The Jungle Book (1967 film)

The Jungle Book is a 1967 American animated musical comedy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released by Buena Vista Distribution. Based very loosely on Rudyard Kipling's 1894 book of the same title, it is the final animated feature film to be produced by Walt Disney, who died during its production. It was directed by Wolfgang Reitherman and written by Larry Clemmons, Ralph Wright, Ken Anderson, and Vance Gerry. Featuring the voices of Phil Harris, Sebastian Cabot, Louis Prima, George Sanders, Sterling Holloway, J. Pat O'Malley, and Bruce Reitherman, the film's plot follows Mowgli, a feral child raised in the Indian jungle by wolves, as his friends, Bagheera the panther and Baloo the bear, try to convince him to leave the jungle before the ruthless tiger Shere Khan arrives.

The Jungle Book
Theatrical release poster
Directed byWolfgang Reitherman
Story by
Based onThe Jungle Book
by Rudyard Kipling
Produced byWalt Disney
Edited by
  • Tom Acosta
  • Norman Carlisle
Music byGeorge Bruns
Distributed byBuena Vista Distribution
Release date
  • October 18, 1967 (1967-10-18)
Running time
78 minutes
CountryUnited States
Budget$4 million[1]
Box office$378 million[2]

The early versions of both the screenplay and the soundtrack followed Kipling's work more closely, with a dramatic, dark, and sinister tone, which Disney did not want in his family film, leading to writer Bill Peet and songwriter Terry Gilkyson being replaced.

The Jungle Book was released on October 18, 1967, to positive reception, with acclaim for its soundtrack, featuring five songs by the Sherman Brothers and one by Gilkyson, "The Bare Necessities". With a gross of $23.8 million worldwide, the film initially became Disney's second-highest-grossing animated film in the United States and Canada,[3] the ninth-highest-grossing film of 1967, and was also successful during its re-releases. The film was also successful throughout the world, becoming Germany's highest-grossing film by number of admissions.[4] Disney released a live-action adaptation in 1994 and an animated sequel, The Jungle Book 2, in 2003; a live-action/CGI hybrid remake directed by Jon Favreau was released in 2016, with a sequel to that film in development.

Plot edit

Mowgli, a young orphan boy, is found in a basket in the deep jungles of India by Bagheera, a black panther who promptly takes him to Raksha, a mother wolf who has just had cubs. She and her mate, Rama, raise him along with their own cubs, and after ten years, Mowgli becomes well acquainted with jungle life and plays with his wolf siblings. Bagheera is pleased with how happy Mowgli is now but also worries that Mowgli must eventually return to his own kind.

One night, the wolf pack parents meet at Council Rock, having learned that Shere Khan, a Bengal tiger, has returned to the pack's part of the jungle. Pack leader Akela decides that Mowgli must leave the jungle for his own safety and the safety of those around him; Shere Khan possesses an intense hatred of humans due to his fear of guns and fire. Bagheera volunteers to escort him to a "Man-Village". They leave that very night, but Mowgli is determined to stay in the jungle. He and Bagheera rest in a tree for the night, where Kaa, a hungry Indian python, hypnotizes Mowgli into a deep sleep and tries to devour him, but Bagheera intervenes. The next morning, Mowgli tries to join the elephant patrol led by Colonel Hathi and his wife Winifred. Bagheera finds Mowgli but after a fight, decides to leave Mowgli on his own. Mowgli soon meets up with the laid-back, fun-loving sloth bear named Baloo, who promises to raise Mowgli himself and never take him to the Man Village.

Shortly afterward, a group of monkeys kidnap Mowgli and take him to their leader, King Louie the orangutan, who offers to help Mowgli stay in the jungle in exchange for teaching him how to make fire. However, since he was not raised by humans, Mowgli does not know how to make fire. Bagheera and Baloo arrive to rescue Mowgli, and in the ensuing chaos, King Louie's palace is demolished to rubble. Bagheera speaks to Baloo that night and convinces him that the jungle will never be safe for Mowgli with Shere Khan around. In the morning, Baloo reluctantly explains to Mowgli that the Man-Village is best for him, but Mowgli accuses him of breaking his promise and runs away. As Baloo sets off in search of Mowgli, Bagheera rallies the help of Hathi and his patrol. However, Shere Khan, who was eavesdropping on Bagheera and Hathi's conversation, is now determined to hunt and kill Mowgli.

Meanwhile, Mowgli has another encounter with Kaa, who once again, attempts to eat him after hypnotizing him into a deep sleep but he eventually wakes up and escapes thanks to the unwitting intervention of the suspicious Shere Khan. As a storm gathers in a desolate area of the jungle, a depressed Mowgli encounters a group of friendly vultures who accept Mowgli as a fellow outcast. Shere Khan appears shortly after, scaring off the vultures and confronting Mowgli. Baloo arrives and haplessly tries to keep the tiger from getting the boy, getting knocked unconscious in the process. When lightning strikes a nearby tree and sets it ablaze, the vultures swoop in to distract Shere Khan, while Mowgli grabs a large flaming branch and ties it to the tiger's tail. Shere Khan, seeing this, panics and runs away.

Afterward, Bagheera and Baloo take Mowgli to the edge of the Man-Village, but Mowgli is still hesitant to go there. However, his mind abruptly changes when he is smitten by a beautiful young girl from the village who is coming down by the riverside to fetch water. After noticing Mowgli, she "accidentally" drops her water pot. Mowgli retrieves it for her and follows her into the Man-Village. After Mowgli shrugs to Baloo and Bagheera, to show that he has made up his mind and chosen to go to the Man-Village, Baloo and Bagheera decide to head home, content that Mowgli is safe and happy with his own kind.

Cast edit

A promotional image of the characters from the film. From left to right: Kaa, Flunkey, King Louie, Ziggy, Shere-Khan, wolf cubs, Buzzie, Mowgli, Flaps, Dizzy, Bagheera, Baloo, the Girl, Colonel Hathi, Hathi Jr., Mother Wolf, and Rama.
  • Bruce Reitherman as Mowgli, commonly referred to as Man Cub by other characters, an innocent yet stubborn human boy who is reluctantly forced to leave the jungle because of the threat of Shere-Khan. David Bailey was originally cast in the role, but during the film's production he hit puberty, and his voice changed.[5] As a result, Wolfgang Reitherman replaced him with his son Bruce, who had just voiced Christopher Robin in Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree (1966).[6] The animators also shot a live-action footage of Bruce as a guide for the character's animation performance.[7]
  • Phil Harris as Baloo, a laid-back and happy-go-lucky sloth bear who leads a carefree life and believes in letting the good things in life come by themselves. The studio held many auditions for the role until Walt Disney personally suggested Harris[8] after meeting him at a benefit in Palm Springs.[9] The animation staff was initially shocked to hear that a wise-cracking comedian such as him was going to be in a Kipling film.[5] Harris himself nearly dropped out of the role after doing a test recording,[10] because he could not see himself as the character,[11] but reconsidered after the filmmakers allowed him to perform the way that felt the most comfortable to him.[12] According to Wolfgang Reitherman, when they "told him not to be a bear, but to be Phil Harris, he got in front of the microphone and tore that thing apart."[10] Most of the character's lines were improvised by Harris.[5]
  • Sebastian Cabot as Bagheera, an honorable and no-nonsense black panther who is determined to take Mowgli back to the village and disapproves of Baloo's carefree approach to life. He also serves as the film's narrator. In the early stages of the film's development, Bill Peet suggested Howard Morris for the role, but Disney did not approve of the choice,[13] while Reitherman and other animators preferred either Karl Swenson or Sebastian Cabot.[14] The latter, who had previously voiced Sir Ector in The Sword in the Stone (1963),[15] was ultimately cast.[12]
  • Louis Prima as King Louie, a zany and obstreperous orangutan and leader of the monkeys from the Ancient Ruins who wants to become a human by learning how to make fire. According to Richard M. Sherman, Louis Armstrong was originally considered for the role, but the idea was discarded after one of the writers said that "'NAACP is going to jump all over it having a black man playing an ape – it would be politically terrible.' That was the last thing on our minds, nothing we'd ever thought of."[16] After Phil Harris was cast as Baloo, Disneyland Records president Jimmy Johnson suggested Disney to get Prima, whom he thought to be great as a foil for Harris' character.[17]
  • George Sanders as Shere Khan, an intelligent yet merciless Bengal tiger who hates all humans out of fear of their guns and fire and wants to kill Mowgli.
  • Sterling Holloway as Kaa, a sly and conniving Indian python who seeks Mowgli as prey, but comically fails each time he attempts to eat him.
  • J. Pat O'Malley as Colonel Hathi, a strict and pompous Indian elephant who leads the Jungle Patrol.
    • O'Malley also voiced Buzzie the Vulture.
  • Verna Felton as Winifred, Colonel Hathi's snarky and level-headed wife, who never hesitates to put him in his place. The Jungle Book marks Felton's final performance before her death on December 14, 1966, one day before Walt Disney's passing.
  • Clint Howard as Hathi Jr., also known as Junior or Baby Elephant, Colonel Hathi's son, who befriends Mowgli.
  • Chad Stuart as Flaps the Vulture
  • Lord Tim Hudson as Dizzy the Vulture
  • Darleen Carr as the Girl who lures Mowgli in the Man-Village at the film's ending.
  • Leo De Lyon as Flunkey the Langur*
  • Hal Smith as The Slob Elephant*
  • Ralph Wright as The Gloomy Elephant*
  • Digby Wolfe as Ziggy the Vulture*
  • Bill Skiles and Pete Henderson as Monkeys*

Additionally, John Abbott voiced Akela, the leader of the Seeonee wolf pack that came to adopt Mowgli.[14] Ben Wright, who had previously voiced Roger Radcliffe in One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961), provided voice for Rama, Mowgli's adoptive wolf father.[18]

Asterisks mark actors listed in the opening credits as "Additional Voices".[19][20][21]

Production edit

Development and writing edit

The Jungle Book was the last animated feature to be produced by Walt Disney before his death in December 1966.

Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book first caught Walt Disney's attention in the late 1930s,[12] but development of the film did not begin until the early 1960s,[22] when Bill Peet, who had just finished his work on The Sword in the Stone (1963), proposed it as the studio's next animated feature.[23] In April 1962, after spending the previous ten years in negotiations,[24] Disney acquired the film rights to all thirteen Jungle Book stories from the estate of Alexander Korda, who had produced the 1942 film adaptation,[25] but decided to concentrate only on the Mowgli stories.[26]

Peet created an original treatment, with little supervision, as he had done with One Hundred and One Dalmatians and The Sword in the Stone.[5] Peet decided to follow closely the dramatic, dark, and sinister tone of Kipling's book, which is about the struggles between animals and man. However, he also decided to make the story more straightforward, as the novel is very episodic, with Mowgli going back and forth from the jungle to the Man-Village, and Peet felt that Mowgli returning to the Man-Village should be the ending for the film. Following suggestions, Peet also created the character of Louie, king of the monkeys. Louie was a less comical character, enslaving Mowgli trying to get the boy to teach him to make fire. The orangutan would also show a plot point borrowed from The Second Jungle Book, gold and jewels under his ruins.[27][28] The ending also was very different from the final film's, being based on the third Mowgli story, "Tiger! Tiger!". After Mowgli had arrived to the man village, he would get into an argument with Buldeo the hunter which would cause him to return to the jungle with a torch that he would use to scare those who attacked or mocked him through the journey and confront Shere Khan, before being dragged back to the ruins by Buldeo in search for the treasure. After recovering a great part of the treasure, Buldeo would declare his intentions to burn the jungle to avoid the threat of Shere Khan, only for the tiger to attack and kill him, before being killed by Mowgli with the hunter's gun. Due to his actions, Mowgli would be hailed as a hero in both the jungle and the village, and declared the first human to be part of the wolves' council.[27][28]

After the disappointing reaction to The Sword in the Stone, Walt Disney decided to become more involved in the story than he had been with the past two films,[5][28] with his nephew Roy E. Disney saying that "[he] certainly influenced everything about it. (...) With Jungle Book, he obviously got hooked on the jungle and the characters that lived there".[29] Disney was not pleased with how the story was turning out, as he felt it was too dark for family viewing and insisted on script changes. Peet refused, and after a long argument, Peet left the Disney studio in January 1964.[30][5]

Disney then assigned Larry Clemmons as his new writer and one of the four-story men for the film, giving Clemmons a copy of Kipling's book, and telling him: "The first thing I want you to do is not to read it".[28][5] Clemmons still looked at the novel and thought it was too disjointed and without continuity, needing adaptations to fit a film script.[5] Clemmons wanted to start in medias res, with some flashbacks afterward, but then Disney said to focus on doing the storyline more straight: "Let's do the meat of the picture. Let's establish the characters. Let's have fun with it".[31]

Although most of Peet's work was discarded, the personalities of the characters remained in the final film. This was because Disney felt that the story should be kept simple, and the characters should drive the story. Disney took an active role in the story meetings, acting out each role and helping to explore the emotions of the characters, helping create gags, and developing emotional sequences.[28] Clemmons also created the human girl with whom Mowgli falls in love, as the animators considered that falling in love would be the best excuse for Mowgli to leave the jungle.[27][28] Clemmons would write a rough script with an outline for most sequences. The story artists then discussed how to fill the scenes, including the comedic gags to employ.[32][33] The script also tried to incorporate how the voice actors molded their characters and interacted with each other.[34] The Jungle Book also marked the last animated film to have Disney's personal touches, before his death on December 15, 1966.[35]

Casting edit

"In The Jungle Book we tried to incorporate the personalities of the actors that do the voices into the cartoon characters, and we came up with something totally different. When Phil Harris did the voice of Baloo, he gave it a bubble of life. We didn't coach him, just let it happen".

—Wolfgang Reitherman[34]

Many familiar voices had inspired the animators in their creation of the characters[28] and helped them shape their personalities.[35] This use of familiar voices for key characters was a rarity in Disney's past films.[28] The Sherman Brothers re-imagined Peet's darker more sinister version of King Louie as a more comedic character based around jazz and swing music. As Richard M. Sherman recalled: "...our discussion at the time [was], 'He's an ape, what does an ape do? Swings in a tree. The jazz is swing music and a guy literally swings if he's an ape.'"[36]

Child actress Darlene Carr was going around singing in the studio when composers Sherman Brothers asked her to record a demo of "My Own Home". Carr's performance impressed Disney enough for him to cast her as the role of the human girl.[37]

Disney had vultures bearing a physical and vocal resemblance to The Beatles, including the signature mop-top haircut. It was also planned to have the members of the band to both voice the characters and sing their song, "That's What Friends Are For". However, at the time, The Beatles' John Lennon refused to work on animated films which led to the idea being discarded.[38] The casting of the vultures still brought a British Invasion musician, Chad Stuart of the duo Chad & Jeremy.[30] In earlier drafts of the scene the vultures had a near-sighted rhinoceros friend named Rocky, who was to be voiced by Frank Fontaine. However, Disney decided to cut the character, feeling that the film already had enough action with the monkeys and vultures.[39]

Animation edit

Animation on The Jungle Book commenced on June 1, 1965.[40] While many of the later Disney feature films had animators being responsible for single characters, in The Jungle Book the animators were in charge of whole sequences, since many have characters interacting with one another. The animation was done by xerography, with character design, led by Ken Anderson, employing rough, artistic edges in contrast to the round animals seen in productions such as Dumbo.[41]

Anderson also decided to make Shere Khan resemble his voice actor, George Sanders.[30] Backgrounds were hand-painted—with an exception of the waterfall, mostly consisting of footage of the Angel Falls—and sometimes scenery was used in both foreground and bottom to create a notion of depth. One of Reitherman's trademarks was repurposing animation from previous animated films, including his. For example, animation of the wolf cubs were redrawn from the dalmatian puppies in One Hundred and One Dalmatians.[41] Animator Milt Kahl based Bagheera and Shere Khan's movements on live-action felines, which he saw in two Disney productions, A Tiger Walks and the True-Life Adventure film Jungle Cat.[41]

Baloo was also based on footage of bears, even incorporating the animal's penchant for scratching. Since Kaa has no limbs, his design received big expressive eyes, and parts of Kaa's body did the action that normally would be done with hands.[42] The monkeys' dance during "I Wan'na Be Like You" was partially inspired by a performance Louis Prima did with his band on a Las Vegas soundstage that convinced Disney to cast him.[5][30]

Music edit

The film's score was composed by George Bruns and orchestrated by Walter Sheets. Two of the cues were reused from previous Disney films: the scene where Mowgli wakes up after escaping King Louie used one of Bruns' themes for Sleeping Beauty; and the scene where Bagheera gives a eulogy to Baloo when he mistakenly thinks the bear was killed by Shere Khan used Paul J. Smith's organ score from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.[43]

The score features six original songs: five by the Sherman Brothers and one by Terry Gilkyson. Longtime Disney collaborator Gilkyson was the first songwriter to bring several complete songs that followed the book closely but Walt Disney felt that his efforts were too dark. The only piece of Gilkyson's work which survived to the final film was his upbeat tune "The Bare Necessities", which was liked by the rest of the film crew. The Sherman Brothers were then brought in to do a complete rewrite.[30] Disney asked the siblings if they had read Kipling's book and they replied that they had done so "a long, long time ago" and that they had also seen the 1942 version by Alexander Korda. Disney said the "nice, mysterious, heavy stuff" from both works was not what he aimed for, instead going for a "lightness, a Disney touch".[44] Disney frequently brought the composers to the storyline sessions.[30] He asked them to "find scary places and write fun songs" for their compositions[43] that fit in with the story and advanced the plot instead of being interruptive.[30]

Release and reception edit

Original theatrical run edit

Original theatrical trailer for The Jungle Book.

The Jungle Book was released in October 1967,[28] only 10 months after Walt Disney's death.[35] Some bookings were in a double feature format with Charlie, the Lonesome Cougar.[45] Produced on a budget of $4 million,[1] the film was a massive success, grossing domestic rentals of $11.5 million by 1968.[46] By 1970, the film had grossed $13 million in domestic rentals, becoming the second highest-grossing animated film in the United States and Canada.[3] The film earned over $23.8 million worldwide becoming the most successful animated film released during its initial run.[47]

Re-releases edit

The Jungle Book was re-released theatrically in North America in 1978, 1984, and 1990, and also in Europe throughout the 1970s and 1980s.[48] As part of Disney's 100th anniversary the film was re-released in cinemas across the UK on September 15, 2023 for one week.[49] A re-issue in the United Kingdom in 1976 generated rentals of $1.8 million.[50] The 1978 re-release increased its North American rentals to $27.3 million, which surpassed Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs making it the highest grossing animated film in the United States and Canada[51] until Snow White was re-released in 1983. The film's total lifetime gross in the U.S. and Canada is $141 million.1[52] When adjusted for inflation, it is estimated to be equivalent to $671,224,000 in 2018,[53] which would make it the 32nd highest-grossing film in the United States and Canada.[54]

The Jungle Book is Germany's biggest film in terms of admissions with 27.3 million tickets sold, nearly 10 million more than Titanic's 18.8 million tickets sold.[4] It has grossed an estimated $108 million in Germany, making it the third highest-grossing film in that country behind only Avatar ($137 million) and Titanic ($125 million).[55] The film was the seventh most popular sound film of the twentieth century in the UK with admissions of 19.8 million.[56] The film is France's ninth biggest film in terms of admissions with 14.8 million tickets sold.[57] The film's 1993 re-release set an overseas record for a re-issue, grossing $67.5 million overseas during that year.[58] It opened at number one in Germany with a gross of more than $4 million in its first six days and opened in second place at the UK box office before moving to number one for two weeks.[59][60]

Home media edit

The Jungle Book was released in the United States on VHS in 1990 as part of the Walt Disney Classics video line and in the United Kingdom in 1993. In the United States, the VHS release sold 7.4 million units and grossed $184,926,000 in 1990, making it the year's third best-selling home video release, behind only Fantasia and Home Alone.[61] By 1994, The Jungle Book sold 9.5 million units in the United States.[62] Home video sales outside North America reached a record 14 million units and grossed $350 million by December 1993.[63] Overseas sales reached 14.8 million units by January 1994, becoming the bestselling international VHS release in overseas markets, including sales of 4.9 million units in the United Kingdom, 4.3 million in Germany, and 1.2 million in France.[64] By August 1994, it had sold 15 million units in international overseas markets,[65] bringing worldwide sales to 24.5 million units by 1994. As of 2002, The Jungle Book held the record for the bestselling home video release in the United Kingdom, ahead of Titanic which sold 4.8 million units.[66]

It was reissued on video in 1997 as part of the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection for the film's 30th anniversary.[48] A Limited Issue DVD was released by Buena Vista Home Entertainment in 1999.[67] The film was released once again as a 2-disc Platinum Edition DVD on October 2, 2007, to commemorate its 40th anniversary.[68] Its release was accompanied by a limited 18-day run at Disney's own El Capitan Theatre in Los Angeles, with the opening night featuring a panel with composer Richard Sherman and voice actors Bruce Reitherman, Darlene Carr, and Chad Stuart.[69] The Platinum DVD was put on moratorium in 2010.[70] The film was released in a Blu-ray/DVD/Digital Copy Combo pack on February 11, 2014, as part of Disney's Diamond Edition line.[71] The Diamond Edition release went back into the Disney Vault on January 31, 2017. In the United States, the DVD and Blu-ray releases sold 12 million units between 2007 and 2016, and have grossed $304 million as of August 2018.[72] A Limited Edition from Disney Movie Club was released on Blu-ray and DVD combo on March 26, 2019. The film was re-released on Blu-ray/DVD/Digital on February 22, 2022, in honor of the film's 55th anniversary.[73]

Critical reception edit

The Jungle Book received positive reviews upon release, undoubtedly influenced by a nostalgic reaction to the death of Walt Disney.[35] Time magazine noted the film strayed far from the Kipling stories, but "[n]evertheless, the result is thoroughly is the happiest possible way to remember Walt Disney".[74] Howard Thompson of The New York Times praised the film as "simple, uncluttered, straight-forward fun, as put together by the director, Wolfgang Reitherman, four screen writers and the usual small army of technicians. Using some lovely exotic pastel backgrounds and a nice clutch of tunes, the picture unfolds like an intelligent comic-strip fairy tale".[45] Richard Schickel, reviewing for Life magazine, referred to it as "the best thing of its kind since Dumbo, another short, bright, unscary and blessedly uncultivated cartoon".[75] Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times wrote the film was "really, really good Disney indeed, and nobody needs to say a great deal more."[76] Arthur D. Murphy of Variety gave the film a favorable review while noting that "the story development is restrained" and that younger audiences "may squirm at times".[77] The song "The Bare Necessities" was nominated for Best Original Song at the 40th Academy Awards, losing to "Talk to the Animals" from Doctor Dolittle.[78] Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences president Gregory Peck lobbied extensively for the film to be nominated for Best Picture, but was unsuccessful.[79]

Retrospective reviews were also positive, with the film's animation, characters and music receiving much praise throughout the years. On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film received an approval rating of 88% based on 42 reviews, with an average rating of 7.2/10. The site's critical consensus reads: "With expressive animation, fun characters, and catchy songs, The Jungle Book endures as a crowd-pleasing Disney classic."[80] In 1990, when the film had its last theatrical re-release, Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly considered that The Jungle Book "isn't a classic Walt Disney film on the order of, say, Cinderella or Pinocchio, but it's one of Disney's liveliest and funniest".[81] Charles Solomon, reviewing for the Los Angeles Times, thought the film's animators was "near the height of their talents" and the resulting film "remains a high-spirited romp that will delight children—and parents weary of action films with body counts that exceed their box-office grosses".[82] In 2010, Empire described the film as one that "gets pretty much everything right", noting that the vibrant animation and catchy songs overcame the plot deficiencies.[79]

Colin Greenland reviewed The Jungle Book for Imagine magazine, and stated that "the last film the old boy worked on himself and I reckon the last good animated feature in his traditional mode - not least because of some rather jolly jazz which, legend has it, Walt himself resisted, and was added after his death."[83]

Controversy edit

There has been criticism of the portrayal of King Louie, who some have viewed as a racist caricature of African Americans.[84] However, this was not the filmmakers' intention as the character and mannerisms of King Louie were largely based on his voice actor, Louis Prima, a well-known Italian American jazz musician and performer, who would have been instantly recognizable to audiences during the late 1960s.[5][17] While Louis Armstrong was briefly considered for the part, the filmmakers quickly steered away from that direction upon realizing the racist implications.[16]

In 2019, Disney added disclaimers warning of "outdated cultural depictions" at the start of the film on Disney+.[84] In January 2021, Disney removed access to the film for child profiles in Disney+, and strengthened the warning message to read: "This program includes negative depictions and/or mistreatment of people or cultures. These stereotypes were wrong then and are wrong now. Rather than remove this content, we want to acknowledge its harmful impact, learn from it and spark conversation to create a more inclusive future together."[85]

Legacy edit

In 1968, Disneyland Records released the album More Jungle Book, an unofficial sequel also written by screenwriter Larry Simmons, which continued the story of the film, and included Phil Harris and Louis Prima voicing their film roles. In the record, Baloo (Harris) is missing Mowgli (Ginny Tyler), so he teams up with King Louie (Prima) and Bagheera (Dal McKennon) to take him from the man village.[86] On February 14, 2003, DisneyToon Studios in Australia released a film sequel, The Jungle Book 2, in which Mowgli runs away from the man village to see his animal friends, unaware that Shere Khan is more determined to kill him than ever.[87] In 2005, screenwriter Robert Reece pitched Jungle Book 3 to Disney execs., but the project never materialized.[88]

Elements of The Jungle Book were recycled in the later Disney feature film Robin Hood,[89] such as Baloo being inspiration for Little John (who not only was a bear, but also voiced by Phil Harris). In particular, the dance sequence between Baloo and King Louie was simply rotoscoped for Little John and Lady Cluck's dance.[90][91] It has been widely acclaimed by animators, with Eric Goldberg declaring The Jungle Book "boasts possibly the best character animation a studio has ever done". The animators of Aladdin, The Lion King, Tarzan, and Lilo & Stitch took inspiration from the design and animation of the film, and four people involved with Disney's animations, director Brad Bird and animators Andreas Deja, Glen Keane and Sergio Pablos, have declared the film to be their inspiration for entering the business.[92]

In 1978, a live-action sketch titled The Wonderful World of Ernie from Morecambe and Wise parodied I Wan'na Be Like You (The Monkey Song) by doing a full reenactment of the scene with sets and costumes and lip-synching to the song's original recording (including the characters' spoken dialogue in the middle of the song). The sketch starred Danny Rolnick as Mowgli, Derek Griffiths as Bagheera, Eric Morecambe as Baloo and Ernie Wise as King Louie.[93]

Many characters appear in the 1990–91 animated series TaleSpin.[94] Between 1996 and 1998, the TV series Jungle Cubs told the stories of Baloo, Hahti, Bagheera, Louie, Kaa, and Shere Khan when they were children.[95] Disney later made a live-action adaptation of the film, which was more of a realistic action-adventure film with somewhat-more adult themes. The film, released in 1994, differs even more from the book than its animated counterpart, but was still a box-office success. In 1998, Disney released a direct to video film entitled The Jungle Book: Mowgli's Story.[96] A new live-action version of The Jungle Book was released by Disney in 2016, which even reused most of the songs of the animated movie, with some lyrical reworking by original composer Richard M. Sherman.[97]

There are two video games based on the film: The Jungle Book was a platformer released in 1993 for Master System, Mega Drive, Game Gear, Super NES, Game Boy and PC. A version for the Game Boy Advance was later released in 2003.[98] The Jungle Book Groove Party was a dance mat game released in 2000 for PlayStation and PlayStation 2.[99][100] Kaa and Shere Khan have also made cameo appearances in another Disney video game, QuackShot.[101] A world based on the film was intended to appear more than once in the Square Enix-Disney Kingdom Hearts video game series, but was omitted both times, first in the first game because it featured a similar world based on Tarzan,[102] and second in Kingdom Hearts: Birth by Sleep, although areas of the world are accessible via hacking codes.[103] Baloo and Mowgli appear as interactive characters in Adventureland on Kinect: Disneyland Adventures released in 2011 and re-released in 2017.[104] Mowgli, Bagheera, Baloo, Shere Khan and King Louie appear as playable characters in the video game Disney Magic Kingdoms.[105][106] Baloo appears as a playable character on Disney Mirrorverse released in 2022.[107] Baloo and Mowgli appear as a playable characters on the kart racing game Disney Speedstorm released in 2022.[108] Since the film's release, many of the film's characters appeared in House of Mouse, The Lion King 1½, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, and Aladdin and the King of Thieves.[109] In December 2010, a piece of artwork by British artist Banksy featuring The Jungle Book characters which had been commissioned by Greenpeace to help raise awareness of deforestation went on sale for the sum of £80,000.[110]

Exhibition edit

A behind-the-scenes exhibition titled Walt Disney’s The Jungle Book: Making a Masterpiece, guest-curated by Andreas Deja took place at The Walt Disney Family Museum from June 23, 2022, to January 8, 2023. The event celebrated the film's 55th anniversary by displaying over 600 pieces of rare artwork, manuscripts, photos, animation drawings and cels as well as ephemera. It also detailed the entire story of the film's production, its release and the worldwide recognition it has earned through the years.[111][112][113] A Members Only Preview which included a special talk with Andreas Deja, Bruce Reitherman, Darleen Carr and Floyd Norman took place on June 22, 2022.[114] An extensive companion book, Walt Disney's The Jungle Book: Making a Masterpiece also written by Deja was originally slated to be published by Weldon Owen on September 20, 2022,[115] before it was changed to November 1, 2022.[116]

Special screenings of the film took place at the museum's theater from July 2 to July 31, 2022.[117]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ In 2003, Variety listed the worldwide gross for The Jungle Book at $378 million.[2] It also listed the North American gross at $128 million, which is lower than the reported estimate at $141 million.[52]

References edit

  1. ^ a b "'Jungle Book' in Disney Processing Two Years and Another Year to Go". Variety. December 15, 1965. p. 7. Retrieved June 4, 2023 – via Internet Archive.
  2. ^ a b Mallory, Michael; D'Alessandro, Anthony (October 27, 2003). "Tooned in: Disney's ani classics set the bar and lit the way for future generations". Variety. Archived from the original on October 13, 2022. Retrieved June 4, 2023 – via The Free Library.
  3. ^ a b "All-Time Box Office Champs". Variety. January 6, 1971. p. 12.
  4. ^ a b Scott Roxborough (April 22, 2016). "Why Disney's Original 'Jungle Book' Is Germany's Biggest Film of All Time". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Bare Necessities: The Making of "The Jungle Book" (Documentary film). The Jungle Book Platinum Edition DVD: Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment. 2007. Archived from the original on June 4, 2023 – via YouTube.
  6. ^ Deja 2022, p. 45.
  7. ^ Richard M. Sherman; Andreas Deja; Bruce Reitherman (2007). Audio commentary (Bonus feature). The Jungle Book Platinum Edition DVD: Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment.
  8. ^ "The Making of "Jungle Book"". The Walt Disney Family Museum. Archived from the original on October 28, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
  9. ^ Thomas 1997, p. 107.
  10. ^ a b Deja 2022, p. 75.
  11. ^ Johnson 2014, p. 132.
  12. ^ a b c The Jungle Book: The Making of a Musical Masterpiece (Documentary film). The Jungle Book Fully Restored 30th Anniversary Limited Edition VHS: Walt Disney Home Video. 1997. Archived from the original on June 4, 2023 – via YouTube.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  13. ^ Peet 1989, pp. 177–178.
  14. ^ a b Deja 2022, p. 33.
  15. ^ "Cabot, Sebastian". D23. Walt Disney Archives. Archived from the original on June 4, 2023. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
  16. ^ a b Johnson, Quendrith (November 13, 2010). "Richard Sherman on Hits for Walt Disney, THE BOYS & Ringo Starr". (Interview). Archived from the original on January 17, 2023. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  17. ^ a b Hollis & Ehrbar 2011, pp. 89–90.
  18. ^ "Wright, Ben". D23. Walt Disney Archives. Archived from the original on June 5, 2023. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  19. ^ Beck, Jerry (2005). The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago Review Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-556525-91-9. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  20. ^ Hischak, Thomas S. (2011). Disney Voice Actors: A Biographical Dictionary. McFarland. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-786462-71-1.
  21. ^ Webb, Graham S. (2000). The animated film encyclopedia: a complete guide to American shorts, features and sequences 1900-1979. McFarland. p. 257. ISBN 978-0-786407-28-6.
  22. ^ Deja 2022, p. 15.
  23. ^ Peet 1989, pp. 173.
  24. ^ Fessier Jr., Michael (November 12, 1967). "Legacy of a Last Tycoon". Los Angeles Times. pp. 16–23. Archived from the original on July 30, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2022 – via
  25. ^ Hopper, Hedda (April 6, 1962). "'Jungle Book' Film Planned by Disney". Los Angeles Times. Part IV, p. 9. Archived from the original on July 30, 2022. Retrieved July 29, 2022 – via  
  26. ^ Koenig 1997, p. 133.
  27. ^ a b c Disney's Kipling: Walt's Magic Touch on a Literary Classic. The Jungle Book Platinum Edition, Disc 2: Walt Disney Home Entertainment. 2007.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i Thomas, Bob (1991). "Chapter 7: The Post-War Films". Disney's Art of Animation: From Mickey Mouse to Beauty and the Beast. Disney Editions. pp. 106–107. ISBN 1-56282-899-1.
  29. ^ The Legacy of the Jungle Book. The Jungle Book 2 DVD: Walt Disney Home Entertainment. 2003.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Barrier, Michael (2008). The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney. University of California Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-520256-19-4.
  31. ^ Larry Clemmons (2007). The Jungle Book (audio commentary). The Jungle Book Platinum Edition DVD: Walt Disney Home Entertainment.
  32. ^ Beiman, Nancy (2007). Prepare To Board!: Creating Story and Characters for Animated Features and Shorts. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-80820-8. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  33. ^ Norman, Floyd (2010). "Three Disney Story Guys". In Ghez, Didier (ed.). Walt's People: Volume 9–Talking Disney with the Artists who Knew Him. Xlibris. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-450-08746-9.
  34. ^ a b Walt Disney's The Jungle Book. New York: Harmony Books. 1980. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-517543-28-3.
  35. ^ a b c d Maltin, Leonard (2000). "The Jungle Book". The Disney Films. Disney Editions. pp. 253–256. ISBN 978-0-786885-27-5.
  36. ^ Richard M. Sherman (2007). The Jungle Book (audio commentary). The Jungle Book Platinum Edition DVD: Walt Disney Home Entertainment.
  37. ^ Sherman, Robert; Sherman, Richard (1998). Walt's Time: From Before to Beyond. Camphor Tree Publishers. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-964605-93-0.
  38. ^ McLean, Craig (July 30, 2013). "The Jungle Book: the making of Disney's most troubled film". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  39. ^ Lost Character: Rocky the Rhino. The Jungle Book Platinum Edition Disc 1: Walt Disney Home Entertainment. 2007.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  40. ^ "Hollywood & British Production Pulse". Variety. December 21, 1966. p. 20. Retrieved November 18, 2022 – via Internet Archive.
  41. ^ a b c Andreas Deja (2007). The Jungle Book audio commentary. The Jungle Book, Platinum Edition, Disc 1
  42. ^ Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston Discuss Character Animation. The Jungle Book, Platinum Edition, Disc 2. 2007.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  43. ^ a b Richard Sherman (2007). The Jungle Book audio commentary. The Jungle Book, Platinum Edition, Disc 1
  44. ^ Sherman, Robert B.; Sherman, Richard M. (1990). Interview with the Sherman Brothers (audio track). The Jungle Book soundtrack, 30th Anniversary Edition (1997): Walt Disney Records.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  45. ^ a b Thompson, Howard (December 23, 1967). "Disney 'Jungle Book' Arrives Just in Time". The New York Times. p. 29. Archived from the original on April 6, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  46. ^ "Big Rental Films of 1968". Variety. January 8, 1969. p. 15.
  47. ^ "Animals Portray Parts in Disney's "Robin Hood"". Toledo Blade. October 18, 1970. p. G7. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2016 – via Google News Archive.
  48. ^ a b Jones, Steve; Jensen, Joli (2005). Afterlife as Afterimage: Understanding Posthumous Fame. Peter Lang. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-820463-65-0. Archived from the original on January 6, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2016 – via Google Books.
  50. ^ "'Jaws,' 'Cuckoo's,' Disney's 'Jungle' Top British B.O.". Variety. January 5, 1977. p. 11.
  51. ^ "All-Time Film Rental Champs". Variety. January 14, 1981. p. 28.
  52. ^ a b "The Jungle Book". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2008.
  53. ^ "The Jungle Book (1967) - Domestic Total Adj. Gross (2018)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  54. ^ "All Time Box Office Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on June 7, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  55. ^ Scott Roxborough (January 11, 2016). "German Box Office: 'Star Wars' Becomes Fourth Highest-Grossing Film of All Time". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 14, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  56. ^ "The Ultimate Chart: 1–100". British Film Institute. November 28, 2004. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  57. ^ "Top250 Tous Les Temps En France (reprises incluses)". Archived from the original on March 31, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  58. ^ "Outbreak' strikes European box office". United Press International. May 8, 1995. Archived from the original on June 23, 2019. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  59. ^ "UK Top 15: April 16-18". Screen International. April 23, 1993. p. 21.
  60. ^ "Jungle fever". Screen International. April 9, 1993. p. 19.
  61. ^ "Top 20 Sell-Through Units Shipped". The Hollywood Reporter. Wilkerson Daily Corporation. 320 (18–34): 533. 1991. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  62. ^ McNary, Dave (April 28, 1994). "Disney sees big sales for 'Snow White' video". United Press International. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  63. ^ "'Jungle' blooms, beats 'Beast' in o'seas video". Variety. December 20, 1993. Archived from the original on March 24, 2021. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  64. ^ "Billboard" (PDF). January 22, 1994. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  65. ^ "Home Video — VIDBITS 'Philadelphia'". United Press International. August 4, 1994. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  66. ^ "New Line's Film Runs 'Rings' Around Video Competition". Billboard. Vol. 114, no. 35. Nielsen Business Media. August 31, 2002. p. 83. ISSN 0006-2510. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2018 – via Google Books.
  67. ^ "The Jungle Book DVD Review". Ultimate Disney. Archived from the original on August 31, 2011. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  68. ^ White, Cindy (October 4, 2007). "Disney Cracks Open The Jungle Book Again". IGN. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  69. ^ Holleran, Scott (September 14, 2007). "'Jungle Book' Opens in Hollywood". Archived from the original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  70. ^ McCutcheon, David (January 13, 2010). "Disney Vault Shuts". IGN. Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  71. ^ Brigante, Ricky (February 11, 2014). "Review: "The Jungle Book" Blu-ray brings home much more than bare necessities with funny, heartfelt features". InsideTheMagic. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  72. ^ "The Jungle Book (1967) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Archived from the original on November 25, 2018. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  73. ^ "Jungle Book, The Feature". Amazon.
  74. ^ "New Movies: The Jungle Book". Time. January 19, 1968. p. 90. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  75. ^ Schickel, Richard (January 5, 1968). "Walt's Good – and Bad – Goodbye". Life. p. 11. Archived from the original on June 29, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2011 – via Google Books.
  76. ^ Champlin, Charles (October 18, 1967). "Disney Craft Flavor for 'Jungle Book'". Los Angeles Times. Part V, pp. 1, 13. Archived from the original on September 6, 2021 – via  
  77. ^ Murphy, Arthur D. (October 4, 1967). "Film Reviews: The Jungle Book". Variety. Archived from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  78. ^ "1968 Oscars Nominees". January 29, 2010. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  79. ^ a b "Your Guide To Disney's 50 Animated Features". Empire. January 29, 2010. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  80. ^ "The Jungle Book (1967)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on December 4, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2021.  
  81. ^ Tucker, Ken (August 3, 1990). "Movie Review: The Jungle Book". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
  82. ^ Solomon, Charles (July 13, 1990). "MOVIE REVIEW: Kipling Reconditioned in Walt Disney's 'The Jungle Book'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2011.
  83. ^ Greenland, Colin (December 1983). "Film Review". Imagine. TSR Hobbies (UK), Ltd. (9): 45.
  84. ^ a b Voytko, Lisette (November 13, 2019). "Here Are 5 Movies Disney Plus Put 'Cultural' Warnings On". Forbes. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  85. ^ Stephen, Bijan (January 27, 2021). "Disney pulls some movies from Disney Plus Kids profiles because they feature racist stereotypes". The Verge. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  86. ^ Hollis, Tim; Ehrbar, Greg (2006). Mouse Tracks: The Story of Walt Disney Records. University Press of Mississippi. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-617034-33-6.
  87. ^ "The Jungle Book 2". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on March 29, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  88. ^ Armstrong, Josh (April 22, 2013). "From Snow Queen to Pinocchio II: Robert Reece's animated adventures in screenwriting". Animated Views. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
  89. ^ Hill, Jim (March 17, 2005). "Why For?". Jim Hill Media. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
  90. ^ Coffey, Kelly (September 20, 2019). "Does Disney recycle animation drawings for multiple movies?". Inside the Magic. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  91. ^ Foster, Tim (June 4, 2018). "Ten Things You May Not Know About Baloo and Bagheera". Celebrations Press. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  92. ^ The Lure of The Jungle Book. The Jungle Book, Platinum Edition, Disc 2. 2007.
  93. ^ "Morecambe&Wise - The Jungle Book - I Wanna Be Like You - Disney spoof". YouTube. December 14, 2011. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  94. ^ "TaleSpin". Entertainment Weekly. September 7, 1990. Archived from the original on October 6, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2010.
  95. ^ King, Susan (September 1, 1996). "Reading, Writing and Reinventing Heroes". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  96. ^ Nibley, Alexander (May 26, 1997). "Are Films Using Names in Vain?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
  97. ^ Keegan, Rebecca (January 8, 2016). "Jon Favreau brings 21st century technology to Rudyard Kipling's 1894 'The Jungle Book'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 17, 2016. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
  98. ^ "Jungle Book – Sega Genesis: Video Games". Amazon. Archived from the original on July 6, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  99. ^ Strohm, Axel (May 17, 2006). "Jungle Book Rhythm N'Groove Hands-On". GameSpot. Archived from the original on January 10, 2017. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  100. ^ Varanini, Giancarlo (February 7, 2003). "Ubi Soft to release two Jungle Book games". GameSpot. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017.
  101. ^ "QuackShot Retro Review". IGN. October 23, 2008. Archived from the original on June 13, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  102. ^ Groenendijk, Ferry (August 11, 2006). "Kingdom Hearts II Tetsuya Nomura interview". Video Game Blogger. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
  103. ^ McGeorge, Christopher (September 26, 2013). "Kingdom Hearts III: 7 Awesome Disney Worlds It Must Include". What Culture. Archived from the original on June 12, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
  104. ^ "Disneyland Adventures! - Gameplay Walkthrough - Mowgl - Part 22". YouTube. November 2, 2021. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  105. ^ "Update 12: The Lion King | Livestream". YouTube. June 26, 2017.
  106. ^ "Update 14: The Jungle Book | Trailer". YouTube. September 27, 2017.
  107. ^ "Baloo (Jungle Book) Gameplay In Disney's Mirrorverse Game ios". YouTube. June 27, 2022. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  108. ^ "Disney Speedstorm: The Ultimate Disney Racing Experience". Disney Speedstorm Official Website. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  109. ^ Lyttelton, Oliver (March 14, 2013). "5 Things You Might Not Know About 'Who Framed Roger Rabbit'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on June 14, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  110. ^ Marc Rath, Marc (December 17, 2010). "Controversial Jungle Book artwork by Banksy bound for auction". Evening Post. Bristol Evening Post. p. 1. Archived from the original on October 7, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
  111. ^ "Walt Disney's The Jungle Book: Making a Masterpiece". The Walt Disney Family Museum. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  112. ^ "Walt Disney's The Jungle Book: Making a Masterpiece Preparation Sneak Peek". The Walt Disney Family Museum. June 15, 2022. Retrieved June 16, 2022.
  113. ^ "Making of Walt Disney's The Jungle Book: Making a Masterpiece". The Walt Disney Family Museum. October 6, 2022. Retrieved October 6, 2022.
  114. ^ "Members Only Preview: Walt Disney's The Jungle Book: Making a Masterpiece Member Preview Night". The Walt Disney Family Museum. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  115. ^ "Walt Disney's The Jungle Book: Andreas Deja". Book Depository. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  116. ^ Deja 2022, p. 192.
  117. ^ "The Jungle Book (1967)". The Walt Disney Family Museum. Retrieved July 5, 2022.

Bibliography edit

External links edit