Protestantism by country

There are between 800 million and 1 billion Protestants worldwide,[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][a] among approximately 2.5 billion Christians.[10][1][11][12][b] In 2010, a total of more than 800 million included 300 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in the Americas, 140 million in Asia-Pacific region, 100 million in Europe and 2 million in Middle East-North Africa.[2] Protestants account for nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide and more than one tenth of the total human population.[2] Various estimates put the percentage of Protestants in relation to the total number of the world's Christians at 33%,[5] 36%,[13] 36.7%,[2] and 40%,[3] while in relation to the world's population at 11.6%[2] and 13%.[8]

Distribution of Protestants
Percentage of Protestants by country
Number of Protestants by country

In European countries which were most profoundly influenced by the Reformation, Protestantism still remains the most practiced religion.[5] These include the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom.[5][14] In other historical Protestant strongholds such as Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Latvia, Estonia and Hungary, it remains one of the most popular religions.[15] Although Czech Republic was the site of one of the most significant pre-reformation movements,[16] there are only few Protestant adherents;[17][18] mainly due to historical reasons like persecution of Protestants by the Catholic Habsburgs,[19] restrictions during the Communist rule, and also the ongoing secularization.[16] Over the last several decades, religious practice has been declining as secularization has increased.[5][20] According to a 2019 study about religiosity in the European Union (EU) by Eurobarometer, Protestants made up 9% of the EU population.[21] According to Pew Research Center, Protestants constituted nearly one fifth (or 17.8%) of the continent's Christian population in 2010.[2] Clarke and Beyer estimate that Protestants constituted 15% of all Europeans in 2009, while Noll claims that less than 12% of them lived in Europe in 2010.[5][7]

Changes in worldwide Protestantism over the last century have been significant.[3][7][22] Since 1900, Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America.[23][8][22] That caused Protestantism to be called a primarily non-Western religion.[7][22] Much of the growth has occurred after World War II, when decolonization of Africa and abolition of various restrictions against Protestants in Latin American countries occurred.[8] According to one source, Protestants constituted respectively 2.5% of South Americans, 2% of Africans, and 0.5% of Asians in 1900.[8] In 2000, percentage of Protestants on mentioned continents was 17%, more than 27% and 5.5%, respectively.[8] According to Mark A. Noll, 79% of Anglicans lived in the United Kingdom in 1910, while most of the remainder was found in the United States and across the British Commonwealth.[7] By 2010, 59% of Anglicans were found in Africa.[7] China is home to the world's largest Protestant minority.[2][c]

Protestantism is growing in Africa,[23][24][25] Asia,[23][25][26] Latin America,[25][27] and Oceania,[23][22] while remaining stable or declining in Anglo America[22] and Europe,[5][28] with some exceptions such as France,[29] where it was legally eradicated after the abolition of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau and the following persecution of Huguenots, but now is claimed to be stable in number or even growing slightly.[29] According to some, Russia is another country to see Protestant growth.[30][31][32]

In 2010, the largest Protestant denominational families were historically Pentecostal denominations (10.8%), Anglican (10.6%), Lutheran (9.7%), Baptist (9%), United and uniting churches (unions of different denominations) (7.2%), Presbyterian or Reformed (7%), Methodist (3.4%), Adventist (2.7%), Congregationalist (0.5%), Brethren (0.5%), The Salvation Army (0.3%) and Moravian (0.1%). Other denominations accounted for 38.2% of Protestants.[2]

The United States is home to approximately 20% of Protestants.[2] According to a 2019 study, Protestant share of U.S. population dropped to 43%, further ending its status as religion of the majority.[33][34][35] The decline is attributed mainly to the dropping membership of the Mainline Protestant churches,[34][36] while Evangelical Protestant and Black churches are relatively stable or continue to grow.[34]

According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States, a review of American Nobel prizes winners awarded between 1901 and 1972 by Harriet Zuckerman, 72% of American Nobel Prize Laureates came from Protestant backgrounds.[37] Overall, Protestants have won a total of 84.2% of all the American Nobel Prizes in Chemistry,[37] 60% in Medicine,[37] 58.6% in Physics,[37] between 1901 and 1972.

By 2050, Protestantism is projected to rise to slightly more than half of the world's total Christian population.[38][d] According to other experts such as Hans J. Hillerbrand, Protestants will be as numerous as Catholics.[39]

According to Mark Jürgensmeyer of the University of California, popular Protestantism[e] is the most dynamic religious movement in the contemporary world, alongside the resurgent Islam.[40]

MethodologyEdit

For the purposes of this list, the following Christian branches are considered Protestant:

Evangelicals, Charismatics, Neo-charismatics and other revivalists are found virtually across every Protestant branch. Nondenominationals, various independents and Protestants from other denominations, not easily fitting in the traditional classification, are also taken into account.

Estimates of total Protestant population vary considerably. Most reliable sources claim a range of 800 million to more than 1 billion. Difficulties occur as there is no consensus among scholars which denominations should be considered Protestant.

CountriesEdit

The seven regions considered in the following table are the six traditional ones (Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Oceania), plus Middle East (i.e. countries with Islamic majority from the Mediterranean to Iran).

Protestants by country
Region Country Total population (year) % Protestant Protestant total
Asia   Afghanistan (details) 29,928,987 0.03% 10,000
Europe   Albania (details) 3,563,112 0.23% 8,191
Africa   Algeria (details) 35,531,853 1.62% 250,000
Europe   Andorra (details) 71,201 2.1% 1,495
Africa   Angola (details) 19,600,000 30.6% 5,997,600
North America   Antigua and Barbuda (details) 68,722 68% 59,101[citation needed]
South America   Argentina (details) 40,500,000 9% 3,645,000
Europe   Armenia (details) 2,982,904 3.7% 110,368
Oceania   Australia (details) 23,401,892 (2016) 23.1% 6,355,952[41]
Europe   Austria (details) 8,823,053 (2017) 3.4% 297,578[42]
Europe   Azerbaijan (details) 8,581,400 0.07% 6,007
North America   Bahamas (details) 353,658[43] 70% 247,561
Asia   Bahrain (details) 688,345 ? ?
Asia   Bangladesh (details) 144,319,628 0.23% 331,935
North America   Barbados (details) 278,289 67% 186,454
Europe   Belarus (details) 10,300,483 5% 515,024
Europe   Belgium (details) 10,364,388 1.35% 140,000
North America   Belize (details) 279,457 30% 83,837
Africa   Benin (details) 9,100,000 23% 2,093,000
Asia   Bhutan (details) 2,232,291 0.018% 400
South America   Bolivia (details) 8,857,870 16%[44]-17.2%[45]-20%[46] 1,417,259
Europe   Bosnia and Herzegovina (details) 4,025,476 0.04% 1,610
Africa   Botswana (details) 2,000,000 66% 1,320,000
South America   Brazil (details) 192,755,799 (2010) - 211,189,413 (2020)[47] 22.2%-26%[44] 42,791,786[48]-
Asia   Brunei (details) 372,361 1.3% 4,841
Europe   Bulgaria (details) 7,450,349 1% 74,503
Africa   Burkina Faso (details) 17,000,000 9% 1,360,000
Africa   Burundi (details) 10,200,000 20% 2,400,000
Asia   Cambodia (details) 13,607,069 0.04% 5,390
Africa   Cameroon (details) 16,380,005 20% 3,276,001
North America   Canada (details) 37,242,571 26% 8,330,000[49]
Africa   Cape Verde (details) 415,294 3.5% 14,535
Africa   Central African Republic (details) 5,000,000 61% 3,050,000
Africa   Chad (details) 11,500,000 18% 2,070,000
South America   Chile (details) 18,192,000 13% - 15.5%[2] 11%[50] 2,365,000 - 2.821.000
Asia   China (details) 1,382,710,000 (2016) 2.9% 39,970,000[51]
South America   Colombia (details) 46,900,000 (2011 est) 12.5% 5,862,500
Africa   Comoros (details) 671,247 0.25% 1,678
Africa   Congo, Republic of (details) 4,100,000 51% 2,091,000
Africa   Congo, Democratic Republic of (details) 65,966,000 (2010) 48% 31,663,680[52]
North America   Costa Rica (details) 4,700,000 (2011 est) 12.3%[53][54][55]-25%[56][44] 1,250,000
Europe   Croatia (details) 4,495,904 2% 89,918
North America   Cuba (details) 11,346,670 11% 1,248,133
Europe   Cyprus (details) 780,133 2% 15,603
Europe   Czech Republic (details) 10,241,138 1.1% [57]
Africa   Côte d'Ivoire (details) 22,500,000 23% 5,175,000
Europe   Denmark (details) 5,700,000 77% - 82% 4,389,000 - 4,674,000
Africa   Djibouti (details) 900,000 0.2% 1,800
North America   Dominica (details) 69,278 15% 10,392
North America   Dominican Republic (details) 10,000,000 (2011 est) 18% (poll) 1,800,000
Asia   East Timor (details) 1,040,880 1.2%[58]-1.96%[59] 31,226
South America   Ecuador (details) 14,700,000 12.5%-14%[60] 1,837,500
Africa   Egypt (details) 82,600,000 1% 820,600
North America   El Salvador (details) 6,200,000 34.4% / 28% [61] 2,132,800
Africa   Equatorial Guinea (details) 700,000 6% 42,000
Africa   Eritrea (details) 5,900,000 5% 295,000
Europe   Estonia (details) 1,094,564 11% 121,000
Africa   Ethiopia (details) 73,750,932 (2007) 18.6% 13,717,673
Oceania   Fiji (details) 893,354 42.5% 379,676
Europe   Finland (details) 5,525,000 69.4%[62] 3,834,000
Europe   France (details) 60,656,178 2% 1,213,124
Africa   Gabon (details) 1,500,000 39.7%[63]
Africa   Gambia (details) 1,593,256 7%[citation needed] 360,000[citation needed]
Europe   Georgia (details) 4,677,401 2.14% 100,000
Europe   Germany (details) 83,167,000 (2019) 26.0% 21,610,000[64]
Africa   Ghana (details) 24,200,000 (2010) 58.1% 14,060,200
Europe   Greece (details) 10,668,354 0.28% 30,000
North America   Grenada (details) 89,502 30% 26,851
North America   Guatemala (details) 14,700,000 38.2% 6,038,150
Africa   Guinea (details) 10,200,000 4% 408,000
Africa   Guinea-Bissau (details) 1,600,000 2% 32,000
South America   Guyana (details) 765,283 38% 290,808
North America   Haiti (details) 10,100,000 (2011 est) 30% 3,030,000
North America   Honduras (details) 6,975,204 41% 2,859,834
Europe   Hungary (details) 10,006,835 14% 1,401,640
Europe   Iceland (details) 364,100 (2020) 70.7% 257,400[65]
Asia   India (details) 1,352,642,280 (2018)[66][67] At least 9,700,000[68]
Asia   Indonesia (details) 237,640,000 (2010) 6.96% 16,530,000[69]
Asia   Iran (details) 68,017,860 0.3% 204,054
Asia   Iraq (details) 38,146,025 0.1% 40,000
Europe   Ireland (details) 4,761,900 (2016) 4.2% 201,400[70]
Asia   Israel (details) 6,276,883 0.01% 5,000 (mostly Anglican)
Europe   Italy (details) 58,102,112 0.3%[71]-0.6%[72]-0.8%[73] 755,328
North America   Jamaica (details) 2,731,832 60% 1,639,099
Asia   Japan (details) 127,417,244 0.4% 509,668
Asia   Jordan (details) 5,759,732 0.5% 28,799
Asia   Kazakhstan (details) 15,185,844 2% 303,717
Africa   Kenya (details) 40,513,000 (2010) 47.4% 19,203,162
Oceania   Kiribati (details) 103,500 40% 41,400
Asia   Korea, North (details) 22,912,177 0.04% 10,000
Asia   Korea, South (details) 48,422,644 18.1% 8,760,000
Asia   Kuwait (details) 2,335,648 2.14% 50,000
Asia   Kyrgyzstan (details) 5,146,281 0.03% 1,337
Asia   Laos (details) 6,217,141 0.56% 35,000
Europe   Latvia (details) 2,070,371 35% 714,000
Asia   Lebanon (details) 3,826,018 1% 40,000
Africa   Lesotho (details) 2,200,000 50% 1,100,000
Africa   Liberia (details) 4,100,000 75% 3,075,000
Asia   Libya (details) 6,765,563 Less than 1% ?
Europe   Liechtenstein (details) 33,436 7% 2,341
Europe   Lithuania (details) 3,596,617 1% 35,966
Europe   Luxembourg (details) 468,571 1% 4,686
Africa   Madagascar (details) 21,300,000 38% 8,094,000
Africa   Malawi (details) 15,900,000 55% 8,745,000
Asia   Malaysia (details) 28,900,000 4%
Asia   Maldives (details) 349,106 0 0
Africa   Mali (details) 15,400,000 1% 154,000
Oceania   Marshall Islands (details) 62,000 76.7% 47,554
Africa   Mauritania (details) 3,500,000 0.1% 3,500
Africa   Mauritius (details) 1,230,602 4.5% 55,377
North America   Mexico (details) 114,800,000 (2011 est) 5%-10% [74] 5,700,000-11,400,000
Europe   Moldova (details) 4,455,421 0.26% 11,634
Oceania   Micronesia (details) 108,155 47% 50,833
Asia   Mongolia (details) 2,791,272 1.25% 35,000
Africa   Morocco (details) 32,725,847 Protestant minorities ?
Africa   Mozambique (details) 23,100,000 27% 6,237,000
Asia   Myanmar (details) 42,909,464 3% 1,287,284
Africa   Namibia (details) 2,300,000 74% 1,702,000
Oceania   Nauru (details) 13,048 66% 8,612
Asia     Nepal (details) 27,676,547 0.01 3,979
Europe   Netherlands (details) 16,407,491 11% 3,445,573
Oceania   New Zealand (details) 4,699,755 26.7%[75] 1,253,742
North America   Nicaragua (details) 5,900,000 (2011 est) 26.5% (PF) 1,563,500
Africa   Niger (details) 16,100,000 0.5% 80,500
Africa   Nigeria (details) 200,000,000 37.7% 60,118,563[76]-75,400,000
Europe   North Macedonia (details) 2,045,262 3% 61,358
Europe   Norway (details) 5,367,000 72.0% 3,865,000[77][78]
Asia   Oman (details) 3,001,583 N/A N/A
Asia   Pakistan (details) 162,419,946 0.86% 1,400,000
North America   Panama (details) 3,600,000 24% 864,000
Oceania   Papua New Guinea (details) 5,545,268 61.5% 3,410,340
South America   Paraguay (details) 6,600,000 6% 396,000
South America   Peru (details) 29,400,000 (2011 est) 12.5% (2006 census) 3,675,000
Asia   Philippines (details) 100,000,000 10.0%-8.2%[79] 10,000,000
Europe   Poland (details) 38,635,144 0.2%[80] 130,000
Europe   Portugal (details) 10,566,212 0.4%[81][82] 348,685
North America   Puerto Rico (details) 3,500,000 15% 500,000
Asia   Qatar (details) 863,051 1% Unknown
Europe   Romania (details) 22,329,977 6% 1,339,799
Asia   Russia (details) 143,420,309 0.29% 400,000
Africa   Rwanda (details) 10,900,000 43% 4,687,000
North America   Saint Kitts and Nevis (details) 38,958 74% 29,335
North America   Saint Lucia (details) 166,312 10% 16,631
North America   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (details) 117,534 77% 90,501
Oceania   Samoa (details) 179,000 49.8% 89,142
Asia   Saudi Arabia (details) 26,417,599 3.33% 800,000
Africa   Senegal (details) 11,126,832 0.5% 55,634
Europe   Serbia (details) 7,186,175 1.2% 80,291
Africa   Seychelles (details) 81,188 8% 6,495
Africa   Sierra Leone (details) 5,400,000 14% 756,000
Asia   Singapore (details) 4,425,720 8% 354,058
Europe   Slovakia (details) 5,431,363 8.9 935,235
Europe   Slovenia (details) 2,011,070 0.8% 16,135
Africa   Somalia (details) 9,900,000 0 0
Africa   South Africa (details) 50,500,000 (2010) 72.9% 36,814,500[52]
Europe   Spain (details) 50,000,000 1%[52] 500,000
Asia   Sri Lanka (details) 20,064,776 0.8% 160,518
Africa   Sudan (details) 44,600,000 5% 2,200,000
South America   Suriname (details) 500,000 25% 125,000
Africa   Eswatini (details) 1,200,000 67% 801,000
Europe   Sweden (details) 10,000,000 60% 6,000,000
Europe    Switzerland (details) 8,482,152 (2017) 27%[83] 2,290,000
Asia   Syria (details) 18,448,752 0.2% 37,605
Asia   Taiwan (details) 22,894,384 2.6% 595,254
Asia   Tajikistan (details) 7,163,506 0.01% 711
Africa   Tanzania (details) 46,200,000 27% 12,474,000
Asia   Thailand (details) 64,076,033 0.64% 407,685
Africa   Togo (details) 5,681,519 9.5% 539,744
Oceania   Tonga (details) 112,422 73% 82,068
North America   Trinidad and Tobago (details) 1,300,000 38% 494,000
Africa   Tunisia (details) 10,074,951 3.33% 335,496
Asia   Turkey (details) 69,660,559 Less than 1% 3,000
Asia   Turkmenistan (details) 4,952,081 0.6% 81
Oceania   Tuvalu (details) 11,636 94% 11,450
Africa   Uganda (details) 34,856,000 (2014) 45.1% 15,720,056
Europe   Ukraine (details) 47,425,336 2.3% 900,000
Asia   United Arab Emirates (details) 2,563,212 5% 128,160
Europe   United Kingdom (details) 63,181,775 (2010) 16%-50%[84][85] 10,000,000-32,000,000[86]
North America   United States (details) 330,000,000 46.5%[87] - 43% [88]- 36%[89] 118,800,000 - 153,450,000 - 141,900,000
South America   Uruguay (details) 3,400,000 11% (2006 gov. survey) 374,000
Asia   Uzbekistan (details) 26,851,195 0.01% 1,345
Oceania   Vanuatu (details) 243,304 40% 97,321
Europe    Vatican City (details) 921 0% 0
South America   Venezuela (details) 33,221,865 17%[90] 5,647,717
Asia   Vietnam (details) 83,535,576 1% 835,355
Asia   Yemen (details) 20,727,063 Approximately 1% ?
Africa   Zambia (details) 13,500,000 68% 9,180,000
Africa   Zimbabwe (details) 12,100,000 67% 8,107,000
World 7,600,000,000 (2017) 12.1% 920,000,000

By regionEdit

The following are summary tables of the numbers and percentages of Protestants in each region. Also included are the percentages of Protestants in the world that reside in that region ("% of Protestant total").

Protestants in Africa
Region Total Population Protestants % Protestant % of Protestant total
Central Africa 91,561,875 18,322,151 20.01% 3.09%
East Africa 225,488,566 36,965,728 16.39% 6.23%
North Africa 161,963,837 100,300 0.06% 0.01%
Southern Africa 137,092,019 55,432,677 40.44% 9.35%
West Africa 269,935,590 49,230,627 18.24% 8.30%
Total 886,041,887 160,051,482 18.06% 26.99%
Protestants in Asia
Region Total Population Protestants % Protestant % of Protestant total
Central Asia 92,019,166 308,736 0.34% 0.05%
East Asia 1,527,960,261 25,550,708 1.67% 4.31%
Middle East 271,013,623 680,757 0.25% 0.11%
South Asia 1,437,326,682 9,458,283 0.66% 1.59%
Southeast Asia 571,337,070 26,387,155 4.62% 4.45%
Total 3,899,656,802 62,385,639 1.6% 10.52%
Protestants in Europe
Region Total Population Protestants % Protestant % of Protestant total
Central Europe 82,033,047 7,803,177 9.51% 1.32%
Eastern Europe 209,198,166 1,389,452 0.66% 0.23%
Northern Europe 191,466,473 104,997,796 54.8% 17.71%
Southeastern Europe 65,407,609 1,713,080 2.62% 0.31%
Southern Europe 180,498,923 1,964,538 1.09% 0.33%
Total 728,604,218 117,868,043 16.2% 19.90%
Protestants in the Americas
Region Total Population Protestants % Protestant % of Protestant total
Caribbean 37,285,819 5,912,490 15.86% 0.99%
Central America 147,338,108 16,376,631 11.12% 2.76%
North America 328,539,175 172,167,236 52.4% 29.03%
South America 371,075,531 44,682,767 12.04% 7.53%
Total 884,238,633 239,139,124 27.05% 40.32%
Protestants in Oceania
Region Total Population Protestants % Protestant % of Protestant total
Oceania 30,809,781 13,474,012 43.73% 2.27%

MapsEdit

EuropeEdit

WorldEdit

See alsoEdit

Other religionsEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Most current estimates place the world's Protestant population in the range of 800 million to more than a billion. For example, author Hans Hillerbrand estimated a total Protestant population of 833,457,000 in 2004,[9] while a report by Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary - 961,961,000 (with inclusion of independents as defined in this article) in mid-2015.[1]
  2. ^ Current sources[which?] are in general agreement[citation needed] that Christians make up about 33% of the world's population—slightly over 2.4 billion adherents in mid-2015.
  3. ^ Estimates for China vary in dozens of millions. Nevertheless, in comparison to the other countries, there is no disagreement that China has the most numerous Protestant minority.
  4. ^ Protestant, Independent and Anglican parties are understood as Protestant as stated previously in the article, as well as in the book: Statistics for the P, I and A megablocs are often combined because they overlap so much-hence the order followed here.
  5. ^ A flexible term; defined as all forms of Protestantism with the notable exception of the historical denominations deriving from the Protestant Reformation.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Christian Traditions" (Web). Pew Research Center. December 19, 2011. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  3. ^ a b c Hillerbrand, Hans J. (2 August 2004). Encyclopedia of Protestantism. ISBN 9781135960285. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  4. ^ "CCC - Global Statistics". Retrieved 2015-12-05.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Clarke, Peter B.; Beyer, Peter (7 May 2009). The World's Religions. ISBN 9781135211004. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  6. ^ Brown, Stephen F.; Palmer, Martin (2009). Protestantism. ISBN 9781604131123. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Noll, Mark A. (25 August 2011). Protestantism: A Very Short Introduction. ISBN 9780191620133. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Jay Diamond, Larry. Plattner, Marc F. and Costopoulos, Philip J. World Religions and Democracy. 2005, page 119. link (saying "Not only do Protestants presently constitute 13 percent of the world's population—about 800 million people—but since 1900 Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.')
  9. ^ Hillerbrand, Hans J. (August 2, 2004). Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set. Routledge. ISBN 9781135960285 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ 33.39% of 7.174 billion world population (as of 2014; under the section "People and Society") "World". CIA world facts.
  11. ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  12. ^ ANALYSIS (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
  13. ^ "Protestant Demographics and Fragmentations". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Religious Populations in England". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved April 8, 2011.
  15. ^ Thorpe, Edgar (2012). The Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2012. ISBN 9788131761908. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic) - Musée virtuel du Protestantisme". Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  17. ^ "Tab 7.1 Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups" (PDF) (in Czech). Czso.cz. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  18. ^ "Tab 7.2 Population by religious belief and by regions" (PDF) (in Czech). Czso.cz. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  19. ^ Mastrini, Hana (16 June 2008). Frommer's Prague & the Best of the Czech Republic. ISBN 9780470293232. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  20. ^ Lilla, Mark (31 March 2006). "Europe and the legend of secularization". The New York Times.
  21. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2019", Special Eurobarometer, 493, European Union: European Commission, p. 230, 2019, retrieved 12 September 2020
  22. ^ a b c d e Witte, John; Alexander, Frank S. (2007). The Teachings of Modern Protestantism on Law, Politics, and Human Nature. ISBN 9780231142632. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  23. ^ a b c d Gordon Melton, J. (2005). Encyclopedia of Protestantism. ISBN 9780816069835. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
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