Jimmy MacDonald (sound effects artist)
John James MacDonald (May 19, 1906 – February 1, 1991) was a Scottish-born American foley artist, animator, voice actor, musician, and the original head of the Disney sound effects department. He was also the voice of Mickey Mouse from 1947 to 1977.
John James MacDonald
May 19, 1906
|Died||February 1, 1991 (aged 84)|
Glendale, California, U.S.
|Resting place||Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery|
|Occupation||Foley artist, animator, voice actor, musician, original head of Disney sound effects department|
(m. ?–1991, his death)
He was born in Dundee, Scotland, on May 19, 1906. His parents were Richard William MacDonald and Minnie Hall. The family emigrated to America when MacDonald was one month old. They travelled via the SS Haverford from Liverpool, England, arriving in Pennsylvania 15 days later.
As a young man, MacDonald landed a job as a musician on the Dollar Steam Ship Lines, which in 1934 led to an opportunity to record music for a Disney cartoon. He went on to secure a permanent contract with Disney, becoming head of the sound department.
Career and sound effectsEdit
In addition to directing sounds for animated shorts as aurally complicated as Mickey's Trailer (1938), he developed many original inventions and contraptions to achieve expressive sounds for characters like Casey Jr., the circus train engine from Dumbo (1941); Evinrude the dragonfly from The Rescuers (1977); the bees in Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree (1966); and Buzz-buzz (later called "Spike"), the bee who gets the best of Donald Duck in his 1950s short films. He also made the sound effects of Tick Tock the crocodile from Peter Pan (1953) and Dragon Maleficent from Sleeping Beauty (1959) by using castanets.
Many of his effects are available on Cartoon Trax: The Hollywood Edge Volume 1, which was released in 1992. A few of his other effects showed up on other non-Disney sound libraries, such as the International Sound Effects Library and the Hanna-Barbera SoundFX Library, both from Sound Ideas. Some other releases containing MacDonald's sound effects include a few specialty sound effect record releases from Disneyland Records, most notably Chilling, Thrilling Sounds of the Haunted House.
James MacDonald did the first test yodeling for the dwarfs in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) before they brought in professional yodelers as well as doing some sounds for Dopey such as his hiccuping and sobbing.
By 1947, Walt Disney was getting too busy and too hoarse from smoking to continue voicing Mickey Mouse, so he was replaced by MacDonald after the film Fun and Fancy Free (1947). MacDonald voiced Mickey Mouse until 1977, when he was replaced by young Disney sound-effects man Wayne Allwine for The New Mickey Mouse Club
MacDonald was the original voice actor for Chip, one half of the duo Chip and Dale. He provided the voice of Ajax the Gorilla in Donald Duck and the Gorilla, Dolores the Elephant in Tiger Trouble, The Big Wash, and Working for Peanuts, the Wolf in Make Mine Music, Lumpjaw in Fun and Fancy Free, Jaq and Gus the Mouse in Cinderella (1950), the Dormouse in Alice in Wonderland (1951), Humphrey the Bear, the howling of the dogs at the pound (along with Thurl Ravenscroft) in Lady and the Tramp (1955), the Wolf in The Sword in the Stone (1963), and the hyena in Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971). He appeared in the film Toby Tyler (1960) as the Circus Band Drummer, but was uncredited and appeared in Fantasia (1940) as one of the musicians.
MacDonald played drums in the Firehouse Five Plus Two jazz band. He played with the band on and off from its inception until it disbanded in the early 1970s.
|1937||Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs||Sound effects||Uncredited|
|1941||The Reluctant Dragon||Uncredited|
|Seal Island||Documentary film, uncredited|
|The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad||Uncredited|
|1950||Beaver Valley||Documentary film, uncredited|
|1951||Nature's Half Acre||Documentary film, uncredited|
|1952||The Olympic Elk||Documentary film, uncredited|
|Water Birds||Documentary film, uncredited|
|Bear Country||Documentary film, uncredited|
|Powlers of the Evergladers||Documentary film, uncredited|
|The Living Desert||Documentary film, uncredited|
|1954||The Vanishing Prairie||Documentary film, uncredited|
|20,000 Leagues Under the Sea||Uncredited|
|1955||Lady and the Tramp||Uncredited|
|The African Lion||Documentary film, uncredited|
|1956||Secret of Life||Documentary film, uncredited|
|1958||White Wilderness||Documentary film, uncredited|
|1960||Jungle Cat||Documentary film, uncredited|
|1961||One Hundred and One Dalmatians||Uncredited|
|1963||The Sword in the Stone||Uncredited|
|1966||Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree||Uncredited|
|1977||The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh||Uncredited|
|1964||Mary Poppins||Assistant conductor||Credited as James MacDonald|
|1968||The One and Only, Genuine, Original Family Band||Assistant conductor||Credited as James MacDonald|
|1971||Bedknobs and Broomsticks||Assistant conductor||Credited as James MacDonald|
|1936||The Cowboy Star||Still Photographer||Uncredited|
|1937||Clock Cleaners||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs||Yodeling||Voice, uncredited|
|1940||Donald's Vacation||Various voices||Uncredited|
|1941||The Reluctant Dragon||Sound effects man||Uncredited|
|1942||Out of the Frying Pan Into the Firing Line||Butcher||Uncredited|
|1943||Private Pluto||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1944||Donald Duck and the Gorilla||Ajax the Gorilla||Voice, uncredited|
|1946||Make Mine Music||Wolf||Voice, uncredited|
|Squatter's Rights||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Peter and the Wolf||The Wolf||Voice, uncredited|
|1947||Fun and Fancy Free||Lumpjaw||Voice, uncredited|
|Chip an' Dale||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1948||Mickey Down Under||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Pluto's Purchase||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Three for Breakfast||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Mickey and the Seal||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|1949||Pueblo Pluto||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Winter Storage||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|All in a Nutshell||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Toy Tinkers||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1950||Cinderella||Jaq and Gus||Voice, uncredited|
|Crazy Over Daisy||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Trailer Horn||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Suspense||Jeff||Episode: "Wisteria Cottage"|
|Food for Feudin'||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Out on a Limb||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1951||Chicken in the Rough||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Corn Chips||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Plutopia||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Test Pilot Donald||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Alice in Wonderland||Dormouse||Voice, uncredited|
|R'coon Dawg||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Out of Scale||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1952||Donald Applecore||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Lambert the Sheepish Lion||Wolf, Lambert||Voice, uncredited|
|Two Chips and a Miss||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Pluto's Party||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Pluto's Christmas Tree||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1953||The Simple Things||Mickey Mouse||Voice, uncredited|
|Rugged Bear||Humphrey the Bear||Voice, uncredited|
|Working for Peanuts||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1954||The Lone Chipmunks||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Dragon Around||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Grin and Bear It||Humphrey the Bear||Voice, uncredited|
|Social Lion||Lion||Voice, uncredited|
|1955||Bearly Asleep||Humphrey the Bear||Voice, uncredited|
|Beezy Bear||Humphrey the Bear||Voice, uncredited|
|Up a Tree||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1955–1968||The Magical World of Disney||Mickey Mouse, Chip, Lumpjaw||Episodes: "The Mickey Mouse Anniversary Show", "This Is Your Life", "Pluto's Day", "Adventures of Mickey Mouse", "Jiminy Cricket Presents Bongo"|
|1956||Chips Ahoy||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|Hooked Bear||Humphrey the Bear||Voice, uncredited|
|In the Bag||Chip||Voice, uncredited|
|1959||Sleeping Beauty||Dragon Maleficent's Roar||Voice, uncredited|
|Noah's Ark||Animal sounds||Voice, uncredited|
|1960||Toby Tyler or Ten Weeks with a Circus||Drummer||Uncredited|
|1963||The Sword in the Stone||Wolf, Tiger, Madam Mim||Voice, Uncredited|
|1966||The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh||Bees||Voice, Uncredited|
|1967||The Adventures of Bullwhip Griffin||Saloon Percussionist||Uncredited|
|The Jungle Book||Shere Khan's Roars, Bagheera's Roars||Voice, uncredited|
|1968||The Mickey Mouse Anniversary Show||Mickey Mouse||Voice, Uncredited|
|1977||The Rescuers||Evinrude||Voice, uncredited|
|Pete's Dragon||Elliott's Roars||Voice, uncredited|
|1981||The Fox and the Hound||Bear||Voice, uncredited|
- "Interview: Jimmy MacDonald - The Dundee voice of Disney". scotsman.com. 2009-12-23. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
- AP (1991-02-08). "James MacDonald, 84, Mickey Mouse's Voice". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
- Obituary Variety, February 18, 1991.
- Book: A Viking in the Family by Keith Gregson, published in 2011 by the History Press.
- Interview: Jimmy MacDonald - The Dundee voice of Disney
- James MacDonald – Variety
- 1912-2004., Thomas, Frank, (1995). The illusion of life : Disney animation. Johnston, Ollie, 1912-2008., Thomas, Frank, 1912-2004. (1st Hyperion ed.). New York: Hyperion. ISBN 0786860707. OCLC 32509417.
- MacDonald, Jimmy. "Obituaries: James MacDonald, 84, Mickey Mouse's Voice". LA Times. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- James MacDonald on IMDb
- Biography at Disney Legends website
- Jimmy MacDonald at Find a Grave
- The Voice of Mickey Mouse at The Scotsman website
- The Voice of Mickey Mouse at BBC Radio Scotland
| Voice of Chip
| Voice of Mickey Mouse