Primo Carnera (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpriːmo karˈnɛːra]; 26 October 1906 – 29 June 1967), nicknamed the Ambling Alp, was an Italian professional boxer who reigned as the World Heavyweight Champion from 29 June 1933 to 14 June 1934. He was also a professional wrestler.
|Height||6 ft 5 1⁄2 in (197 cm)|
|Reach||85 in (216 cm)|
|Born||26 October 1906|
|Died||29 June 1967 (aged 60)|
|Wins by KO||72|
In 1953 they became American citizens. They settled in Los Angeles, where Carnera opened a restaurant and a liquor store. They had two children, Umberto and Giovanna Maria. Umberto became a medical doctor.
Carnera was touted in America as being 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) tall, and thus the tallest heavyweight in history (up until that time), but he was actually 6 ft 6 in (1.98 m) tall. He fought at as much as 275 pounds (125 kg). Jess Willard who stood 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) was the tallest world heavyweight champion in boxing history until Nikolai Valuev, at 7 ft 0 in (2.13 m) and 328 pounds (149 kg). Though an inch shorter than Willard, he was around 40 lb heavier and was the heaviest champion in boxing history until Valuev.
At a time when the average height in Italy was approximately 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m) and in the United States 5 ft 7 in (1.70 m), Carnera was considered a giant.
He enjoyed a sizable reach advantage over most rivals, and when seen on fight footage, he seems like a towering giant compared to many heavyweights of his era, who were usually at least 60 pounds (27 kg) lighter and 7 inches (18 cm) shorter. One publicity release about him read in part: "For breakfast, Primo has a quart of orange juice, two quarts of milk, nineteen pieces of toast, fourteen eggs, a loaf of bread and half a pound of Virginia ham." His size earned him the nickname "The Ambling Alp". Time magazine called him "The Monster".
12 September 1928 was the date of Carnera's first professional fight, against Leon Sebilo, in Paris. Carnera won by knockout in round two. He won his first six bouts, then lost to Franz Diener by disqualification in round one at Leipzig. Then, he won seven more bouts in a row before meeting Young Stribling. He and Stribling exchanged disqualification wins, Carnera winning the first in four rounds, and Stribling winning the rematch in round seven. In Carnera's next bout he avenged his defeat to Diener with a knockout in round six.
In 1930, he moved to the United States, where he toured extensively, winning his first seventeen bouts there by knockout. George Godfrey broke the knockout streak in Philadelphia by losing to Carnera by disqualification in the fifth round. In 1932, Carnera faced the tallest heavyweight in history up to that point, Santa Camarão, a 6 ft 9 in (2.06 m) Portuguese fighter. Carnera won the fight in a sixth-round knockout.
On 10 February 1933, he knocked out Ernie Schaaf in thirteen rounds in New York City. Schaaf died four days later. Schaaf had suffered a severe beating and knockout in a bout with future heavyweight champion Max Baer six months earlier, on 31 August 1932. Furthermore, an autopsy revealed that Schaaf had meningitis, a swelling of the brain, and was still recovering from a severe case of influenza when he entered the ring with Carnera.
For his next fight, Carnera faced the world heavyweight champion, Jack Sharkey, on June 29, at the Madison Square Garden Bowl in Queens, New York. Carnera became world champion by knocking out Sharkey in round six.
He retained the title against Paulino Uzcudun and Tommy Loughran, both by decision in 15 rounds, but in his next fight on 14 June 1934 against Max Baer, Carnera was knocked down multiple times in 11 rounds, before referee Arthur Donovon stopped the fight. There is disagreement regarding how many times Carnera was knocked down, with sources giving conflicting totals of 7, 10, 11 (per Associated Press) and 12 (per The Ring magazine founder Nat Fleischer, ringside for the fight, who wrote that Carnera was knocked down 12 times and slipped once after a missed punch).
After that, Carnera won his next four fights, three of them as part of a South American tour that took him to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, as well as two exhibitions fought on the South American continent. But then, on 25 June 1935, he was knocked out in six rounds by Joe Louis.
For the next two and a half years, he won five and lost three of eight total fights. But in 1938, Carnera, a diabetic, had to have a kidney removed, which forced him into retirement by 1944. Carnera's record was 89 wins and 14 losses. His 72 wins by knockout made him a member of the exclusive club of boxers that won 50 or more bouts by knockout.
Carnera was the third European to hold the world heavyweight championship after Bob Fitzsimmons and Max Schmeling. He would be the last until Ingemar Johansson claimed the title against Floyd Patterson in 1959, over a quarter of a century later.
Carnera's 1933 title defense against Tommy Loughran held the record for the greatest weight differential between two combatants in a world title fight (86Ibs) for 73 years until the reign of Nikolai Valuev, who owns the current record for the 105½Ibs weight advantage he held in his 2006 defense against Monte Barrett.
Valuev also broke Carnera's record of 270Ibs to become the heaviest world champion in history, weighing as high as 328Ibs during his reign. Carnera still ranks as the second-heaviest, over eighty years after he held the title.
Carnera's 1933 title defense against Paulino Uzcudun in Italy was the first Heavyweight title fight to be held in Europe since Jack Johnson's title defence against Frank Moran in Paris in 1913. It would be the last such occasion until Muhammad Ali defended the title against Henry Cooper in London in 1966. Carnera-Uzcudun was the first World Heavyweight championship fight to be contested between two Europeans. It was not until Lennox Lewis defended the WBC heavyweight title against fellow-Englishman Frank Bruno in 1993, sixty years later, that this would occur again.
Trailing only Ezzard Charles and his 95 wins, Carnera holds the second-most victories of all heavyweight champions with 88. Carnera's 71 career knockouts is the most of any world heavyweight champion.
Carnera appeared in a short film in 1931. During his tenure as world champion he played a fictional version of himself in the 1933 film The Prizefighter and the Lady starring Max Baer and Myrna Loy. Here he plays the heavyweight champion who barely holds onto his title with a draw decision after a furious fight with Baer. The film was made just the year before Carnera fought Baer for real, in a bout that was as wild as the film version, but ended with a knockout loss for Carnera.
Carnera had a non-speaking bit part in the 1949 movie Mighty Joe Young. He played himself in the tug-of-war scene with the giant gorilla. After being pulled by the ape into a pool of water, Carnera throws a couple of futile punches to Joe's chin.
He also played a bully boy wrestler in Carol Reed's film A Kid for Two Farthings (1955) based around London's Petticoat Lane Market where he has a match against a local bodybuilder who is getting married to Diana Dors.
Primo appeared in at least 10 Italian films between 1939 and 1943, as well as several in the 1950s, like Prince Valiant, in the role of Sligon. His last screen role was as the giant Antaeus alongside Steve Reeves in Hercules Unchained (USA Title, filmed in Italy, 1959, original title Ercole e la regina di Lidia).
In 1945 he returned temporarily to boxing and won two fights. But the next year, after three losses against Luigi Musina his talent for wrestling was discovered. In 1946 he became a professional wrestler and was immediately a huge success at the box office. For several years he was one of the top draws in wrestling. Carnera continued to be an attraction into the 1960s. Max Baer attended at least one of Carnera's wrestling matches. Carnera won his debut on 22 August 1946, when he defeated Tommy O'Toole in California. On 23 October 1946, Carnera won his 41st consecutive wrestling match by defeating Jules Strongbow. On 19 November 1946, Carnera beat Harry Kruskamp to remain undefeated at 65-0-0.
Primo Carnera went 120 straight wrestling matches undefeated (119-0-1) before suffering his first loss to Yvon Robert in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, on 20 August 1947. Carnera's greatest victory took place on 7 December 1947 when he defeated former world heavyweight champion Ed "Strangler" Lewis.
In May 1948, Carnera took a 143-1-1 record against world heavyweight champion Lou Thesz. Thesz defeated Carnera in a world title defense.
According to boxing historian Herbert Goldman, Carnera was "very much mob controlled." Carnera met his first serious heavyweight contender, Young Stribling, in 1929, and won when Stribling fouled him. In a rematch, he fouled Stribling. His 1930 fight against California club fighter Bombo Chevalier in Emeryville was considered fixed, and Carnera was banned from fighting in California. His 1930 match against George Godfrey was controversial, as Godfrey was disqualified in the sixth round when he was clearly getting the better of Carnera.
Since his arrival in the US, backed by a group of prosperous but shady entrepreneurs, Carnera's career has been less glorious than fantastic. His first opponents—Big Boy Peterson, Elzear Rioux, Cowboy Owens—were known to be incompetent but their feeble opposition to Carnera suggested that they had been bribed to lose. Suspicion concerning the Monster's abilities became almost universal when another adversary, Bombo Chevalier, stated that one of his own seconds had threatened to kill him unless he lost to Carnera. Against the huge, lazy, amiable Negro George Godfrey (249 lb), he won on a foul. But only one of 33 US opponents has defeated Monster Carnera—fat, slovenly Jimmy Maloney, whom Sharkey beat five years ago. In a return fight, at Miami last March, Carnera managed to outpoint Maloney.
Depictions in popular cultureEdit
Requiem for a Heavyweight, Rod Serling's 1956 Emmy Award-winning teleplay for Playhouse 90 directed by Ralph Nelson (who also won an Emmy), focused on down-and-out former heavyweight boxer Harlan "Mountain" McClintock. The travails of McClintock, who was played by Jack Palance (Sean Connery played the part on British television and Anthony Quinn essayed the role in the 1962 film), was thought by many boxing fans to resemble Carnera's life.
In 1947, fighting aficionado Budd Schulberg wrote The Harder They Fall, a novel about a giant boxer whose fights are fixed. It was adapted into Mark Robson's 1956 film, which starred Humphrey Bogart. A highlight was the appearance of Max Baer, playing a fighter the mob could not fix who destroys the giant in his first fair fight. Critics drew parallels with the real-life Baer-Carnera fight two decades before. In response, Carnera unsuccessfully sued the film's company.
In 2008, the actor Andrea Iaia played Carnera in the Italian biographical film Carnera: The Walking Mountain, directed by Renzo Martinelli.
In 2013, Emporio Elaborazioni Meccaniche named a motorbike, the 1983 BMW R80RT Carnera, in honor of Carnera.
In 1947, Carnera, an Italian comic book series sporting a fictional version of Primo Carnera, was produced. In 1953, it was translated into German. A facsimile version was published in 2010.
In his 1933 collection of short stories Mulliner Nights, Wodehouse described one character as follows: "He was built on large lines, and seemed to fill the room to overflowing. In physique he was not unlike what Primo Carnera would have been if Carnera hadn't stunted his growth by smoking cigarettes when a boy."
The Yeasayer song Ambling Alp, from their 2010 album Odd Blood references Carnera by his nickname in the title and second verse. Both Carnera and German boxer Max Schmeling are referenced for their bouts with American Joe Louis.
The googolplex is jokingly said to have been defined as a one followed by a very large but specific number of zeros in order to ensure that Carnera would not be considered a better mathematician than Albert Einstein, implying that Carnera would defeat Einstein in an endurance contest.
Professional boxing recordEdit
|Loss||89–14||Luigi Musina||UD||8||12 May 1946||Gorizia, Italy|
|Loss||89–13||Luigi Musina||PTS||8||19 March 1946||Trieste, Italy|
|Loss||89–12||Luigi Musina||TKO||7||21 November 1945||Milan, Italy|
|Win||89–11||Sam Gardner||KO||1||25 September 1945||Trieste, Italy|
|Win||88–11||Michel Blevens||KO||3||22 July 1945||Udine, Italy|
|Win||87–11||Joseph Zupan||KO||2 (10)||4 December 1937||Zirkus, Budapest, Hungary|
|Loss||86–11||Albert di Meglio||PTS||10||18 November 1937||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Loss||86–10||Leroy Haynes||TKO||3 (10)||27 May 1936||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA|
|Loss||86–9||Leroy Haynes||TKO||3 (10)||16 March 1936||Arena, Philadelphia, USA|
|Win||86–8||Isidoro Gastanaga||TKO||5 (10)||6 March 1936||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||85–8||Big Boy Brackey||TKO||4 (10)||1:06||9 December 1935||Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, USA|
|Win||84–8||Ford Smith||UD||10||25 November 1935||Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Win||83–8||Walter Neusel||TKO||4 (15)||1 November 1935||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Loss||82–8||Joe Louis||TKO||6 (15)||2:32||25 June 1935||Yankee Stadium, The Bronx, New York, USA|
|Win||82–7||Ray Impelletiere||TKO||9 (10)||15 March 1935||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||81–7||Erwin Klausner||KO||6 (12)||22 January 1935||Estádio Manuel Schwartz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Win||80–7||Seal Harris||KO||7 (10)||13 January 1935||Estádio da Floresta, São Paulo, Brazil|
|Win||79–7||Victorio Campolo||PTS||12||1 December 1934||Club Atlético Independiente, Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|Loss||78–7||Max Baer||TKO||11 (15)||2:16||14 June 1934||Madison Square Garden Bowl, Long Island City, New York, USA||Lost NBA, NYSAC and World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||78–6||Tommy Loughran||UD||15||1 March 1934||Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, USA||Retained NBA, NYSAC and World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||77–6||Paulino Uzcudun||UD||15||22 October 1933||Piazza di Siena, Rome, Italy||Won IBU Heavyweight title.|
|Win||76–6||Jack Sharkey||KO||6 (15)||2:27||29 June 1933||Madison Square Garden Bowl, Long Island City, New York, USA||Won NBA, NYSAC and World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||75–6||Ernie Schaaf||KO||13 (15)||10 February 1933||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA||SCHAAF KILLED|
|Win||74–6||Young Spence||KO||1 (10)||30 December 1932||Fair Park Arena, Dallas, USA|
|Win||73–6||James Merriott||KO||1 (10)||20 December 1932||City Auditorium, Galveston, Texas, USA|
|Win||72–6||Joe Rice||KO||2 (10)||19 December 1932||Fort Worth, Texas, USA|
|Win||71–6||KO Christner||KO||4 (10)||15 December 1932||City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, USA|
|Win||70–6||Big Boy Peterson||TKO||2 (10)||13 December 1932||Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA|
|Win||69–6||King Levinsky||PTS||10||9 December 1932||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Win||68–6||John Schwake||KO||7 (10)||2:16||2 December 1932||Coliseum, St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Win||67–6||Jose Santa||TKO||6 (10)||18 November 1932||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||66–6||Les Kennedy||KO||3 (10)||4 November 1932||Arena, Boston, USA|
|Win||65–6||Jack Taylor||KO||2 (10)||17 October 1932||Jefferson County Armory, Louisville, Kentucky, USA|
|Win||64–6||Gene Stanton||KO||6 (10)||13 October 1932||114th Infantry Armory, Camden, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||63–6||Ted Sandwina||KO||4 (10)||7 October 1932||Benjamin Field Arena, Tampa, Florida, USA|
|Win||62–6||Art Lasky||NWS||10||1 September 1932||Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA|
|Win||61–6||Jack Gagnon||KO||1 (10)||1:35||19 August 1932||Tiverton, Rhode Island, USA|
|Loss||60–6||Stanley Poreda||PTS||10||16 August 1932||Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||60–5||Hans Birkie||PTS||10||2 August 1932||Queensboro Stadium, Long Island City, New York, USA|
|Win||59–5||Jerry Pavelec||TKO||5 (10)||0:51||28 July 1932||Playground Arena, West New York, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||58–5||Jack Gross||TKO||7 (10)||2:50||20 July 1932||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA|
|Loss||57–5||Larry Gains||PTS||10||30 May 1932||White City Stadium, London, England, UK|
|Win||57–4||Hans Schoenrath||TKO||3 (10)||15 May 1932||San Siro, Milan, Italy|
|Win||56–4||Maurice Griselle||TKO||10 (10)||29 April 1932||Palais des Sports, Paris, France|
|Win||55–4||Don McCorkindale||PTS||10||7 April 1932||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||54–4||George Cook||KO||4 (10)||23 March 1932||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||53–4||Pierre Charles||PTS||10||29 February 1932||Palais des Sports, Paris, France|
|Win||52–4||Ernst Gühring||TKO||5 (10)||5 February 1932||Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany|
|Win||51–4||Moise Bouquillon||TKO||2 (10)||25 January 1932||Palais des Sports, Paris, France|
|Win||50–4||Victorio Campolo||KO||2 (15)||1:27||27 November 1931||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||49–4||King Levinsky||PTS||10||19 November 1931||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Loss||48–4||Jack Sharkey||UD||15||12 October 1931||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA||This match was billed as being for the American Heavyweight title.|
|Win||48–3||Armando de Carolis||KO||2 (10)||1:08||6 August 1931||Shellpot Park, Brandywine Hundred, Delaware, USA|
|Win||47–3||Roberto Roberti||TKO||3 (10)||2:25||4 August 1931||Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||46–3||Knute Hansen||KO||1 (10)||2:10||24 July 1931||Edgerton Park Arena, Rochester, New York, USA|
|Win||45–3||Bud Gorman||KO||2 (10)||2:35||30 June 1931||Mutual Street Arena, Toronto, Ontario, Canada|
|Win||44–3||Umberto Torriani||KO||2 (10)||0:43||26 June 1931||Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, USA|
|Win||43–3||Pat Redmond||KO||1 (10)||2:24||15 June 1931||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA|
|Win||42–3||Jim Maloney||PTS||10||5 March 1931||Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, USA|
|Win||41–3||Reggie Meen||TKO||2 (6)||18 December 1930||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||40–3||Paulino Uzcudun||SD||10||30 November 1930||Estadio Montjuïc, Barcelona, Spain|
|Loss||39–3||Jim Maloney||PTS||10||7 October 1930||Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, USA|
|Win||39–2||Jack Gross||KO||4 (10)||17 September 1930||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Win||38–2||Pat McCarthy||KO||2 (10)||1:16||8 September 1930||Velodrome, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||37–2||Riccardo Bertazzolo||TKO||3 (15)||30 August 1930||Auditorium, Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||36–2||George Cook||KO||2 (10)||29 July 1930||Taylor Bowl, Cleveland, Ohio, USA|
|Win||35–2||Bearcat Wright||KO||4 (10)||17 July 1930||Omaha, Nebraska, USA|
|Win||34–2||George Godfrey||DQ||5 (10)||1:13||23 June 1930||Shibe Park, Philadelphia, USA|
|Win||33–2||KO Christner||KO||4 (10)||1:20||5 June 1930||Fairgrounds Coliseum, Detroit, Michigan, USA|
|Win||32–2||Sam Baker||KO||1 (10)||22 April 1930||Ice Coliseum, Portland, Oregon, USA|
|Win||31–2||Leon Chevalier||TKO||6 (10)||14 April 1930||Oaks Park, Emeryville, California, USA|
|Win||30–2||Neal Clisby||KO||2 (10)||0:40||8 April 1930||Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, USA|
|Win||29–2||Jack McAuliffe II||KO||1 (10)||2:18||28 March 1930||Stockyards Stadium, Denver, Colorado, USA|
|Win||28–2||George Trafton||KO||1 (10)||0:54||26 March 1930||Memphis, Tennessee, USA|
|Win||27–2||Frank Zaveta||KO||1 (10)||1:51||20 March 1930||Jacksonville, Florida, USA|
|Win||26–2||Chuck Wiggins||KO||2 (10)||17 March 1930||Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Win||25–2||Sully Montgomery||KO||2 (10)||1:15||11 March 1930||Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA|
|Win||24–2||Roy Ace Clark||KO||6 (10)||2:38||3 March 1930||Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Win||23–2||Farmer Lodge||KO||2 (10)||1:22||24 February 1930||Heinemann Park, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA|
|Win||22–2||Johnny Erickson||KO||2 (10)||1:45||17 February 1930||Coliseum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA|
|Win||21–2||Jim Sigman||KO||1 (8)||1:35||14 February 1930||Memphis, Tennessee, USA|
|Win||20–2||Buster Martin||KO||2 (10)||0:56||11 February 1930||Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Win||19–2||Billy Owens||KO||2 (10)||2:22||6 February 1930||Armory, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||18–2||Elzear Rioux||KO||1 (10)||0:47||31 January 1930||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Win||17–2||Big Boy Peterson||KO||1 (10)||1:10||24 January 1930||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||16–2||Franz Diener||TKO||6 (15)||17 December 1929||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Loss||15–2||Young Stribling||DQ||7 (10)||7 December 1929||Vélodrome d'hiver, Paris, France|
|Win||15–1||Young Stribling||DQ||4 (15)||18 November 1929||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||14–1||Jack Stanley||TKO||1 (8)||1:45||17 October 1929||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||13–1||Hermann Jaspers||KO||3 (10)||18 September 1929||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Win||12–1||Feodor Nikolaeff||KO||1||30 August 1929||Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, France|
|Win||11–1||Joe Thomas||TKO||4||25 August 1929||Arènes du Prado, Marseille, France|
|Win||10–1||José Leté||UD||10||14 August 1929||Atocha, San Sebastián, Spain|
|Win||9–1||Jack Humbeeck||TKO||6 (10)||26 June 1929||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Win||8–1||Marcel Nilles||TKO||3 (10)||30 May 1929||Cirque de Paris, Paris, France|
|Win||7–1||Moise Bouquillon||PTS||10||22 May 1929||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Loss||6–1||Franz Diener||DQ||1 (10)||28 April 1929||Leipzig, Germany|
|Win||6–0||Ernst Roesemann||TKO||5 (8)||18 January 1929||Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany|
|Win||5–0||Constant Barrick||KO||3||1 December 1928||Vélodrome d'hiver, Paris, France|
|Win||4–0||Epifanio Islas||UD||10||25 November 1928||Palazzo Dello Sport, Milan, Italy|
|Win||3–0||Salvatore Ruggirello||TKO||4 (10)||30 October 1928||Cirque de Paris, Paris, France|
|Win||2–0||Joe Thomas||KO||3||25 September 1928||Cirque de Paris, Paris, France|
|Win||1–0||Leon Sebilo||TKO||2||12 September 1928||Salle Wagram, Paris, France||Carnera's professional debut.|
Championships and accomplishmentsEdit
- International Boxing Union
- IBU Heavyweight Championship (22 October 1933 – 21 June 1935; vacated)
- National Boxing Association
- NBA World Heavyweight Championship (29 June 1933 – 14 June 1934)
- New York State Athletic Commission
- NYSAC World Heavyweight Championship (29 June 1933 – 14 June 1934)
- Page 2010, p. 5.
- Page 2010, p. 179.
- Page 2010, p. 212.
- Page 2010, p. 7, 214.
- "Primo Carnera – Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia". Boxrec.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Cyber Boxing Zone -- Primo Carnera".
- Page 2010, p. 209.
- Steckel, Richard H. "A History of the Standard of Living in the United States". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Cinderella Man: James J. Braddock, Max Baer, and the Greatest Upset in ... – Jeremy Schaap – Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Page 2010, p. 3.
- Page 2010, p. 137.
- Page 2010, p. 11-12.
- Page 2010, p. 22.
- Page 2010, p. 52.
- Page 2010, p. 93-94.
- Page 2010, p. 100.
- Johnson, Catherine (2007). "FAQs". www.maxbaer.org. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
- Hunnicutt, Michael (2005-04-05). "Max Baer and the Death of Ernie Schaaf". International Boxing Research Organization. Archived from the original on 2007-04-19. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
- Page 2010, p. 117.
- "Primo Carnera vs. Max Baer– Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia". Boxrec.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "TOMMY LOUGHRAN DIES AT 79". The New York Times. 10 July 1982. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- "All-Time List: Most Career KOs By a Heavyweight Champ". Boxing Scene. 3 March 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
- Page 2010, p. 189.
- "Primo Carnera".
- "Prince Valiant". 5 April 1954 – via IMDb.
- "Hercules Unchained". 13 July 1960 – via IMDb.
- The Strange Case of Carnera, By Jack Sher, Sport, February 1948
- Page 2010, p. 187.
- Bodner, Alan (1997). When Boxing Was a Jewish Sport. Praeger Publishers. p. 133. ISBN 978-0275953539.
- Johnston, Chuck. "Famous 'fixes' in boxing history..." BoxRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Primo Carnera vs. George Godfrey". BoxingRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "TIME Magazine Cover: Primo Carnera - Oct. 5, 1931". Time. 5 October 1931. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Donelson, Tom; Lotierzo, Frank (2004). More Tales From Ringside. iUniverse. p. 125. ISBN 0-595-30588-1.
- Holly (3 August 2013). "The Carnera by Emporio Elaborazioni Meccaniche".
- Maria Grazia Perini. "Carnera". Enciclopedia Mondiale del Fumetto. Editoriale Corno, 1978. p.238.
- "Primo Carnera". Retrieved 27 October 2014.
Auch als Comicheld hatte Carnera "Karriere" gemacht: Von 1953 bis 1954 erschien im Walter Lehning Verlag, Hannover, mit insgesamt 46 Heften die (ursprünglich aus Italien stammende) Piccolo-Serie "CARNERA"
- "Primo Carnera". Retrieved 27 October 2014.
Die Carnera-Beilage in der "Sprechblase"
- Sherrin, Ned (Ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- Edward Kasner & James R. Newman (1940) Mathematics and the Imagination, page 23, New York: Simon & Schuster
- Page, Joseph S. (2010). Primo Carnera: The Life and Career of the Heavyweight Boxing Champion. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-4810-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Primo Carnera.|
- Professional boxing record for Primo Carnera from BoxRec
- Primo Carnera - CBZ Profile
- Carnera: The Walking Mountain on IMDb
- Primo Carnera Photos
- Primo Carnera at Find a Grave
- Primo Carnera on WWE.com
| World Heavyweight Champion
29 June 1933 – 14 June 1934