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The Dark Crystal is a 1982 puppet-animated dark fantasy adventure film directed by Jim Henson and Frank Oz. It stars the voices of Stephen Garlick, Lisa Maxwell, Billie Whitelaw, Percy Edwards, and Barry Dennen. The film was produced by ITC Entertainment and Henson Associates and distributed by Universal Pictures. The plot revolves around Jen, a Gelfling on a quest to restore balance to the world of Thra and overthrow the ruling Skeksis by restoring a powerful broken Crystal.

The Dark Crystal
The Dark Crystal Film Poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster by Richard Amsel
Directed by
Produced by
Screenplay byDavid Odell
Story byJim Henson
Starring
Narrated byJoseph O'Conor
Music byTrevor Jones
CinematographyOswald Morris
Edited byRalph Kemplen
Production
companies
Distributed byUniversal Pictures
Release date
  • December 13, 1982 (1982-12-13) (New York City)
  • December 17, 1982 (1982-12-17) (United States)
  • February 17, 1983 (1983-02-17) (United Kingdom)
Running time
93 minutes[1]
Country
  • United States
  • United Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Budget$25 million[2] or £25 million[3]
Box office$41.4 million[4]

It was marketed as a family film, but was notably darker than the creators' previous material. The animatronics used in the film were considered groundbreaking. The primary concept artist was fantasy illustrator Brian Froud, famous for his distinctive fairy and dwarf designs. Froud also collaborated with Henson and Oz for their next project, the 1986 film Labyrinth.

The Dark Crystal was produced by Gary Kurtz, while the screenplay was written by David Odell, with whom Henson previously worked as a staff writer for The Muppet Show. The film score was composed by Trevor Jones. The film received mixed to positive reviews from mainstream critics; while being criticized for its darker, more dramatic tone in contrast to Henson's previous works, it was praised for its narrative, aesthetic, special effects and characters, and later garnered a cult following.[5] A prequel television series, The Dark Crystal: Age of Resistance, premiered on Netflix in 2019.

PlotEdit

A thousand years ago on the planet Thra, two new races appeared when a powerful Crystal cracked: the malevolent Skeksis, who use the power of the Crystal to continually replenish themselves, and the kind wizards called urRu, more commonly known as the Mystics.

Jen, a young Gelfling taken in by the urRu after his clan was killed by the Skeksis, is told by his urRu Master that he must heal the Crystal, which can only occur if he finds a Shard being kept by the astronomer Aughra, Keeper of Secrets, before the upcoming Great Conjunction, the alignment of the planet's three suns. If he fails to do this, the Skeksis will rule forever. Jen's Master then dies. Meanwhile, the Skeksis' Emperor also dies and a duel ensues between the Skeksis' Chamberlain and the Master of their large crab-like Garthim, both of whom desire the throne. The Garthim-Master wins and the Chamberlain is subsequently exiled. Learning of Jen's existence, the Skeksis send the Garthim to track him.

Jen reaches Aughra and is taken to her home, which contains an enormous orrery she uses to predict the motions of the heavens. She has a box full of Shards, from which Jen finds the right one by playing a note on his flute, causing it to resonate. Aughra tells Jen of the Great Conjunction, but he learns little of its connection to the Shard. At that point, the Garthim arrive and destroy Aughra's home, taking her prisoner as Jen flees.

Hearing the call of the Crystal, the urRu leave their valley to travel to the Skeksis' Castle. On his journey through the swamp, Jen meets Kira, another surviving Gelfling who can communicate with animals. They discover that they have a telepathic connection, which Kira calls "dreamfasting", and share memories of being forced from their homes. They stay for a night with the Podlings, who raised Kira after the death of her parents. However, the Garthim raid the village, capturing most of the Podlings. Jen, Kira, and Kira's pet Fizzgig flee when the Chamberlain stops the Garthim from attacking them, intent on gaining their trust.

Jen and Kira discover a ruined Gelfling city with ancient writing describing a prophecy: "When single shines the triple sun, what was sundered and undone shall be whole. The two made one by Gelfling hand or else by none." They are interrupted by the Chamberlain, who claims that the Skeksis want to make peace and wants the Gelflings to return to the Castle with him, but they do not trust him and refuse his offer. Riding on Landstriders, Jen and Kira arrive at the Skeksis' Castle and intercept the Garthim that attacked Kira's village. While trying to free the captured Podlings, Kira, Jen, and Fizzgig descend to the bottom of the Castle's dry moat and use a lower-level entrance to gain access. They are followed by the Chamberlain, who repeats his peace offer; when they refuse again, he buries Jen in a cave-in and takes Kira to the Castle. The Garthim-Master reinstates him to his former position, and the Skeksis' Scientist tries to drain Kira's life essence for the Garthim-Master to drink so that he can regain his youth. Aughra, imprisoned in the Scientist's laboratory, tells Kira to call for help from the animals held captive; they break free in response, releasing Kira and causing the Scientist to fall into the pit to his death. His urRu counterpart simultaneously vanishes. Aughra also escapes, and later rescues Fizzgig.

The three suns begin to align as Jen and Kira reach the Crystal Chamber, and the Skeksis gather for the ritual that will grant them immortality. Jen leaps onto the Crystal but drops the Shard; Kira throws it back to him but is fatally impaled by the Skeksis' Ritual-Master. Jen inserts the Shard into the Crystal, fulfilling the prophecy just as the Mystics enter the Crystal Chamber. The Castle's dark walls disintegrate, revealing a structure of a bright Crystal, and the urRu and Skeksis merge into tall glowing beings known as urSkeks. The leader of the urSkeks explains they had mistakenly shattered the Crystal long ago, splitting them into two races and decimating Thra, and Jen, in fulfilling the prophecy, has restored them. The urSkeks revive Kira in gratitude for her sacrifice and Jen's courage, and then ascend to a higher level of existence, leaving the Crystal to the Gelflings on the now-rejuvenated Thra.

CastEdit

Main

Skeksis

urRu/Mystics

  • Sean Barrett as urZah/The Ritual-Guardian: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekZok and acting leader of the Mystics, puppeteered by Brian Muehl. Muehl also portrays urSu/The Master, the urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekSo who dies at the beginning of the film.
  • Richard Slaughter as urIm/The Healer: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekUng, also puppeteered by David Greenaway.
  • Jean Pierre Amiel as urUtt/The Weaver: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekEkt.
  • Hugh Spight as urAmaj/The Cook: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekAyuk.
  • Robbie Barnett as urYod/The Numerologist: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekShod.
  • Swee Lim as urNol/The Herbalist: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekNa.
  • Simon Williamson as urSol/The Chanter: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekSil.
  • Hus Levant as urAc/The Scribe: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekOk.
  • Toby Philpott as urTih/The Alchemist: The urRu/Mystic counterpart of skekTek.

Others

  • Joseph O'Conor as UngIm, the urSkeks whom skekUng and urIm were derived from, and the Narrator.
  • Hugh Spight, Swee Lim, and Robbie Barnett as the Landstriders.
  • Miki Iveria, Patrick Monckton, Sue Weatherby, and Barry Dennen as the voices of the Podlings/Pod People.

ProductionEdit

DevelopmentEdit

Henson's inspiration for the visual aspects of the film came around 1975–76,[7] after he saw an illustration by Leonard B. Lubin in a 1975 edition of Lewis Carroll’s poetry showing crocodiles living in a palace and wearing elaborate robes and jewelry.[6][8][9] The film's conceptual roots lay in Henson's short-lived The Land of Gorch, which also took place in an alien world with no human characters.[8] According to co-director Frank Oz, Henson's intention was to "get back to the darkness of the original Grimms' Fairy Tales", as he believed that it was unhealthy for children to never be afraid.[10]

Henson formulated his ideas into a 25-page story he entitled The Crystal, which he wrote whilst snowed in at an airport hotel.[6] Henson's original concept was set in a world called Mithra, a wooded land with talking mountains, walking boulders and animal-plant hybrids. The original plot involved a malevolent race called the Reptus group, which took power in a coup against the peaceful Eunaze, led by Malcolm the Wise. The last survivor of the Eunaze was Malcolm's son Brian, who was adopted by the Bada, Mithra's mystical wizards.[11]

This draft contained elements in the final product, including the three races, the two funerals, the quest, a female secondary character, the Crystal, and the reunification of the two races during the Great Conjunction. "Mithra" was later abbreviated to "Thra", due to similarities the original name had with an ancient Persian deity.[6] The character Kira was also at that point called Dee.[9]

Most of the philosophical undertones of the film were inspired from Jane Roberts' "Seth Material". Henson kept multiple copies of the book Seth Speaks, and insisted that Froud and screenwriter David Odell read it prior to collaborating for the film. Odell later wrote that Aughra's line "He could be anywhere then," upon being told by Jen that his Master was dead, could not have been written without having first read Roberts' material.[6]

The Bada were renamed "Ooo-urrrs", which Henson would pronounce "very slowly and with a deep resonant voice." Odell simplified the spelling to urRu, though they were ultimately named Mystics in the theatrical cut. The word "Skeksis" was initially meant to be the plural, with "Skesis" being singular, though this was dropped early in the filming process. Originally, Henson wanted the Skeksis to speak their own constructed language, with the dialogue subtitled in English.[6]

Accounts differ as to who constructed the language, and on what it was based. Gary Kurtz stated that the Skeksis language was conceived by author Alan Garner, who based it on Ancient Egyptian,[12] while Odell stated it was he who created it, and that it was formed from Indo-European roots. This idea was dropped after test screening audiences found the captions too distracting, but the original effect can be observed in selected scenes on the various DVD releases.[6] The language of the Podlings was based on Serbo-Croatian, with Kurtz noting that audience members fluent in Polish, Russian and other Slavic languages could understand individual words, but not whole sentences.[12]

 
Gordale Scar, one of the locations used in filming

The film was shot at Elstree Studios from April–December 1981, and exterior scenes were shot in the Scottish Highlands; Gordale Scar, North Yorkshire, England; and Twycross, Leicestershire, England. Once filming was completed, the film's release was delayed after Lew Grade sold ITC Entertainment to Robert Holmes à Court, who was skeptical of the film's potential, due to the bad reactions at the preview and the need to re-voice the film's soundtrack. The film was afforded minimal advertisement and release until Henson bought it from Holmes à Court and funded its release with his own money.[6]

DesignEdit

 
One of the original Skeksis costumes, on display at the Center for Puppetry Arts in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Brian Froud was chosen as concept artist after Henson saw one of his paintings in the book Once upon a time.[9] The characters in the film are elaborate puppets, and none are based on humans or any other specific Earth creature. Before its release, The Dark Crystal was billed as the first live-action film without any human beings on screen, and "a showcase for cutting-edge animatronics".[13]

The hands and facial features of the groundbreaking animatronic puppets in the film were controlled with relatively primitive rods and cables, although radio control later took over many of the subtler movements.[14] Human performers inside the puppets supplied basic movement for the larger creatures, which in some cases was dangerous or exhausting; for example, the Garthim costumes were so heavy that the performers had to be hung up on a rack every few minutes to rest while still inside the costumes.[15] A mime from Switzerland was hired to help choreograph the movements of the puppeteers.[7]

When conceptualizing the Skeksis, Henson had in mind the Seven deadly sins, though because there were 10 Skeksis, some sins had to be invented or used twice.[16] Froud originally designed them to resemble deep sea fish,[17] but later designed them as "part reptile, part predatory bird, part dragon", with an emphasis on giving them a "penetrating stare."[16] Each Skeksis was conceived as having a different "job" or function, thus each puppet was draped in multicolored robes meant to reflect their personalities and thought processes.[17]

Each Skeksis suit required a main performer, whose arm would be extended over his or her head in order to operate the creature's facial movements, while the other arm operated its left hand. Another performer would operate the Skeksis' right arm. The Skeksis performers compensated for their lack of vision by having a monitor tied to their chests.[18]

In designing the Mystics, Froud portrayed them as being more connected to the natural world than their Skeksis counterparts. Henson intended to convey the idea that they were purged of all materialistic urges, yet were incapable of acting in the real world. Froud also incorporated geometric symbolism throughout the film in order to hint at the implied unity of the two races.[17] The Mystics were the hardest creatures to perform, as the actors had to walk on their haunches with their right arm extended forward, with the full weight of the head on it. Henson himself could hold a position in a Mystic costume for only 5–10 seconds.[16]

The Gelflings were designed and sculpted by Wendy Midener. They were difficult to perform, as they were meant to be the most human creatures in the film, and thus their movements, particularly their gait, had to be as realistic as possible. During scenes when the Gelflings' legs were off-camera, the performers walked on their knees in order to make the character's movements more lifelike.[18] According to Odell, the character Jen was Henson's way of projecting himself into the film.[17] Jen was originally meant to be blue, in homage to the Hindu deity Rama, but this idea was scrapped early on.[8]

Aughra was originally envisioned as a "busy, curious little creature" called Habeetabat, though the name was rejected by Froud, who found the name too similar to Habitat, a retailer he despised. The character was re-envisioned as a seer or prophetess, and renamed Aughra. In selecting a voice actor for Aughra, Henson was inspired by Zero Mostel's performance as a "kind of insane bird trying to overcome Tourettes syndrome" on Watership Down. Although the character was originally voiced by Frank Oz, Henson wanted a female voice, and subsequently selected Billie Whitelaw.[6]

The character Fizzgig was invented by Frank Oz, who wanted a character who served the same function as the Muppet poodle Foo-Foo, feeling that, like Miss Piggy, the character Kira needed an outlet for her caring, nurturing side.[6] The character's design was meant to convey the idea of a "boyfriend-repellant", to contrast the popular idea that it is easier to form a bond with a member of the opposite sex with the assistance of a cute dog.[17]

The Podlings were envisioned as people in complete harmony with their natural surroundings, thus Froud based their design on that of potatoes.[16] Their village was modeled on the Henson family home.[17]

In designing the Garthim, Froud took inspiration from the discarded carapaces of his and Henson's lobster dinners.[9][17] The Garthim were first designed three years into the making of the film, and were made largely of fiberglass. Each costume weighed around 70 lbs (32 kg), thus Garthim performers still in costume had to frequently be suspended on racks in order to recuperate.[16]

The Dark Crystal was the last film in which cinematographer Oswald Morris, BSC, involved himself in before retiring. He shot all the footage with a "light flex", a unit placed in front of the camera which gave a faint color tint to each scene in order to give the film a more fairy tale atmosphere similar to Froud's original paintings.[16]

MusicEdit

The film's soundtrack was composed by Trevor Jones, who became involved before shooting had started.[19] Jones initially wanted to compose a score which reflected the settings' oddness by using acoustical instruments, electronics and building structures. This was scrapped in favor of an orchestral score performed by the London Symphony Orchestra once Gary Kurtz became involved, as it was felt that an unusual score would alienate audiences. The main theme of the film is a composite of the Skeksis' and Mystics' themes.[20] Jones wrote the baby Landstrider theme in honor of his newly born daughter.[21]

ReleaseEdit

Box officeEdit

The Dark Crystal was released in 858 theaters in North America on December 17, 1982. In its initial weekends, it had a limited appeal with audiences for various reasons, including parental concerns about its dark nature, creative connections with Henson's family-friendly Muppet franchise, and competition from other films, including Tootsie and the already massively successful E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[22] It made $40,577,001 in its box office run, managing to turn a profit. The film became the 16th highest-grossing film of 1982 within North America.[23] To date, it remains as one of the highest-grossing puppet animated films of all time, particularly for its domestic gross.[citation needed]

ReceptionEdit

The film received a mixed response upon its original release, but has earned a better reception in later years, becoming a favorite with fans of Henson and fantasy.[24] It currently holds a 79% approval rating on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, based on 47 reviews with an average rating of 6.5/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "The Dark Crystal's narrative never quite lives up to the movie's visual splendor, but it remains an admirably inventive and uniquely intense entry in the Jim Henson canon."[25] Vincent Canby of The New York Times negatively reviewed the film, describing it as a "watered down J. R. R. Tolkien... without charm as well as interest."[26] Kevin Thomas gave it a more positive assessment in the Los Angeles Times: "Unlike many screen fantasies, The Dark Crystal casts its spell from its very first frames and proceeds so briskly that it's over before you realize it. You're left with the feeling that you have just awakened from a dream."[27]

In 2008, the American Film Institute nominated this film for its Top 10 Fantasy Films list.[28]

AwardsEdit

Home media releaseEdit

The Dark Crystal was first released on VHS, Betamax, and CED by Thorn EMI Video in 1983. The company's successor HBO Video re-released it on VHS in 1988 and also released it in widescreen on LaserDisc for the first time. On July 29, 1994, Jim Henson Video (through Disney's Buena Vista Home Video) re-released the film again on VHS and on a new widescreen LaserDisc. On October 5, 1999, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment and Jim Henson Home Entertainment gave the film one final VHS release and also released it on DVD for the first time and it has had multiple re-releases since including a Collector's Edition on November 25, 2003, and a 25th Anniversary Edition on August 14, 2007. It was also released on UMD Universal Media Disc for PlayStation Portable (PSP) on July 26, 2005. It was released on Blu-ray on September 29, 2009.

Another anniversary edition of The Dark Crystal was announced in December 2017, with a brand-new restoration from the original camera negative, and was released on Blu-ray and 4K Blu-ray on March 6, 2018.[29] Prior to the 4K/Blu-Ray release, Fathom Events presented the restored print of The Dark Crystal in US cinemas on February 25 and 28, and March 3 and 6, 2018.[citation needed]

NovelizationEdit

A tie-in novelization of the film was written by A.C.H. Smith. Henson took a keen interest in the novelization, as he considered it a legitimate part of the film's world rather than just an advertisement. He originally asked Alan Garner to write it, but he declined on account of prior engagements. Henson and Smith met several times over meals to discuss the progress of the manuscript. According to Smith, the only major disagreement they had arose over his dislike of the Podlings, which he considered "boring". He included a scene in which a Garthim carrying a sackful of Podlings fell down a cliff and crushed them. Henson considered this scene to be an element of "gratuitous cruelty" that did not fit well into the scope of the story. In order to assist Smith in his visualising the world of The Dark Crystal, Henson invited him to visit Elstree Studios during the filming of the film.[30] In June 2014, Archaia Entertainment reprinted the novelization, though included extras such as some of Brian Froud's illustrations, and Jim Henson's notes.[31]

Cancelled sequelEdit

During the development phase of The Dark Crystal, director Jim Henson and writer David Odell discussed ideas for a possible sequel. Almost 25 years later, Odell and his wife Annette Duffy pieced together what Odell could recall from these discussions to draft a script for The Power of the Dark Crystal.[32] Genndy Tartakovsky was initially hired in January 2006 to direct and produce the film through The Orphanage animation studios in California.[33]

However, faced with considerable delays, the Jim Henson Company announced a number of significant changes in a May 2010 press release: It was going to partner with Australia-based Omnilab Media to produce the sequel, screenwriter Craig Pearce had reworked Odell and Duffy's script, and directing team Michael and Peter Spierig were replacing Tartakovsky. In addition, the film would be released in stereoscopic 3D.[34]

During a panel held at the Museum of the Moving Image on September 18, 2011, to commemorate the legacy of Jim Henson, his daughter Cheryl revealed that the project was yet again on hiatus.[35] By February 2012 Omnilab Media and the Spierig brothers had parted ways with the Henson Company due to budgetary concerns; production on the film has been suspended indefinitely.[36] In May 2014, Lisa Henson confirmed that the film was still in development, but it is not yet in pre-production.[37]

Ultimately, plans for a feature film were scrapped, and the unproduced screenplay was adapted into a 12-issue comic book series The Power of the Dark Crystal from Archaia Comics and BOOM! Studios, released in 2017.[38]

Prequel novelsEdit

On July 1, 2013, an announcement was made by The Jim Henson Company, in association with Grosset and Dunlap (a publishing division of Penguin Group USA) that they would be hosting a Dark Crystal Author Quest contest to write a new Dark Crystal novel, as a prequel to the original film. It would be set in the Dark Crystal world during a Gelfling Gathering. The winning author was J.M. (Joseph) Lee of Minneapolis, Minnesota, whose story, "The Ring of Dreams," was selected from almost 500 contest submissions.[39]

The novel series consists of four books: Shadows of the Dark Crystal, released on June 28, 2016; Song of the Dark Crystal, released July 18, 2017; Tides of the Dark Crystal, released December 24, 2018; and Flames of the Dark Crystal, released on August 27, 2019. Together, the novels serve to establish the setting of the Netflix series The Dark Crystal: Age of Resistance, focusing on adventures of some of the series's side characters.

Prequel seriesEdit

In May 2017, it was announced that The Jim Henson Company in association with Netflix would produce a prequel series titled The Dark Crystal: Age of Resistance. Shooting began in the fall of 2017 with Louis Leterrier as director.[40] The prequel was written by Jeffrey Addiss, Will Matthews, and Javier Grillo-Marxuach.[41] There are ten episodes, and the series explores the world created for the original film.[41] On May 21, 2019, it was announced that the series would premiere on August 30, 2019.[42][5]

In other mediaEdit

  • A book entitled The World of The Dark Crystal, written by J.J. Llewellyn and illustrated by Brian Froud, was released at the same time as the film. The book expands greatly on the world of "Thra", detailing its conditions and history, as well as providing some additional story background.
  • An illustrated children's storybook version, The Tale of the Dark Crystal, written by Donna Bass and illustrated by Bruce McNally.
  • A board game called The Dark Crystal Game was also released in 1982 by Milton Bradley.
  • A book-and-cassette adaptation was released in 1983 by Disneyland Records as part of its Read-Along Adventures series.
  • In 1983, a video game based on the film was released for the Apple II and Atari 8-bit in the format of a text adventure.
  • Marvel Comics published a comic book adaptation of the film by writer David Anthony Kraft and artists Bret Blevins, Vince Colletta, Rick Bryant, and Richard Howell in Marvel Super Special #24.[43]
  • Vogue commissioned six of the film's costume designers to fashion clothes based on the characters of the film.[44]
  • Music duo The Crystal Method used samples from the film in the song "Trip Like I Do", released on their 1997 album Vegas.
  • Legends of the Dark Crystal, an original English-language manga written by Barbara Kesel with art by Heidi Arnhold, Jessica Feinberg, and Max Kim, was published by TokyoPop. Its story is set hundreds of years before the events of The Dark Crystal, after the Great Conjunction which saw the splitting of the urSkeks into the Mystics and the Skeksis, but before the Great Extermination of the Gelflings. The first volume of the series came out November 2007, followed sometime later by the second in August 2010. A third installment had been originally planned but was canceled and subsequently merged into the second volume.[45]
  • Another comic book prequel, The Dark Crystal: Creation Myths, is currently being published by Archaia Entertainment as a series of three graphic novels.[46] The Henson Company and Archaia began collaborating on this project in late 2009.[47] A brief preview was made available on Free Comic Book Day in May 2011,[48] and the first installment was released January 2012, shortly thereafter spending two weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list of hardcover graphic books. In February 2013, the second installment was officially released. The third and final part was released in October 2015.
  • In February 2011, Sandstorm Productions – a firm that partnered with various design studios to facilitate the development and distribution of board games and collectible card games – revealed that it had acquired the license to produce games based on various Henson properties, including The Dark Crystal.[49] Before any definitive plans were made, however, Sandstorm went out of business in June 2012.
  • Archaia announced plans for a role-playing game based on The Dark Crystal at the August 2011 Gen Con gaming convention, intending to publish it later the following year. Like its Origins Award-winning Mouse Guard game, The Dark Crystal will be designed by Luke Crane and utilize mechanics similar to that of The Burning Wheel.[50][51] As of September 2012, it remains in active development, with more details forthcoming in 2013.
  • In August 2013, Black Phoenix Alchemy Lab - a company that produces body and household blends with a dark, romantic Gothic tone - debuted the first of their licensed The Dark Crystal perfumes. The debut included four Skeksis blends: skekUng the Garthim-Master, skekNa the Slave-Master, skekTek the Scientist and skekZok the Ritual-Master.[52]
  • In the Jim Henson's Creature Shop Challenge episode "Return of the Skeksis," the competing creature designers had to work in teams of three to build a Skeksis that has been banished to different parts of Thra and has been called back to the Skeksis Castle.
  • The song Skeksis on Alien by Canadian band Strapping Young Lad is named after the film's antagonists; the song itself contains an interpolation of the film's theme melody.[53] Singer-songwriter Devin Townsend would later base Ziltoid the Omniscient on the characters from the film.
  • Dark Crystal Tales by Cory Godbey, a children's book of short stories, was released August 2017.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "The Dark Crystal (A)". British Board of Film Classification. November 3, 1982. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
  2. ^ "The Dark Crystal: The Ultimate Visual History" (September 19, 2017)
  3. ^ BRITISH PRODUCTION 1981 Moses, Antoinette. Sight and Sound; London Vol. 51, Iss. 4, (Fall 1982): 258.
  4. ^ "The Dark Crystal (1982) - Box Office Mojo". www.boxofficemojo.com.
  5. ^ a b "Simon Pegg Says Watching the Original Dark Crystal Was an 'Overwhelming Experience'". People.com. August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j David Odell (2012), "Reflections on Making The Dark Crystal and Working with Jim Henson". In: Froud, B., Dysart, J., Sheikman, A. & John, L. The Dark Crystal: Creation Myths, Vol. II. Archaia. ISBN 978-1-936393-80-0
  7. ^ a b Fantastic Films #32, February, 1983
  8. ^ a b c McAra, Catriona (2013) A Natural History of "The Dark Crystal": The Conceptual Design of Brian Froud. In: The Wider Worlds of Jim Henson. McFarland, Jefferson, pp. 101-116.
  9. ^ a b c d Brian Froud (2003), "A Journey into The Dark Crystal". In: Froud, B. & Llewellyn, J. J., The World of the Dark Crystal. Pavilion Books. ISBN 1-86205-624-2
  10. ^ Peter Hartlaub, Q&A: Frank Oz on Henson, “Dark Crystal” and the Kwik Way, SFGate, (Jun 28, 2007)
  11. ^ Jim Henson, The Mithra Treatment [DVD special Feature]. The Dark Cyrstal: Collector's Edition, Dir. Jim Henson & Frank Oz. 1982. Colombia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD.
  12. ^ a b Hutchinson, David. "Producing the world of The Dark Crystal: A new direction for the man behind ‘Star Wars" and "Empire" Gary Kurtz". Starlog: The Magazine of the Future. 66 (January 1983):19-20.
  13. ^ Wright 2005.
  14. ^ Rickitt 2000, p. 225.
  15. ^ Bacon 1997, p. 24.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Making-of. The World of the Dark Crystal. Dir. Jim Henson & Frank Oz. 1982. Colombia Tristar Home Video, 1999. DVD.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Making-of. Reflections of the Dark Crystal: Light on the Path of Creation. Dir. Michael Gillis. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.
  18. ^ a b Making-of. Reflections of the Dark Crystal: Shard of Illusion. Dir. Michael Gillis. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2007. DVD.
  19. ^ Hoover, Tom (2010). Soundtrack Nation: Interviews with Today's Top Professionals in Film, Videogame, and Television Scoring, 1st Ed. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781435457621.
  20. ^ Cinemascore 2011.
  21. ^ "The Dark Crystal" at Oscars Outdoors, Oscars.org (September 4, 2012)
  22. ^ Scheib 2010.
  23. ^ The Dark Crystal Summary at Box Office Mojo.
  24. ^ Von Gunden 1989, p. 30–31.
  25. ^ "The Dark Crystal (1982)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  26. ^ Canby 1982.
  27. ^ Thomas 1982.
  28. ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10 Nominees" (PDF). Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  29. ^ "The Dark Crystal 4K Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved February 18, 2018.
  30. ^ "Jim Henson's Labyrinth – The 25th Anniversary Podcast with ACH Smith and Sam Downie – Sam Downie". Dsoundz.co.uk. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  31. ^ "Jim Hensons Dark Crystal HC Novel @TFAW.com". Things From Another World. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  32. ^ Carroll 2006.
  33. ^ The Jim Henson Company 2006.
  34. ^ The Jim Henson Company 2010.
  35. ^ Hill 2011.
  36. ^ Swift 2012.
  37. ^ Watkins, Gwynne (May 16, 2014). "Checking in on The Dark Crystal, Labyrinth, and Other Jim Henson Company Franchises". New York. New York Media LLC. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  38. ^ McMillan, Graeme (November 21, 2016). "'Dark Crystal' Sequel Finally Coming to Life Thanks to Comic Book Series". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  39. ^ Lodge, Sally (July 8, 2014). "Penguin and Jim Henson Company Team Up for Dark Crystal Project". Publishers Weekly. publishersweekly.com. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
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