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Decolonisation of Africa

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The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly[citation needed], with little preparation[citation needed]. There was widespread unrest and organized revolts in both Northern and sub-Saharan colonies, especially in French Algeria, Portuguese Angola, the Belgian Congo and British Kenya.[1][2][3][4][5]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

 
Areas of Africa controlled by European colonial powers in 1913, shown along with current national boundaries
  French
  German
  Independent

The "Scramble for Africa" between 1870 and 1900 ended with almost all of Africa being controlled by European states. Racing to secure as much land as possible, but wanting to avoid conflict amongst themselves, without regard to local differences leaders divided up the continent, the partition of Africa was confirmed in the Berlin Agreement of 1885.[6][7] By 1905, control of almost all African soil was claimed by Western European governments, with the only exceptions being Liberia (which had been settled by African-American former slaves) and Ethiopia (which had successfully resisted colonisation by Italy).[8] Britain and France had the largest holdings, but Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal also had colonies. As a result of colonialism and imperialism, a majority of Africa lost sovereignty and control of natural resources such as gold and rubber. The introduction of imperial policies surfacing around local economies led to the failing of local economies due to an exploitation of resources and cheap labor.[9] Progress towards independence was slow up until the mid-20th century. By 1977, 54 African countries had seceded from European colonial rulers.[10]

CausesEdit

External causesEdit

During WWI and WWII, African soldiers were conscripted into imperial militaries.[11] This led to a deeper political awareness and the expectation of greater respect and self-determination, which was left largely unfulfilled.[12] During the 1941 Atlantic Conference, the British and the US leaders met to discuss ideas for the post-war world. One of the provisions added by President Roosevelt was that all people had the right to self-determination, inspiring hope in British colonies.[10]

On February 12, 1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss the postwar world. The result was the Atlantic Charter.[13] It was not a treaty and was not submitted to the British Parliament or the Senate of the United States for ratification, but it turned to be a widely acclaimed document.[14] One of the provisions, introduced by Roosevelt, was the autonomy of imperial colonies. After World War II, the US and the African colonies put pressure on Britain to abide by the terms of the Atlantic Charter. After the war, some British considered African colonies to be childish and immature; British colonisers introduced democratic government at local levels in the colonies. Britain was forced to agree but Churchill rejected universal applicability of self-determination for subject nations. He also stated that the Charter was only applicable to German occupation states, not to the British Empire.[10]

Furthermore, colonies such as Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana pushed for self-governance as colonial powers were exhausted by war efforts.[15]

Internal causesEdit

For early African nationalists, decolonization was a moral imperative. In 1945 the Fifth Pan-African Congress demanded the end of colonialism. Delegates included future presidents of Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and national activists.[16]

Colonial economic exploitation led to European extraction of Ghana’s mining profits to shareholders, instead of internal development, causing major local socioeconomic grievances.[17] Nevertheless, local African industry and towns expanded when U-boats patrolling the Atlantic Ocean reduced raw material transportation to Europe.[10] In turn, urban communities, industries and trade unions grew, improving literacy and education, leading to pro-independence newspaper establishments.[10]

Indeed, in the 1930s, the colonial powers had cultivated, sometimes inadvertently, a small elite of leaders educated in Western universities and familiar with ideas such as self-determination. In some cases where the road to independence was fought, settled arrangements with the colonial powers were also being placed.[9] These leaders came to lead the struggles for independence, and included leading nationalists such as Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), Kwame Nkrumah (Gold Coast, now Ghana), Julius Nyerere (Tanganyika, now Tanzania), Léopold Sédar Senghor (Senegal), Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria), and Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Côte d'Ivoire).[citation needed]

Economic legacyEdit

The economic legacy of colonialism is difficult to quantify but is likely to have been negative. Modernisation theory emphasises that colonial powers built infrastructure to integrate Africa into the world economy, however, this was built mainly for extraction purposes. African economies were structured to benefit the coloniser and any surplus was likely to be ‘drained’, thereby stifling capital accumulation.[18] Dependency theory suggests that most African economies continued to occupy a subordinate position in the world economy after independence with a reliance on primary commodities such as copper in Zambia and tea in Kenya.[19] Despite this continued reliance and unfair trading terms, a meta-analysis of 18 African countries found that a third of countries experienced increased economic growth post-independence.[18]

Effects of debtEdit

The debts of African economies are external and one-sided. While the USA and the UK have gross external debts of 95% and 400% respectively, these debts are balanced by the countries being major lenders.[20] This is not the case for African nations which do not own as many assets or debts to balance the burden. The debt situation in sub-Saharan Africa means that the world’s poorest countries were transferring $3 billion US dollars to developed countries between 1995 and 2000.[21] This is exacerbated by interest and principal arrears which made up over 27% of total external debt for sub-Saharan nations in 1998.[21] This causes two main problems: firstly, servicing the debt means less money is available for importing goods, secondly debt creates uncertainty and risk which puts off investors and reduces business confidence.[22]

Social legacyEdit

LanguageEdit

Over 2,000 distinct languages are spoken in the continent. Along with Africa’s indigenous dialects - Afro-Asiatic, Kordofanian and Khoisan languages, many colonial languages are spoken today. For example, English is spoken in Ghana, Gambia and Kenya, French in Benin, Burkina-Faso and Cameroon, and Portuguese in Guinea-Bissau, Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe.[23] Scholars including Dellal (2013), Miraftab (2012) and Bamgbose (2011) have argued that Africa’s linguistic diversity has been eroded. Language has been used by western colonial powers to divide territories and create new identities which has led to conflicts and tensions between African nations.[24]

LandEdit

Today, 93% of South Africa's land is still owned by ‘descendants of white settlers’ despite the political negotiation of the Native Land Act in 1913.[25][dubious ] King (1990) argued that ‘space’ is a mode of segregations, creating forms of inclusions and exclusions. Evidence is represented through different architecture designs, and distinct segregation of spaces (Zonification) in cities are still a feature in the colonial present. For example, the new development of the business improvement district in Cape Town portrays a similar image of the colonial era with embedded struggles in class, race, ethnicity and hierarchical differences.[26] Decolonization marks one of the historical moments in which African countries increased its autonomous status from the impetus Western colonial powers. Echoes of the colonial past are still visible in the African society today because Ferguson (2006) stated there are still widespread social stigmas associated with the continent such as phrases of ‘darkness’ and ‘troubled’. The representation of Africa, therefore, reveals the continual Western legacies of the colonial past and the struggles embedded in the countries.

Transition to IndependenceEdit

Following World War II, rapid decolonization swept across the continent of Africa as many territories gained their independence from European colonization.

In August 1941, United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met to discuss their post-war goals. In that meeting, they agreed to the Atlantic Charter, which in part stipulated that they would, "respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them."[27] This agreement became the post-WWII stepping stone toward independence as nationalism grew throughout Africa.[citation needed]

Consumed with post-war debt, European powers were no longer able to afford the resources needed to maintain control of their African colonies. This allowed for African nationalists to negotiate decolonization very quickly and with minimal casualties. Some territories, however, saw great death tolls as a result of their fight for independence.[citation needed]

Ghana IndependenceEdit

On 6 March 1957, Ghana (formerly Gold Coast) became the first sub-Saharan African country to gain its independence from European colonization in the twentieth century.[citation needed]

Starting as early as the 1945 Pan-African Congress, Gold Coast’s American-educated, independence leader Kwame Nkrumah made his focus clear.  In the conference’s declaration, he wrote, “we believe in the rights of all peoples to govern themselves. We affirm the right of all colonial peoples to control their own destiny. All colonies must be free from foreign imperialist control, whether political or economic.”[28]

Four years later in 1949, the conflict would ramp up when British troops opened fire on African protesters.  Riots broke out across the territory and while Nkrumah and other leaders ended up in prison, the event became a catalyst for the independence movement.  After being released from prison, Nkrumah founded the, Convention People’s Party (CPP), which launched a mass-based campaign for independence with the slogan ‘Self Government Now!’”[29] Heightened nationalism within the country grew their power and the political party widely expanded.  In February of 1951, the Convention People's Party gained political power by winning 34 of 38 elected seats, including one for Nkrumah who was imprisoned at the time.[30] While the movement started with violence, it would end with political cooperation.[citation needed]

Algerian War for IndependenceEdit

In Algeria, anti-colonialism sentiment grew following World War II until it reached a boiling point. Unlike many territories that gained their independence through a smooth transition, France believed the African colony was important and never met their promise of self-governance in Algeria. As a result the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN) began a guerrilla-style attack to win their freedom.[31] Lasting more than eight years, the estimated death toll typically falls between 300,000 and 400,000 people.[32] By 1958, the FLN was able to negotiate peace accord with French President Charles de Gaulle and nearly 90% of all Europeans had left the territory.

TimelineEdit

This table is the arranged by the earliest date of independence in this graph; 58 countries have seceded.

Country[a] Colonial name Colonial power[b] Independence date[c] First head of state[d] Independence won through
  Liberia   Liberia   United States 26 July 1847[e] Joseph Jenkins Roberts[f] Liberian Declaration of Independence
  South Africa[g]   Cape Colony
  Colony of Natal
  Orange River Colony
  Transvaal Colony
  United Kingdom 31 May 1910[h] Louis Botha South Africa Act 1909
  Egypt[i]   Sultanate of Egypt 28 February 1922[j] Fuad I[k] Egyptian revolution of 1919
  Eritrea   Italian Eritrea   Italy[l] 10 February 1947[m] Haile Selassie[n] -
  Libya[o]   British Military Administration[p]
  Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames
  United Kingdom
  France
24 December 1951 Idris -
  Sudan    Anglo-Egyptian Sudan   United Kingdom[q]
  Republic of Egypt
1 January 1956 Ismail al-Azhari -
  Tunisia[r]   French Protectorate of Tunisia   France 20 March 1956 Muhammad VIII al-Amin
Habib Bourguiba
-[s]
  Morocco   French Protectorate in Morocco
  Tangier International Zone
  Spanish Protectorate in Morocco
  Spanish West Africa
Ifni
  France
  Spain
2 March 1956[t]
7 April 1956
10 April 1958
4 January 1969
Mohammed V Ifni War
  Ghana[u]   Gold Coast   United Kingdom 6 March 1957[v] Kwame Nkrumah[w] Gold Coast legislative election, 1956
  Guinea   French West Africa   France 2 October 1958 Sékou Touré Guinean constitutional referendum, 1958
  Cameroon  French Cameroons   France 1 January 1960[x] Ahmadou Ahidjo -[y]
  Togo   French Togoland   France 27 April 1960 Sylvanus Olympio -
  Mali   French West Africa 20 June 1960[z] Modibo Keita -
  Senegal Léopold Senghor -
  Madagascar[aa]   French Madagascar 26 June 1960 Philibert Tsiranana -[ab]
  Democratic Republic of the Congo[ac]   Belgian Congo   Belgium 30 June 1960 Patrice Lumumba[ad] Belgo-Congolese Round Table Conference[ae]
  Somalia[af]   British Somaliland
  Trust Territory of Somaliland
  United Kingdom
  Italy
26 June 1960
1 July 1960[ag]
Aden Abdullah Osman Daar -
  Benin[ah]   French West Africa   France 1 August 1960 Hubert Maga -
  Niger 3 August 1960 Hamani Diori -
  Burkina Faso[ai] 5 August 1960 Maurice Yaméogo -
  Ivory Coast 7 August 1960 Félix Houphouët-Boigny -
  Chad   French Equatorial Africa 11 August 1960 François Tombalbaye -
  Central African Republic 13 August 1960 David Dacko -
  Republic of the Congo 15 August 1960 Fulbert Youlou -
  Gabon 17 August 1960 Léon M'ba -
  Nigeria   Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria
  British Cameroons
  United Kingdom 1 October 1960
1 June 1961
1 October 1961[aj]
Nnamdi Azikiwe -
  Mauritania   French West Africa   France 28 November 1960 Moktar Ould Daddah -
  Sierra Leone   Colony and Protectorate of Sierra Leone   United Kingdom 27 April 1961 Milton Margai -
  Tanganyika[ak]   Tanganyika Territory 9 December 1961 Julius Nyerere -
  Burundi[al]   Ruanda-Urundi   Belgium 1 July 1962 Mwambutsa IV of Burundi -
  Rwanda Grégoire Kayibanda Rwandan Revolution
  Algeria   French Algeria   France 5 July 1962 Ahmed Ben Bella[am] Algerian War
  Uganda   Protectorate of Uganda   United Kingdom 9 October 1962 Milton Obote -
  Kenya   Colony and Protectorate of Kenya 12 December 1963[an] Jomo Kenyatta[w] -[ao]
  Sultanate of Zanzibar[ak]   Sultanate of Zanzibar 10 December 1963 Jamshid bin Abdullah -[ap]
  Malawi   Nyasaland 6 July 1964[aq] Hastings Banda[w] -
  Zambia   Northern Rhodesia 24 October 1964 Kenneth Kaunda -
  The Gambia   Gambia Colony and Protectorate 18 February 1965[ar] Dawda Jawara[w] -
  Rhodesia
  Zimbabwe
  Southern Rhodesia 11 November 1965
17 April 1980[as]
Ian Smith
Robert Mugabe
Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence
Lancaster House Agreement
  Botswana   Bechuanaland Protectorate 30 September 1966[at] Seretse Khama -
  Lesotho   Territory of Basutoland 4 October 1966 Leabua Jonathan[au] -
  Mauritius   Mauritius 12 March 1968 Veerasamy Ringadoo -
  Swaziland Swaziland 6 September 1968 Sobhuza II -
  Equatorial Guinea   Spanish Territories of the Gulf of Guinea   Spain 12 October 1968 Francisco Macías Nguema -
  Guinea-Bissau   Overseas Province of Guinea   Portugal 10 September 1974[av] Luís Cabral Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
  Mozambique[aw]   State of Mozambique 25 June 1975 Samora Machel Mozambican War of Independence
  Cape Verde   Overseas Province of Cape Verde 5 July 1975 Aristides Pereira[ax] Guinea-Bissau War of Independence[ay]
  Comoros   French Comoros   France 6 July 1975 Ahmed Abdallah Comorian independence referendum, 1974
  São Tomé and Príncipe   Overseas Province of São Tomé and Príncipe   Portugal 12 July 1975 Manuel Pinto da Costa -
  Angola[az]   State of Angola 11 November 1975 Agostinho Neto Angolan War of Independence
  Seychelles   Seychelles   United Kingdom 29 June 1976 James Richard Marie Mancham -
  Djibouti   French Territory of the Afars and the Issas   France 27 June 1977 Hassan Gouled Aptidon Afars and Issas independence referendum, 1977
  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[ba]   Spanish Sahara
Southern Provinces
  Spain
  Morocco
27 February 1976
independence not yet effectuated
El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed
Mohamed Abdelaziz
Western Sahara War
Western Sahara conflict

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Explanatory notes are added in cases where decolonization was achieved jointly by multiple countries or where the current country is formed by the merger of previously decolonized countries. Although Ethiopia was administered as a colony in the aftermath of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and was recognized by the international community as such at the time, it is not listed here as its brief period under Italian rule (which lasted for a little more than five years and ended with the return of the previous native government) is now usually seen as a military occupation.
  2. ^ Some territories changed hands multiple times, so in the list is mentioned the last colonial power. In addition, the mandatory or trustee powers are mentioned for territories that were League of Nations mandates and UN Trust Territories.
  3. ^ The dates of decolonization for territories annexed by or integrated into previously decolonized independent countries are given in separate notes, as are dates when a commonwealth realm abolished its monarchy. Any discrepancies between dates listed here and public holidays celebrating the country's independence (and whether the date listed is celebrated as a holiday at all) are noted, as well as the national day if the country does not have an independence day.
  4. ^ For countries that became independent either as a Commonwealth realm, a monarchy with a strong Prime Minister, or a parliamentary republic the head of government is listed instead.
  5. ^ Liberia would later annexed the Republic of Maryland, another settler colony made up of former African-American slaves, in 1857. Liberia would not be recognized by the United States until 5 February 1862.
  6. ^ Stephen Allen Benson was President on the date of the United States' recognition.
  7. ^ As Union of South Africa.
  8. ^ The Union of South Africa was constituted through the South Africa Act entering into force on 31 May 1910. On 11 December 1931 it got increased self-governance powers through the Statute of Westminster which was followed by transformation into republic after the 1960 referendum. Afterwards, South Africa was under apartheid until elections resulting from the negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa on 27 April 1994 when Nelson Mandela became president.
  9. ^ As the Kingdom of Egypt. Transcontinental country, partially located in Asia.
  10. ^ Not celebrated as a holiday. On 28 February 1922 the British government issued the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence. Through this declaration, the British government unilaterally ended its protectorate over Egypt and granted it nominal independence with the exception of four "reserved" areas: foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.[33] The Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936 reduced British involvement, but still was not welcomed by Egyptian nationalists, who wanted full independence from Britain, which was not achieved until 23 July 1952. The last British troops left Egypt after the Suez Crisis of 1956. For this, the 23 July date, celebrated as Revolution Day, serves as Egypt's national day.
  11. ^ Although the leaders of the 1952 revolution (Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser) became the de facto leaders of Egypt, neither would assume office until September 17 of that year when Naguib became Prime Minister, succeeding Aly Maher Pasha who was sworn in on the day of the revolution. Nasser would succeeded Naguib as Prime Minister on 25 February 1954.
  12. ^ From 1 April 1941 to its eventual transfer to Ethiopia, Italian Eritrea was occupied by the   United Kingdom.
  13. ^ Date marking the de jure end of Italian rule. Not celebrated as a holiday. The transfer of Eritrea to the Ethiopian Empire occurred on 15 September 1952. On 24 May 1993 after decades of fighting starting from 1 September 1961, Eritrea formally seceded from Ethiopia. The 24 May date is celebrated as Eritrea's date of independence.
  14. ^ Emperor of Ethiopia on the date of the transfer. Isaias Afwerki became President of Eritrea upon independence.
  15. ^ As the United Kingdom of Libya.
  16. ^ Part of the British Military Administration originally gained independence as the Cyrenaica Emirate; it was only recognized by the United Kingdom. The Cyrenaica Emirate also merged to form the United Kingdom of Libya.
  17. ^ Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899, stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and Britain, but with real power remaining in British hands.[34]
  18. ^ As the Kingdom of Tunisia.
  19. ^ See Tunisian independence.
  20. ^ Cape Juby was ceded by Spain to Morocco on 2 April 1958. Ifni was returned from Spain to Morocco on 4 January 1969.
  21. ^ As the Dominion of Ghana.
  22. ^ The British Togoland mandate and trust territory was integrated into Gold Coast colony on 13 December 1956. On 1 July 1960 Ghana formally abolished its Commonwealth monarchy and became a republic.
  23. ^ a b c d Originally as Prime Minister; became President upon the monarchy's abolition.
  24. ^ After the French Cameroun mandate and trust territory gained independence it was joined by part of the British Cameroons mandate and trust territory on 1 October 1961. The other part of British Cameroons joined Nigeria.
  25. ^ Minor armed insurgency from Union of the Peoples of Cameroon.
  26. ^ Senegal and French Sudan gained independence on 20 June 1960 as the Mali Federation, which dissolved a few months later into present day Senegal and Mali.
  27. ^ As the Malagasy Republic.
  28. ^ The Malagasy Uprising was an earlier armed uprising that failed to gain independence from France.
  29. ^ As the Republic of the Congo.
  30. ^ Joseph Kasa-Vubu became President upon independence.
  31. ^ The Congo Crisis occurred after independence.
  32. ^ As the Somali Republic.
  33. ^ The Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) united with the State of Somaliland (former British Somaliland) on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic (Somalia).
  34. ^ As the Republic of Dahomey.
  35. ^ As Upper Volta.
  36. ^ Part of the British Cameroons mandate and trust territory on 1 October 1961 joined Nigeria. The other part of British Cameroons joined the previously decolonized French Cameroun mandate and territory.
  37. ^ a b After both gained independence Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged on 26 April 1964 as Tanzania.
  38. ^ As the Kingdom of Burundi.
  39. ^ Assumed office on September 27, 1962 as Prime Minister. From the date of independence to Ben Bella's inauguration, Abderrahmane Farès served as President of the Provisional Executive Council.
  40. ^ Abolished its commonwealth monarchy exactly one year later; Jamhuri Day ("Republic Day") is a celebration of both dates.
  41. ^ The Mau Mau Uprising was an earlier armed uprising that failed to gain independence from the United Kingdom.
  42. ^ The Sultanate of Zanzibar would later be overthrown within a month of sovereignty by the Zanzibar Revolution.
  43. ^ Abolished its commonwealth monarchy exactly two years later.
  44. ^ Abolished its commonwealth monarchy on 24 April 1970.
  45. ^ Due the Rhodesia's unwillingness to accommodate the British government's request for black majority rule, the United Kingdom (along with the rest of the international community) refused to recognize the white-minority led government. The former self-governing colony would not be recognized as an independent state until the aftermath of the Rhodesian Bush War, under the name Zimbabwe.
  46. ^ Botswana Day Holiday is the second day of the two-day celebration of Botswana's independence. The first day is also referred to as Botswana Day.
  47. ^ Moshoeshoe II became King upon independence.
  48. ^ Not celebrated as a holiday. The date 24 September 1973 (when the PAIGC formally declared Guinea's independence) is celebrated as Guinea-Bissau's date of independence.
  49. ^ As the People's Republic of Mozambique
  50. ^ Pedro Pires was sworn in as Prime Minister three days after independence.
  51. ^ Although the fight for Cape Verdean independence was linked to the liberation movement occurring in Guinea-Bissau, the island country itself saw little fighting.
  52. ^ As the People's Republic of Angola
  53. ^ The Spanish colonial rule de facto terminated over the Western Sahara (then Spanish Sahara), when the territory was passed on to and partitioned between Mauritania and Morocco (which annexed the entire territory in 1979). The decolonization of Western Sahara is still pending, while a declaration of independence has been proclaimed by the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic, which controls only a small portion east of the Moroccan Wall. The UN still considers Spain the legal administrating country of the whole territory,[35] awaiting the outcome of the ongoing Manhasset negotiations and resulting election to be overseen by the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara. However, the de facto administrator is Morocco (see United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories).

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ John Hatch, Africa: The Rebirth of Self-Rule (1967)
  2. ^ William Roger Louis, The transfer of power in Africa: decolonization, 1940-1960 (Yale UP, 1982).
  3. ^ Birmingham, David (1995). The Decolonization of Africa. Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-540-9. 
  4. ^ John D. Hargreaves, Decolonization in Africa (2014).
  5. ^ for the viewpoint from London and Paris see Rudolf von Albertini, Decolonization: the Administration and Future of the Colonies, 1919-1960 (Doubleday, 1971).
  6. ^ "Berlin Conference of 1884-1885". www.oxfordreference.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  7. ^ "A Brief History of the Berlin Conference". teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  8. ^ Evans, Alistair. "Countries in Africa Considered Never Colonized". africanhistory.about.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  9. ^ a b Hunt, Michael (2017). The World Transformed 1945 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 264. ISBN 9780199371020. 
  10. ^ a b c d e [1], DECOLONISATION OF AFRICA. (2017). HISTORY AND GENERAL STUDIES.
  11. ^ [2], The call of the Empire, the call of the war - Telegraph.
  12. ^ Ferguson, Ed, and A. Adu Boahen. (1990). African Perspectives On Colonialism. The International Journal Of African Historical Studies 23 (2): 334. doi:10.2307/219358.
  13. ^ "The Atlantic Conference & Charter, 1941". history.state.gov. Retrieved 26 January 2015. The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration released by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on August 14, 1941 following a meeting of the two heads of state in Newfoundland. 
  14. ^ Karski, Jan (2014). The Great Powers and Poland: From Versailles to Yalta. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 330. ISBN 9781442226654. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  15. ^ Assa, O. (2006). A History of Africa. Volume 2. Kampala East Africa Education Publisher ltd.
  16. ^ [3], A ‘Wind Of Change’ That Transformed The Continent | Africa Renewal Online. 2017. Un.Org.
  17. ^ [Boahen, A. (1990) Africa Under Colonial Domination, Volume 7]
  18. ^ a b Bertocchia, G. & Canova, F., (2002) Did colonization matter for growth? An empirical exploration into the historical causes of Africa's underdevelopment. European Economic Review, Volume 46, pp. 1851-1871
  19. ^ Vincent Ferraro, "Dependency Theory: An Introduction," in The Development Economics Reader, ed. Giorgio Secondi (London: Routledge, 2008), pp. 58-64
  20. ^ [4] The Guardian, (2012) A developing world of debt.
  21. ^ a b Fole, A. G.,( 2003). The Historical Origin of African Debt Crisis. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, 19(1), pp. 59-89
  22. ^ Geda, A., (2002). Debt Issues in Africa: Thinking beyond the HIPC Initiative to Solving Structural Problems. UNU/WIDER development conference on Debt Relief, Helsinki, 17–18 August 2001, Volume 35.
  23. ^ Locke, Jason (2010). Death at birth: The political, economic and social impact of the decolonization and perpetual, neo-colonial control of Congo.
  24. ^ IMF Country Report No. 17/80 (2017). Article Iv Consultation - Press Release; Staff Report; And Statement By The Executive Director For Nigeria.
  25. ^ Talton, Benjamin (2011). The Challenge of Decolonization in Africa; African & African Diasporan Transformations in the 20th Century
  26. ^ Ezenwe, Uka (1993). The African debt crisis and the challenge of development.
  27. ^ "Atlantic Charter", August 14, 1941, https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_16912.htm
  28. ^ Nkrumah, Kwame, Fifth Pan-African Congress, Declaration to Colonial People of the World (Manchester, England, 1945).
  29. ^ "POLITICAL PARTY ACTIVITY IN GHANA—1947 TO 1957 - Government of Ghana". www.ghana.gov.gh. Retrieved 2018-04-24. 
  30. ^ Assa., Okoth, (2006). A history of Africa. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers. ISBN 9789966253576. OCLC 71210556. 
  31. ^ The modern world. Takács, Sarolta A. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. 2008. ISBN 9780765680969. OCLC 179105303. 
  32. ^ "Algeria celebrates 50 years of independence - France keeps mum". RFI. 2012-07-05. Retrieved 2018-05-12. 
  33. ^ King, Joan Wucher (1989) [First published 1984]. Historical Dictionary of Egypt. Books of Lasting Value. American University in Cairo Press. pp. 259–260. ISBN 978-977-424-213-7. 
  34. ^ Robert O. Collins, A History of Modern Sudan
  35. ^ UN General Assembly Resolution 34/37 and UN General Assembly Resolution 35/19

ReferencesEdit

  • Ali A. Mazrui ed. "General History of Africa" vol. VIII, UNESCO, 1993
  • Birmingham, David (1995). The Decolonization of Africa. Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-540-9. 
  • Chafer, Tony. The end of empire in French West Africa: France's successful decolonization (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2002).
  • Clayton, Anthony. The wars of French decolonization (Routledge, 2014).
  • Cooper, Frederick. Decolonization and African society: The labor question in French and British Africa (Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  • Gordon, April A. and Donald L. Gordon, Lynne Riener. Understanding Contemporary Africa (London, 1996).
  • Hargreaves, John D. Decolonization in Africa (2014).
  • Hatch, John. Africa: The Rebirth of Self-Rule (1967)
  • Khapoya, Vincent B. The African Experience (1994)
  • Louis, William Roger. The transfer of power in Africa: decolonization, 1940-1960 (Yale UP, 1982).
  • Rothermund, Dietmar. The Routledge companion to decolonization (Routledge, 2006), comprehensive global coverage; 365pp
  • von Albertini, Rudolf. Decolonization: the Administration and Future of the Colonies, 1919-1960 (Doubleday, 1971) for the viewpoint from London and Paris.
  • White, Nicholas. Decolonization: the British experience since 1945 (Routledge, 2014).

External linksEdit