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In Tibetan Buddhism, the Sarma (Tibetan: གསར་མ, Wylie: gsar ma) or "New Translation" schools include the three newer (Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug) of the four main schools,[1] comprising the following traditions and their sub-branches with their roots in the 11th century:[citation needed]

The Nyingma, a name contemporary to the emergence of the above schools in the 11th century, is the sole snga 'gyur (Tibetan: སྔ་འགྱུར།) "Old Translation" school[1] and is often equated as originating with the widespread introduction of Buddhism to Tibet around the turn of the 8th century.[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b Newman, Bruce (1 January 2004). "A Beginner's Guide to Tibetan Buddhism". Snow Lion Publications – via Google Books.