Amy Lynn Chua (born October 26, 1962) is an American lawyer, academic and writer.
Chua in April 2012
|Born||Amy Lynn Chua|
October 26, 1962
Champaign, Illinois, U.S.
|Occupation||Professor at Yale Law School|
|Education||Harvard University (BA, JD)|
|Subject||International relations, political science, sociology, economics, parenting|
Chua graduated from Harvard College and Harvard Law School. She is the John M. Duff Jr. Professor of Law at Yale Law School. Her expertise is in international business transactions, law and development, ethnic conflict, and globalization and the law. She joined the Yale faculty in 2001 after teaching at Duke Law School for seven years. Prior to starting her teaching career, she was a corporate law associate at Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton. She is also known for her parenting memoir, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. In 2011, she was named one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people, one of The Atlantic's Brave Thinkers, and one of Foreign Policy's Global Thinkers.
As of September 2018[update] and prior to the nomination of Judge Brett Kavanaugh to the US Supreme Court, Chua and her husband, Jed Rubenfeld, are under investigation by Yale amid allegations that she "groomed" potential female clerks for the judge to appear a certain way, which Chua denies, pointing out that her own daughter was approved for such a position with him.
Chua was born in Champaign, Illinois, to ethnic Chinese parents with Hoklo ancestry who emigrated from the Philippines. Her parents raised her speaking Hokkien. Her father, Leon O. Chua, is a professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences at the University of California, Berkeley. His ancestral hometown is Quanzhou, Fujian.
Chua's mother was born in China[where?] in 1936, before moving to the Philippines at the age of two. She subsequently converted to Catholicism in high school and graduated from the University of Santo Tomas, with a degree in Chemical Engineering, summa cum laude.
Early life and educationEdit
Chua described herself as an "ugly kid" during her school days; she was bullied in school for her foreign accent (which she has since lost) and was the target of racial slurs from several classmates. Chua went to El Cerrito High School and graduated magna cum laude. In college, she graduated Phi Beta Kappa with an A.B. in Economics in 1984 from Harvard College, where she was named an Elizabeth Cary Agassiz Scholar and a John Harvard Scholar. She obtained her J.D. cum laude in 1987 from Harvard Law School, where she was the first Asian American officer of the Harvard Law Review, serving as executive editor.
Chua has written five books: two studies of international affairs, a parenting memoir, a book on ethnic-American culture and its correlation with socio-economic success within the United States, and a book about the role of tribal loyalties in American politics and its foreign policy.
Her first book, World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability (2003), explores the ethnic conflict caused in many societies by disproportionate economic and political influence of "market dominant minorities" and the resulting resentment in the less affluent majority. World on Fire, which was a New York Times bestseller, selected by The Economist as one of the Best Books of 2003, and named by Tony Giddens in The Guardian as one of the "Top Political Reads of 2003", examines how globalization and democratization since 1989 have affected the relationship between market-dominant minorities and the wider population.
Her second book, Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance – and Why They Fall (2007), examines seven major empires and posits that their success depended on their tolerance of minorities.
Chua's third book, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, published in January 2011, is a memoir about her parenting journey using strict Confucianist child rearing techniques, which she describes as being typical for Chinese immigrant parents. Despite being sometimes interpreted as a how-to manual for parenting, the book has been critically viewed as an account "of how children can become rebellious and alienated when one-size-fits-all education philosophies are applied, regardless of their personality or aptitudes." It was an international bestseller in the United States, South Korea, Poland, Israel, Germany, United Kingdom, and China, and has been translated into 30 languages. The book also received a huge backlash and media attention and ignited global debate about different parenting techniques and cultural attitudes that foster such techniques. Furthermore, the book provoked uproar after the release where Chua received death threats, racial slurs, and calls for her arrest on child-abuse charges. The book continues to be highly discussed. In January 2016, David Cameron praised "Tiger Mothers", stating "It is what the Tiger Mothers' battle hymn is all about: work, try hard, believe you can succeed, get up and try again."
Her fourth book, co-written with husband Jed Rubenfeld, is The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America (published in February 2014). The book received positive reviews from a number of sources. Lucy Kellaway, writing for Financial Times, called it "the best universal theory of success I've seen." The Guardian commended the book for "draw[ing] on eye-opening studies of the influence of stereotypes and expectations on various ethnic and cultural groups ... The authors' willingness to pursue an intellectual inquiry that others wouldn't is bracing." The book was also criticized because of what some described as cultural stereotyping. An empirical study by Joshua Hart and Christopher F. Chabris found that "There was little evidence for the Triple Package theory."
Chua also appears in author J. D. Vance's memoir and bestseller, Hillbilly Elegy. Chua's student at Yale, Vance wrote that she gave him "the best advice anyone has ever given me." Vance wrote in his acknowledgments, "Besides Tina, the person who deserves the most credit for this book's existence is Amy Chua, my Yale contracts professor, who convinced me that both my life and the conclusions I drew from it were worth putting down on paper." Vance credits Chua as the "authorial godmother" of Hillbilly Elegy.
In February 2018, Chua's fifth book was published. Titled Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations, it covers the topic of how loyalty to groups often outweighs ideological considerations. She examines how a failure to realize this has played a role in both the failure of US foreign policy abroad and the rise of Donald Trump domestically. The book received overwhelming positive reviews from across the political spectrum. David Frum, writing for The New York Times, praised Chua for her willingness to approach "the no-go areas around which others usually tiptoe." The Washington Post described the book as "compact, insightful, disquieting, yet ultimately hopeful," and Ezra Klein called the book "fascinating" on his Vox podcast. The book received a few criticisms. The Guardian called it "a well-intentioned book that never quite comes together." The Financial Times stated that it was "an important book," and supported Chua’s argument "that America’s liberal elite has contributed to Trump’s rise by failing to acknowledge its own sense of tribalism"; it did, however, also state that it left the "crucial question" of how to create a "non-tribal world" unanswered. J.D. Vance, a former student of Chua and author of Hillbilly Elegy, praised the book, saying that "Political Tribes is a beautifully written, eminently readable, and uniquely important challenge to conventional wisdom."
It has been reported that Chua played a major role in the hiring process for Justice Brett Kavanaugh, previously a prominent federal judge on the D.C. Circuit. Chua has recommended a large number of candidates that have gone on to clerk for him. Controversy has arisen from allegations that Chua "groomed" potential clerks for the job by advising them to dress and act a certain way, so as to secure employment with Kavanaugh.
On September 20, 2018, The Guardian reported that Chua and another prominent Yale law professor had advised female law students at Yale that their physical attractiveness and femininity could play a role in securing a clerkship with Kavanaugh. Chua reportedly stated that female law students should exude a "model-like" femininity and "dress outgoing" in their job interview with him, and that it was "no coincidence" that Kavanaugh's female clerks all "looked like models." Jed Rubenfeld, Amy Chua's husband, reportedly stated that Kavanaugh "hires women with a certain look.”
Yale Law School Dean Heather Gerken stated that the allegations reported by the Guardian were "of enormous concern to me and the school," which investigates all complaints concerning violations of Yale University rules. In a statement to The Guardian in response to the report, Chua denied the notion that Kavanaugh's hiring was impacted by the attractiveness of female clerks. She stated that, "Judge Kavanaugh’s first and only litmus test in hiring has been excellence."[additional citation(s) needed] Yale subsequently did not find cause to sanction Chua, and she resumed regular teaching in the 2019-20 school year.
Chua lives in New Haven, Connecticut, and is married to Yale Law School professor Jed Rubenfeld. She has two daughters, Sophia and Louisa ("Lulu"). The former appeared in the New Yorker as a Harvard student, member of Kappa Alpha Theta and the ROTC. She said she was unprepared for the spotlight when Tiger Mother was released. Sophia graduated from Yale Law School in 2018; she majored in philosophy and South Asian Studies during her undergraduate studies at Harvard. On June 10, 2019, the Associated Press reported that Sophia would clerk for Justice Brett Kavanaugh. Lulu also attended Harvard, where she majored in history and was president of the Sab Club.
- World On Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability. 2002. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0385512848
- Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance – and Why They Fall. 2009. Anchor. ISBN 978-1400077410
- Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. 2011. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143120582
- The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. 2014. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-1594205460
- Political Tribes: Group Instinct and the Fate of Nations. 2018. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0399562853
- Chabris, Christopher; Hart, Joshua (April 8, 2018). 别迷信虎妈的成功学 [How Not to Explain Success]. The New York Times (in Chinese). Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- "Amy Chua - Yale Law School". law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
- Chua, Amy. "About Amy". AmyChua.com. Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Mystal, Elie (September 20, 2018). "'No accident' Brett Kavanaugh's female law clerks 'looked like models', Yale professor told students". The Guardian. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Edelman, Adam; Hunt, Kasie (September 20, 2018). "Yale Law dean: Reports that professor groomed female clerks for Kavanaugh 'of enormous concern'". NBC News. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Chua, Amy (2011). Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. Penguin Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1594202841.
- Chua, Leon O. (September 1971). "Memristor - The Missing Circuit Element". IEEE Transactions on Circuits Theory (IEEE) 18 (5): 507–519.
- "Had Mother's Day dinner @ the studio of "Gunpowder Artist" Cai Guo-Qiang, who is from my ancestral hometown Quanzhou!". Twitter. May 12, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
- Walsh, Colleen (November 12, 2012). "Memories and beginnings". Harvard Gazette.
- Maslin, Janet (January 19, 2011). "Amy Chua's 'Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother' – Review". The New York Times.
- Kira Cochrane (7 February 2014). "The truth about the Tiger Mother's family". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Amy Chua". UW Faculty Web Server. University of Washington. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
- "H4A 2014 Summit:What Really Defines and Drives Success? with Amy Chua, Vivian Louie and Jeff Yang". YouTube.com. 2014-11-03. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- Yale Law School | Faculty | Curriculum Vitae Archived 2007-12-11 at the Wayback Machine
- Political Tribes by Amy Chua | PenguinRandomHouse.com.
- "Home entertainment". The Economist. December 4, 2003.
- "Top political reads of the year". The Guardian. London. December 24, 2003.
- Hodson, Heather (January 15, 2011). "Amy Chua: 'I'm going to take all your stuffed animals and burn them!'". The Guardian. London.
- Carey, Tanith (2016-01-17). "Whatever happened to the original tiger mum's children?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
- Zeiss Stange, Mary (9 Jan 2013). The Multimedia Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. SAGE Publications. p. 183. ISBN 978-1452270685.
- Chua, Amy. "The Book". AmyChua.com. Archived from the original on 2011-04-24. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Emily Rauhala (14 August 2014) 'Tiger Mother': Are Chinese Moms Really So Different? Time. Retrieved 8 March 2014
- Martin, Daniel (11 January 2016). "I want every teacher to be a Tiger Mum, says Cameron". Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- Cochrane, Kira (7 February 2014). "The truth about the Tiger Mother's family". The Guardian.
- Chua, Amy; Rubenfeld, Jed (4 February 2014). The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1594205460.
- Kellaway, Lucy. "Lessons in success from Eton and the Tiger Mother". FT.com. Financial Times. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Brockes, Emily (2014-02-05). "The Triple Package: What Really Determines Success – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Tiger Mom's New Book Stirs Up Culture Wars". Yahoo Shine. January 7, 2014.
- "Amy Chua In 'The Triple Package' Claims Jews and Mormons Produce More Successful People". The Huffington Post. January 6, 2014.
- Flood, Alison (8 January 2014). "'Tiger mother' returns with provocative theory of 'cultural group' success". The Guardian.
- Hart, Joshua; Chabris, Christopher F. (2016). "Does a "Triple Package" of traits predict success?". Personality and Individual Differences. 94: 216–222. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.12.041.
- Vance, J.D. Hillbilly Elegy: A Memoir of a Family and Culture in Crisis. Harper. p. 259.
- "'Hillbilly Elegy' made J.D. Vance the voice of the Rust Belt. But does he want that job?". Washington Post.
- David Frum, "The Battle Over What It Means to Be American", The New York Times, Retrieved 2018-03-30.
- Jonathan Rauch, "Have our tribes become more important than our country?", The Washington Post, Retrieved 2018-03-30.
- Ezra Klein, "The Ezra Klein Show", The Ezra Klein Show, 2018-02-26.
- Anthony, Andrew (2018-02-25). "Political Tribes review – an unreliable guide to the American Dream". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
- Tett, Gillian (2018-02-21). "Us and them: how America divided into tribes". Financial Times. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
- "Courses | Yale Law School Course Information and Selection Site".
- Marantz, Andrew, "Ink: The Tiger Cub Speaks," The New Yorker, Feb. 10, 2014, p.20, 22.
- "Sophia Chua-Rubenfeld". ethics.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
- "Daughter of 'tiger mom' Chua picked as Kavanaugh law clerk". AP NEWS. 2019-06-10. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
- Bennett, Laura (2018-01-22). "My Parents' Work-Life Balance: When Your Mom Is "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
- Lewak, Doree (2018-03-28). "I was raised by Tiger Mom — and it worked". New York Post. Retrieved 2019-08-13.