archived from the original on November 20, 2020. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  27. ^ "Kelly McGillis recalls 'Top Gun' love scene and 'a lot of partying' while filming". yahoo.com. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  28. ^ "RIAA Searchable Gold and Platinum Database". Retrieved July 6, 2012. (may have to press the Search button)
  29. ^ "Top 200 Albums – Billboard". Billboard. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  30. ^ www.tcm.com/this-month/article/21800%7C0/Top-Gun.html
  31. ^ "toto99.com – Official TOTO Website – Encyclopedia". toto99.com. Archived from the original on November 7, 2020. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  32. ^ Gallela, Ron. "Actor Tom Cruise attends the 'Top Gun' Premiere Party on May 12, 1986". Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved July 21, 2019 – via Getty Images.
  33. ^ Klady, Leonard (June 26, 1995). "Fast fades follow wow bows". Variety. p. 1.
  34. ^ Taylor, Rod (March 1, 2005). High Flyer Archived 2006-05-05 at the Wayback Machine. Promo.
  35. ^ Opening to Top Gun 1987 VHS Archived April 20, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, tape print date: February 23, 1987 (posted to YouTube on March 5, 2016)
  36. ^ Bierbaum, Tom (March 4, 1987). "'Top Gun' Cassettes In Record Takeoff: 1,900,000 Units". Variety. p. 1.
  37. ^ Harmetz, Aljean (May 17, 1988). "Wearing Spielberg Down To Put 'E.T.' on Cassette". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  38. ^ "Top Gun Fullscreen Special Collector's Edition". www.amazon.com. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2020.
  39. ^ "Top Gun Special Collector's Edition Blu-ray". Amazon. July 29, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  40. ^ Lussier, Germain (December 11, 2012). "Top Gun Gets IMAX Re-Release in February". Flash Film. Archived from the original on August 8, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  41. ^ Giardina, Carolyn (September 12, 2011). "Top Gun Coming to Theaters in 3D". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 9, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2011.
  42. ^ "Top Gun (2021 Re-release)". Mojo.com. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  43. ^ "Top Gun (1986)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  44. ^ "Top Gun (1986)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on April 11, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  45. ^ "Top Gun Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on August 22, 2018. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  46. ^ "Cinemascore". Archived from the original on December 20, 2018.
  47. ^ Ebert, Roger (May 16, 1986). "Top Gun". Roger Ebert.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  48. ^ Kael, Pauline (1991). 5001 Nights at the Movies. New York, N.Y.: Picador. p. 780. ISBN 978-0-8050-1367-2. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  49. ^ "The 59th Academy Awards (1987) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  50. ^ The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time Archived January 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Empire.
  51. ^ "Yahoo Movies". yahoo.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 1998. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  52. ^ Top Gun versus Sergeant Bilko? No contest, says the Pentagon Archived May 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian. August 29, 2001.
  53. ^ Robb, David (2004). Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon Shapes and Censors the Movies. New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 180–182. ISBN 1-59102-182-0.
  54. ^ a b Chin, Josh (January 28, 2011). "Video: CCTV Tries to Pass Off 'Top Gun' Clip as Military Drill?". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  55. ^ August, Melissa; Derrow, Michelle; Durham, Aisha; Levy, Daniel S.; Lofaro, Lina; Spitz, David; Taylor, Chris (July 12, 1999). "Through A Glass Darkly". Time. Archived from the original on February 4, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2006.
  56. ^ Maslin, Janet (July 31, 1991). "Pilots in 'Hot Shots!' Shoot Down 'Top Gun' In a Hail of Parody". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 23, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  57. ^ Modleski, Tania (November 19, 2007). "Misogynist Films: Teaching Top Gun". Cinema Journal. 47 (1): 102–103. doi:10.1353/cj.2007.0056. ISSN 1527-2087.
  58. ^ Simmons, Bill. "'Talk to me, Goose. Talk to me.'". ESPN. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  59. ^ "Why the Homoeroticism in "Top Gun" Matters". Reel Change. February 12, 2013. Archived from the original on May 16, 2014. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  60. ^ "Quentin Tarantino Movies". cracked.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014.
  61. ^ Edelstein, David (October 14, 2004). "Strings Attached". Slate. Archived from the original on October 9, 2014. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  62. ^ Karlen, Neal (November 5, 1995). "From the Man Behind 'Magnum, P.I.,' 'Top Gun' Meets 'A Few Good Men'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  63. ^ Blauvelt, Christian (March 27, 2013). "Disney's 'Planes' Taps Val Kilmer and Anthony Edwards for 'Top Gun' Homage - PIC". hollywood.com. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  64. ^ Groffman, Nicolas (October 29, 2018). "Top Gun was twice remade in Chinese, why didn't anybody notice? Clue: PLA". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on October 29, 2018. Retrieved October 29, 2018.
  65. ^ Brodesser-Akner, Claude (October 13, 2010). "Top Gun 2 is Heading to the Runway". New York magazine. Archived from the original on October 15, 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
  66. ^ "'Top Gun' producer Jerry Bruckheimer reveals how he won over Tom Cruise". Yahoo!. January 23, 2013. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
  67. ^ "Jerry Bruckheimer says Top Gun 2 is still on the cards". Flickering Myth. June 10, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
  68. ^ Kit, Borys (September 8, 2014). "'Top Gun 2' Lands 'Jungle Book' Writer (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on September 9, 2014. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
  69. ^ Zumberge, Marianne (June 26, 2015). "'Top Gun 2′ to Feature Maverick, Drone Warfare". Variety. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  70. ^ McKittrick, Christopher (April 19, 2016). "King of the Swingers: Justin Marks on 'The Jungle Book'". Creative Screenwriting. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  71. ^ "Tom Cruise Says 'Top Gun 2' Is 'Definitely Happening'". May 23, 2017. Archived from the original on April 27, 2020. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  72. ^ Wampler, Scott (June 2, 2017). "In Which Tom Cruise Reveals The Title Of The TOP GUN Sequel". Birth.Movies.Death. Archived from the original on June 4, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  73. ^ "Paramount Sets 'Top Gun 2' For July 2019; Joseph Kosinski Firmed For Tom Cruise Pic". Deadline Hollywood. June 30, 2017. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
  74. ^ "'Top Gun' Sequel Release Pushed Back One Year at Paramount". IMDb. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  75. ^ "Tom Cruise Surprises Comic-Con with 'Top Gun: Maverick' Footage - YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on September 2, 2019. Retrieved July 23, 2019.

External linksEdit