OECD(Redirected from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 37 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. As of 2017, the OECD member states collectively comprised 62.2% of global nominal GDP (US$49.6 trillion) and 42.8% of global GDP (Int$54.2 trillion) at purchasing power parity. OECD is an official United Nations observer.
|Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques|
Founding member countries (1961)
Other member countries
|Formation||16 April 1948
(as the OEEC)a|
Reformed in September 1961 (as OECD)
|José Ángel Gurría|
|a. Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.|
In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan (which was rejected by the Soviet Union and its satellite states). This would be achieved by allocating United States financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. (Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea, but not under the name "Marshall Plan".)
In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states.
The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. The OECD is funded by contributions from member states at varying rates, and had a total budget of €363 million in 2015.
Organisation for European Economic Co-operationEdit
The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. It started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it was headquartered in the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues.
In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area, to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC.
By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan.
Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada, with Japan joining three years later. The official founding members are:
During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country.
Enlargement to Central EuropeEdit
In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. This programme also included a membership option for these countries. As a result of this, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as well as Mexico and South Korea became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000.
Reform and further enlargementEdit
In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey. In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD. Slovenia also applied for membership that same year. In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation. The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states. Romania reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta to OECD Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría. In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria confirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD Secretariat.
In 2003, the OECD established a working group headed by Japan's Ambassador to the OECD Seiichiro Noboru to work out a strategy for the enlargement and co-operation with non-members. The working group proposed that the selection of candidate countries to be based on four criteria: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 and 14 May 2004. Based on these recommendations work, the meeting adopted an agreement on operationalisation of the proposed guidelines and on the drafting of a list of countries suitable as potential candidates for membership. As a result of this work, on 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement. Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010. In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.
In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia. In 2015, it opened talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania. Latvia became a full member on 1 July 2016. Colombia and Lithuania signed the accession agreement on 30 May 2018. They will become full members after the ratification of the accession agreement and the deposition of the ratification document.
Objectives and activitiesEdit
The OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for bilateral negotiations regarding tax coordination and cooperation. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be very unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings).
The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD iLibrary.
The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD premises by appointment.
The OECD releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated accordingly to the OECD iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD flagship[vague] titles include:
- The OECD Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries.
- The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators.
- The OECD Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimes other major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in Excel format via StatLinks.
- The OECD Communications Outlook and the OECD Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. They contain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD member countries and non-member economies.
- In 2007 the OECD published Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life, the first book in the OECD Insights series. This series uses OECD analysis and data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international trade and international migration.
All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library & Archives.[n 1]
OECD Observer, an award-winning magazine[n 2] launched in 1962. The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD Yearbook,[n 3] launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation. The online and mobile editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus ordering information. An OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.
The OECD is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects.
OECD statistics are available in several forms:
- as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables,
- as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD Statistics portal,
- as StatLinks (in most OECD books, there is a URL that links to the underlying data).
There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals.
The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law).
It has published the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable.
The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:
- The OECD member countries, each represented by a delegation led by an ambassador. Together, they form the OECD Council. Member countries act collectively through Council (and its Standing Committees) to provide direction and guidance to the work of Organisation.
- The OECD Substantive Committees, one for each work area of the OECD, plus their variety of subsidiary bodies. Committee members are typically subject-matter experts from member and non-member governments. The Committees oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and so on). Committee members then relay the conclusions to their capitals.
- The OECD Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General (currently Ángel Gurría), provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees. It is organised into Directorates, which include about 2,500 staff.
Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General Pierre Vinde estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat. This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations. In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration.
The OECD regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD charter, members and non-member states.
Noteworthy meetings include:
- The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting, with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among the countries.
- The annual OECD Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. Held every year since June 2000, the OECD Forum takes the form of conferences and discussions, is open to public participation and is held in conjunction with the MCM.
- Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e., all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.).
- The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition to measure and foster progress in societies.
- OECD Eurasia Week which includes several high-level policy dialogue discussions to share best practices and experiences in addressing common development and economic challenges in Eurasia.
Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas.
The secretariat is organised in Directorates:
- Centre for Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and Local Development
- Centre for Tax Policy and Administration
- Development Co-operation Directorate
- Directorate for Education and Skills
- Directorate for Employment, Labour, and Social Affairs
- Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
- Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation
- Economics Department
- Environment Directorate
- Public Governance Directorate
- Statistics Directorate
- Trade and Agriculture Directorate
- General Secretariat
- Executive Directorate
- Public Affairs and Communication Directorate
|№||Secretary-General||Time served||Country of origin|
|1||Robert Marjolin||1948 – 1955||France|
|2||René Sergent||1955 – 1960||France|
|3||Thorkil Kristensen||1960 – September 1961||Denmark|
|№||Secretary-General||Time served||Country of origin|
|1||Thorkil Kristensen||30 September 1961 – 30 September 1969||Denmark|
|2||Emiel van Lennep||1 October 1969 – September 1984||Netherlands|
|3||Jean-Claude Paye||1 October 1984 – 30 September 1994||France|
|—||Staffan Sohlman (interim)||1 October 1994 – November 1994||Sweden|
|3||Jean-Claude Paye||November 1994 – 30 May 1996||France|
|4||Donald Johnston||1 June 1996 – 30 May 2006||Canada|
|5||José Ángel Gurría||1 June 2006 – present||Mexico|
Representatives of the 37 OECD member countries and a number of observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area.
- Africa Partnership Forum
- Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC)
- Development Assistance Committee
- OECD Development Centre
- International Transport Forum (ITF) (formally known as the European Conference of Ministers of Transport)
- International Energy Agency
- Nuclear Energy Agency
- Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN)
- Partnership for Democratic Governance (PDG)
- Sahel and West Africa Club
- Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC)
|Australia||7 June 1971||Oceania|
|Austria||29 September 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Belgium||13 September 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Canada||10 April 1961||North America|
|Chile||November 2003||16 May 2007||15 December 2009||7 May 2010||South America|
|Czech Republic||January 1994||8 June 1994||24 November 1995||21 December 1995||Europe||Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.|
|Denmark||30 May 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Estonia||16 May 2007||10 May 2010||9 December 2010||Europe|
|Finland||28 January 1969||Europe|
|France||7 August 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Germany||27 September 1961||Europe||Joined OEEC in 1949 (West Germany). Previously represented by the Trizone. East Germany was a member of the rival Comecon from 1950 until German reunification in 1990.|
|Greece||27 September 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Hungary||December 1993||8 June 1994||7 May 1996||Europe||Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991.|
|Iceland||5 June 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Ireland||17 August 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Israel||15 March 2004||16 May 2007||10 May 2010||7 September 2010||Middle East (Asia)|
|Italy||29 March 1962||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Japan||November 1962||July 1963||28 April 1964||Asia|
|South Korea||29 March 1995||25 October 1996||12 December 1996||Asia||Officially Republic of Korea (ROK)|
|Latvia||29 May 2013||11 May 2016||1 July 2016||Europe|
|Luxembourg||7 December 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Mexico||14 April 1994||18 May 1994||North America|
|Netherlands||13 November 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|New Zealand||29 May 1973||Oceania|
|Norway||4 July 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Poland||1 February 1994||8 June 1994||11 July 1996||22 November 1996||Europe||Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991.|
|Portugal||4 August 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Slovakia||February 1994||8 June 1994||July 2000||14 December 2000||Europe||Was member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovakia.|
|Slovenia||March 1996||16 May 2007||10 May 2010||21 July 2010||Europe|
|Spain||3 August 1961||Europe||Joined OEEC in 1958.|
|Sweden||28 September 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Switzerland||28 September 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|Turkey||2 August 1961||Eurasia||OEEC member.|
|United Kingdom||2 May 1961||Europe||OEEC member.|
|United States||12 April 1961||North America|
- Free Territory of Trieste (Zone A) (member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity).
Countries signed accession agreement but not members yetEdit
- Colombia: officially invited on 25 May 2018, signed accession agreement on 30 May 2018
- Lithuania: officially invited on 3 May 2018, signed accession agreement on 30 May 2018
Countries currently in accession talksEdit
- Costa Rica: In May 2013, the OECD declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica in 2015. On 9 April 2015, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica.
Countries whose accession talks are suspendedEdit
- Russia: In May 2007, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Russia. In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in that year's Crimean crisis.
Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD CouncilEdit
This section needs to be updated.(May 2018)
The following table shows various data for OECD member states, including area, population, economic output and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press and democratic level.
|Note: The colours indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).|
|Highest quartile||Upper-mid (3rd quartile)||Lower-mid (2nd quartile)||Lowest quartile|
- "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 17 April 2018.
- "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "Organisation for European Economic Co-operation". OECD. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
- "Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance This Day in History — 7/2/1947". History.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "The Economic Cooperation Authority". Marshallfoundation.org. Archived from the original on 2007-02-17. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "What is the OECD? Definition and Meaning". marketbusinessnews.com. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- "Organisation for European Economic Co-operation - OECD". www.oecd.org. Retrieved 2017-12-06.
- "Getting to the OECD". OECD. OECD. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Member Countries' Budget Contributions for 2015". OECD. OECD. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "OECD Budget". OECD. OECD. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- Christopher, Warren (1998). In the stream of history: shaping foreign policy for a new era. Stanford University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-8047-3468-4.
- "A majestic start: How the OECD was won, in OECD Yearbook 2011". OECD Observer. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "History of relations between Slovenia and the OECD". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia. Retrieved 2010-10-31.[permanent dead link]
- "The Czech Republic in the OECD". Permanent Delegation of the Czech Republic to the OECD.
- "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. 2006-11-23. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
- "South Korea joins OECD: South Korea was formally invited... - Chicago Tribune". Articles.chicagotribune.com. 1996-10-25. Retrieved 2013-08-03.
- "International Organisations – Turkey's attempts to exclude Cyprus' membership" (in Greek). Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia: Co-operation between the OECD and Latvia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia. 19 December 2006. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- "Slovenia and the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 2012-03-31.
- "Malta applies to join OECD as full member". Maltamedia. 2005-09-24. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- Beatty, Andrew. "EU gives ground in OECD membership battle". European Voice. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Romania's candidacy for OECD membership" (Press release). Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Bulgarian Govt to Confirm OECD Membership Bid". Novinite. 2012-09-25. Retrieved 2012-09-25.
- "Chair's summary of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, Paris, 15–16 May 2007 – Innovation: Advancing the OECD Agenda for Growth and Equity" (Press release). OECD. 16 May 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- "Chile's accession to the OECD". OECD.org. 7 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07.
- "Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
- "Statement by the OECD regarding the status of the accession process with Russia & co-operation with Ukraine".
- "OECD halts membership talks with Russia". Archived from the original on 2014-03-13.
- "Global OECD boosted by decision to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia with more to follow" (Press release). OECD. 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
- "Latvia becomes full-fledged OECD member". LETA. 1 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Colombia becomes full-fledged OECD member" (in Spanish). presidencia.gov.co. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
- "Peru eager to become an OECD member". Andina.com.pe. 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Malaysia has applied to become a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Daily Express. 2011-04-24. Retrieved 2013-05-30.
- "Brazil Is Seeking to Join the OECD Despite Its Political Crisis". Fortune. 2017-05-31. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
- Twitter. "PLENKOVIĆ U DAVOSU Sastao se s Federicom Mogherini, gruzijskim premijerom, švicarskom predsjednicom i šefom OECD-a -Jutarnji List". Jutarnji.hr. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
- "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. 1962-11-28. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "OECD Yearbook 2011". OECD Observer. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "OECD Observer". M.oecdobserver.org. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Subscribe to OECD Observer".
- "Crossword No.2 2013". OECD Observer. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "The Power of Peer-Learning, chapter 3: OECD's Basic Rules of Conduct – A Sociology of its Institutional Culture". IRDC. 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-06-02. Retrieved 2008-07-31.
- "OECD Global Forums". OECD. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
- "OECD Eurasia Week". OEC. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
- http://www.joc.com/after-battle-oecd-settles-swede-be-interim-leader_19941002.html ; https://www.nytimes.com/1994/10/29/business/worldbusiness/29iht-oecd_1.html
- ; Richard Woodward, The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2009, Routledge)
- "On-Line Guide to OECD Intergovernmental Activity". .oecd.org. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
- "OECD Organisational Chart". .oecd.org. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
- "OECD countries agree to invite Colombia as 37th member" (Press release). OECD. 25 May 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "OECD members agree to formally invite Lithuania as 36th member" (Press release). OECD. 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "Países industrializados alaban avances económicos de Chile" (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 2004-06-18. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- "Chile está entre los mejores aspirantes para entrar a la OCDE" (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- "Brazil:- OECD Council Resolution on Enlargement and Enhanced Engagement - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- "Chile invited to become a member of the OECD". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- "Christopher pitches for new role for former communist countries with PM-France-OECD". Associated Press. 1994-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
- "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- Adenauer und die Hohen Kommissare, Munich 1989, p. 465. Available here.
- Zsófia Árvai (November 2005). "Capital Account Liberalization, Capital Flow Patterns, and Policy Responses in the EU's New Member States" (PDF). IMF Working Paper. International Monetary Fund.
- "Israel: Ready for the OECD" (PDF). Israel Ministry of Finance. March 2006.
- F. C. Langdon (2011-11-01). Japan's Foreign Policy. ISBN 9780774843546.
- Woong Shik Shin. "LIBERALIZATION OF LEGAL SERVICES MARKET IN KOREA" (PDF).
- "South Korea joins OECD: South Korea was formally invited..." Chicago Tribune. 1996-10-25.
- "Remarks at the signing of the Accession Agreement with the Republic of Latvia - OECD". www.oecd.org. Retrieved 2018-04-14.
- ""Accession: Latvia invited to join OECD - OECD"". 2016-05-11.
- "MEXICO FORMALLY INVITED TO JOIN OECD AS 25TH MEMBER". Associated Press. 1994-04-14.
- "ORGANIZACJA WSPÓŁPRACY GOSPODARCZEJ I ROZWOJU" (in Polish).
- "POLAND JOINS THINK TANK OF RICHEST NATIONS". Associated Press. 1996-07-11.
- "Slovakia politics: Slovakia officially joins OECD". BBC Monitoring. 2000-12-18.
- "Accession Process | Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Mzz.gov.si. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- Julio Crespo MacLennan: Spain and the process of European integration, 1957–85, Basingstoke 2000, p. 31. Available here.
- "Member Countries". Oecd.org. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
- "OECD Accepts Colombia as 37th Member". Latin American Herald Tribune. 25 May 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "OECD membership finalizes Lithuania's establishment in global organizations". Office of the President of the Republic of Lithuania. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- "Colombia:- Global OECD boosted by decision to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia with more to follow - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". Oecd.org. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- "Costa Rica".
- "OECD strengthens engagement with partner countries during annual Ministerial Meeting" (Press release). OECD. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
- "World Development Indicators". World Bank. 2017-03-23.
- "World Bank, International Comparison Program database". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
- "Human Development Report 2016" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2017-03-21.
- "Fragile States Index 2016". The Fund for Peace. 28 June 2016. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017.
- "Rule of Law Index 2016". World Justice Project. 2016-10-20.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2016". Transparency International. 2017-01-25.
- "Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom". Heritage Foundation. 2017-02-15.
- "Global Peace Index 2016". Vision of Humanity. 2016-06-08.
- "2016 World Press Freedom Index". Reporters Without Borders. 2016-04-20.
- "Democracy Index 2016" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2017-01-25.
- "OECD iLibrary (formerly: Source OECD)". Ontario Council of University Libraries. 28 November 2011. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
OECD iLibrary is OECD's Online Library for Books, Papers and Statistics and the gateway to OECD's analysis and data. It has replaced SourceOECD in July 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to OECD.|