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List of rampage killers (religious, political or racial crimes)

This section of the list of rampage killers contains mass murders, committed by lone wolf perpetrators, that have a foremost religious, political or racial background.

A rampage killer has been defined as follows:

A rampage involves the (attempted) killing of multiple persons least partly in public space by a single physically present perpetrator using (potentially) deadly weapons in a single event without any cooling-off period.[1]

This list should contain every case with at least one of the following features:

  • Rampage killings with 6 or more dead
  • Rampage killings with at least 4 people killed and least ten victims overall (dead plus injured)
  • Rampage killings with at least 2 people killed and least 12 victims overall (dead plus injured)
  • An incidence of rampage killing shall not be included in this list if it does not include at least two people killed.
  • In all cases the perpetrator(s) are not counted among those killed or injured.

All abbreviations used in the table are explained below.

Contents

Rampage killersEdit

Perpetrator Date Year Location Country Killed Injured W Additional notes Ref.
1. Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, Mohamed Salmene, 31 July 14 2016 Nice France
86
458
F V Killed by police
2. Breivik, Anders Behring, 32 July 22 2011 Oslo & Utøya Norway
75
241
F E Sentenced to 21 years in prison
Two more died trying to escape
3. Tarrant, Brenton Harrison, 28 (suspect) March 15 2019 Christchurch New Zealand
51
49
F Arrested
4. Mateen, Omar Mir Seddique, 29 June 12 2016 Orlando, Florida U.S.
49
53
F Killed by police
5. Two unknown men Aug. 3 2018 Gardez Afghanistan
48
70+
F E One killed by security
One committed suicide
[2]
6. Masharipov, Abdulkadir, 28 (suspect) Jan. 1 2017 Istanbul Turkey
39
79
F Arrested
7. Yacoubi, Seifeddine Rezgui, 22
(سيف الدين رزقي اليعقوبي)
June 26 2015 Sousse Tunisia
38
39
F E Killed by police
8. Ibragimov, Ahmed, 43
(Ибрагимов, Ахмед)
Oct. 8 1999 Mekenskaya Russia
35
20+
F Killed by angry mob
A few days before the shooting, he killed several people
9. Two unknown men Aug. 1 2017 Herat Afghanistan
33
66
F E Both committed suicide
10. Farooq, Ashraf Ali Mohammed
Yasin, Murtuza Hafiz
Sept. 24/25 2002 Gandhinagar India
31
80+
F E Both killed by police
11. Morral Roca, Mateu, 25 May 31/June 2 1906 Madrid Spain
30
100+
F E Committed suicide
12. Two unknown men Aug. 24 2010 Mogadishu Somalia
30
5+
F E Both committed suicide
13. Goldstein, Baruch Kappel, 37
(ברוך קופל גולדשטיין)
Feb. 25 1994 Hebron, West Bank Palestine
29
125
F Killed by angry mob
14. Abbas al-Baqir Abbas, 33
(عباس الباقر عباس)
Dec. 8 2000 Jarafa Sudan
22–27
31–53
F Killed by police
15. Two unknown men Sept. 6 1986 Istanbul Turkey
22
6
F E Both died [3]
16. Two unknown men Nov. 20 2015 Bamako Mali
20
7–9
F E Both killed by soldiers
17. Unknown Oct. 11 2016 Kabul Afghanistan
18
36
F E Killed by police [4]
18. Fieschi, Giuseppe Marco, 44 July 28 1835 Paris France
18
22
F Sentenced to death and executed
19. Kurbanjan Hemit, 28
(库尔班江·依明提)
Abdurahman Azat, 33
(阿不都热合曼·阿扎提)
Aug. 4 2008 Kashgar China
17
15
 MO Both sentenced to death and executed
20. Two unknown men Nov. 24 2002 Jammu India
14
45
F E Both committed suicide
21. Farook, Syed Rizwan, 28
Malik, Tashfeen, 29
Dec. 2 2015 San Bernardino, California U.S.
14
24
F Both killed by police
22. Lardanchet, Jean-Pierre
Friedli, André
Dec. 15/16 1995 Vercors France
14
0
F Both committed suicide
23. Unknown July 20 2001 Sheshnag India
13–14
14–15
F E Killed by police [5]
24. Amri, Anis Ben Othman, 24
(أنيس العامري)
Dec. 19/23 2016 Berlin
Milan
Germany
Italy
12
57
FMV Killed by police
25. Kouachi, Saïd, 34
Kouachi, Chérif, 32
Jan. 7 2015 Paris France
12
11
F Both killed by police
26. Two unknown men March 30 2002 Jammu India
11
20
F E Both committed suicide
27. Unknown Dec. 29 2017 Cairo Egypt
11
10
F Arrested
Suspected of other attacks
28. Bowers, Robert Gregory, 46 (suspect) Oct 27 2018 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania U.S.
11
6
F Arrested
29. Kulikbayev, Ruslan Alpysbayuly, 26
(Кулекбаев, Руслан Алпысбаевич)
July 17/18 2016 Almaty Kazakhstan
10
10
F Sentenced to death
30. Tha'ir Kayid Hamad, 22
(ثائر كايد حماد‎)
March 3 2002 Ofra, West Bank Palestine
10
6
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
31. Two unknown men May 13 2017 Gwadar Pakistan
10
1
F Unsolved
32. Ekmekjian, Levon
(Լեւոն Էքմէքճեան)
Sarkissian, Zohrab
(Զօհրապ Սարգիսեան)
Aug. 7 1982 Ankara Turkey
9
72
F E Sarkissian killed by police
Ekmekjian sentenced to death and executed
33. Two unknown men Dec. 17 2017 Quetta Pakistan
9
57
F E One killed by security
One committed suicide
34. Unknown Aug. 6 2002 Nunwan India
9
31
F E Killed by police [6]
35. Zhou Lanpu,
(周兰普)
May 29 1981 Handan China
9
15
FMV Sentenced to death and executed [7]
36. Essex, Mark James Robert, 23 Dec. 31 /
Jan. 7
1972
1973
New Orleans, Louisiana U.S.
9
13
F A Killed by police
37. Roof, Dylann Storm, 21 June 17 2015 Charleston, South Carolina U.S.
9
1
F Sentenced to death
38. Unknown July 11 1988 Cruise ship City of Poros Greece
8
98
F E Committed suicide
39. Two unknown men Oct. 7 2005 Mong Pakistan
8
20
F Unsolved
40. Strydom, Barend Hendrik, 23 Nov. 8/15 1988 De Deur & Pretoria South Africa
8
16
F Sentenced to death plus 30 years [8]
41. Punchi Banda Kandegedera Feb. 25 1936 Colombo Sri Lanka
8
10
F Sentenced to death [9]
42. Suleiman Mohammed Abdul-Hamid Khater, 24
(سليمان خاطر)
Oct. 5 1985 Ras Burqa Egypt
8
4
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [10]
43. Piruz Nahavandi
(پیروز نهاوندی)
Oct. 31 644 Medina Rashidun Caliphate
7–10
3–6
 M Committed suicide
44. Unknown 1924 Drew, Mississippi U.S.
7–8
?
F Unsolved [11]
45. Wang Xiwen, 32
(王锡文)
Nov. 17 1980 Handan China
7
12
F E Sentenced to death and executed
Also killed two pigs
46. Popper, Ami, 21
(עמי פופר)
May 20 1990 Rishon LeZion Israel
7
11
F Sentenced to seven consecutive life terms;
Later reduced to 40 years in prison
47. Ahmed Daqamseh, 26
(أحمد الدقامسة)
March 13 1997 Island of Peace Jordan
7
6
F Sentenced to 20 years imprisonment [12]
48. Merah, Mohammed, 23 March 11–22 2012 Toulouse & Montauban France
7
6
F Killed by police
49. Smith, Roland James, 51 Dec 8 1995 New York City, New York U.S.
7
4
F A Committed suicide [13]
50. Kariyev, Maksat Kokshkinbaevich, 34
(Кариев, Максат Кокшкинбаевич)
Nov. 12 2011 Taraz Kazakhstan
7
3
F E Committed suicide [14]
51. Unknown Sep. 23 2018 Shar-e-Safa Afghanistan
6–8
?
F Killed by soldiers [15]
52. Omar Rub
Yousef Rub
Nov. 28 2002 Beit She'an Israel
6
34
F E Both killed by police
53. Abdul Salaam Sadek Hassouneh, 24
(عبد السلام صادق حسونة)
Jan. 17 2002 Hadera Israel
6
33
F E Committed suicide [16]
54. Ferguson, Colin, 35 Dec 7 1993 Garden City, New York U.S.
6
19
F Sentenced to 315 years and eight months to life imprisonment
55. Bissonnette, Alexandre, 27 Jan. 29 2017 Quebec City, Quebec Canada
6
19
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
56. Two unknown men Dec. 14 1998 Peć Yugoslavia
6
15
F Unsolved
57. Melod Najah
(ميلود نجاح)
Nov. 25 1987 Kiryat Shmona Israel
6
7
F E Killed by soldiers [17]
58. Uday Abu Jamal, 22
Ghassan Muhammad Abu Jamal, 32
Nov. 18 2014 Jerusalem Israel
6
7
FM Both killed by police
59. Two unknown men June 18 1994 Loughinisland U.K.
6
5
F Unsolved
60. Page, Wade Michael, 40 Aug. 5 2012 Oak Creek, Wisconsin U.S.
6
4
F Committed suicide
61. Two unknown men July 2 1976 Antrim U.K.
6
3
F Unsolved
62. Shadi Sa'id as-Su’ayida
(شادي سعيد السعايدة)
Da'oud al-Haj
(داود الحاج)
Feb. 19 2002 Ein 'Arik, West Bank Palestine
6
1
F Su’ayida sentenced to life imprisonment
Haj escaped
63. Two unknown men March 12 2002 Matzuva Israel
6
1
F E Both killed by soldiers
64. Tsarnaev, Dzhokhar Anzorovich, 19
Tsarnaev, Tamerlan Anzorovich, 26
April 15–19 2013 Boston, Cambridge, & Watertown, Massachusetts U.S.
5
280
FME Dzhokhar sentenced to death
Tamerlan killed by police and run over by Dzhokhar
Possibly involved in the 2011 Waltham triple murder
65. Shafik al-Arid, 22
Talal Khantourah, 21
Aug. 5 1973 Athens Greece
5
55
F E Pleaded guilty [18]
66. Masood, Khalid, 52 March 22 2017 London U.K.
5
49
 MV Killed by police
67. Ayman Mohammed Hassan, 23 Nov. 25 1990 Eilat Israel
5
26
F Sentenced to 12 years [19]
68. Ansari, Aftab
Nasir, Jamiluddin
Jan. 22 2002 Kolkata India
5
20
F Both sentenced to death [20]
69. Ahmed Jassim Ibrahim, 25
(احمد جاسم ابراهيم)
June 12 2009 Baghdad Iraq
5
12
F E Committed suicide or killed [21]
70. Coulibaly, Amedy, 32 Jan. 7–9 2015 Montrouge & Porte de Vincennes France
5
11
F Killed by police
71. Johnson, Micah Xavier, 25 July 7 2016 Dallas, Texas U.S.
5
11
F Killed by police
72. Chekatt, Chérif, 29 Dec. 11 2018 Strasbourg France
5
11
FM Killed by police
73. Two unknown men June 20 2002 Itamar, West Bank Palestine
5
10
F Both killed by soldiers
74. Two unknown men March 13 2013 Srinagar India
5
10
F E Both killed by police
75. Two unknown men Feb. 5 1992 Belfast U.K.
5
9
F Unsolved
76. Shuja al-Dosari, 20
(شجاع الدوسري)
Oct. 16 2015 Saihat Saudi Arabia
5
9
F Killed by police [22]
77. Two unknown men Dec. 12 2004 Philadelphi Route, Gaza Strip Palestine
5
6
F E Both killed by soldiers
78. Elosegi, José Javier Zabaleta
Irujo, Juan María Tapia
Nov. 3 1980 Zarautz Spain
5
5
F Elosegi sentenced to 200 years in prison
Irujo sentenced to 66 years in prison
79. Unknown Soldier Sep. 24 1956 Ramat Rachel Israel
4
17
F Arrested [23]
80. Lakdim, Redouane, 25 March 23 2018 Carcassonne & Trèbes France
4
15
FM Killed by police
81. Natan-Zada, Eden, 19
(עדן נתן-זדה)
Aug. 4 2005 Shfar'am Israel
4
12
F Killed by angry mob [24]
82. Nel, Johan, 18 Jan. 14 2008 Skierlik South Africa
4
8
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
Also killed one ostrich
[25]
83. Mullah Abdullah, 60
Gool, Badsha Mahommed, 40
Jan. 1 1915 Broken Hill, New South Wales Australia
4
7
F Both killed by police [26]
84. Two unknown men April 27 2002 Adora, West Bank Palestine
4
7
F One killed
One escaped
85. Khalid al-Mahmara
Muhammad Ahmad Moussa Mahmara
June 8 2016 Tel Aviv Israel
4
7
F Arrested
86. Tanis, Gökmen, 37 (suspect) March 18 2019 Utrecht Netherlands
4
6
F Arrested
87. Stone, Michael, 32 March 16 1988 Belfast U.K.
3
60+
F E Sentenced to 682 years in prison
88. Ibrahim Mohammed Hasuna, 20
(إبراهيم محمد محمود حسونة)
March 5 2002 Tel Aviv Israel
3
35
FME Killed by police [27]
89. Lortie, Denis, 25 May 8 1984 Quebec City, Quebec Canada
3
13
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
90. Ibrahim al-Akri
(إبراهيم العكاري)
Nov. 5 2014 Jerusalem Israel
3
13
 MV Killed by police
91. Dear, Robert Lewis, 57 Nov. 27 2015 Colorado Springs, Colorado U.S.
3
9
F Found mentally unfit to stand trial
92. Marwen Hasan, 25
Hesham Mohammed Rajeh, 21
Aug. 29 1981 Vienna Austria
2
30
F E Both sentenced to life imprisonment
Rajeh killed a man on May 1, 1981
93. Raed Muhammed al-Rifi, 22 March 17 1992 Jaffa Israel
2
19
 M Killed by police [28]
94. Two unknown men Oct. 9 1994 Jerusalem Israel
2
16
F
95. Hatem Shweikeh, 24 Nov. 4 2001 Jerusalem Israel
2
15–42
F Killed [29]
96. Princip, Gavrilo, 19
Čabrinović, Nedeljko, 19
June 28 1914 Sarajevo Austria-Hungary
2
16
F E Both sentenced to 20 years in prison
97. Saeed Ibrahim Ramadan, 24
(سعيد إبراهيم رمضان)
Jan. 22 2002 Jerusalem Israel
2
16
F Killed by police [30]
98. Unknown Aug. 1 2009 Tel Aviv Israel
2
11–15
F Unsolved [31]
99. Two unknown men Nov. 3 1997 Wad Madani Sudan
2
10
 M Arrested [32]
100. Smith, Benjamin Nathaniel, 21 July 2–4 1999 Chicago, Skokie & Decatur, Illinois
Bloomington, Indiana
U.S.
2
10
F Committed suicide

Abbreviations and footnotesEdit


The W-column gives a basic description of the weapons used in the murders

F – Firearms and other ranged weapons, especially rifles and handguns, but also bows and crossbows, grenade launchers, flamethrowers, or slingshots
M – Melee weapons, like knives, swords, spears, machetes, axes, clubs, rods, rocks, or bare hands
O – Any other weapons, such as bombs, hand grenades, Molotov cocktails, poison and poisonous gas, as well as vehicle and arson attacks
A – indicates that an arson attack was the only other weapon used
V – indicates that a vehicle was the only other weapon used
E – indicates that explosives of any sort were the only other weapon used
P – indicates that an anaesthetising or deadly substance of any kind was the only other weapon used (includes poisonous gas)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Seeger, Thorsten (ed.) School Shootings: International Research, Case Studies, and Concepts for Prevention; Springer, 2012.
  2. ^ Afghanistan: Dozens killed in bomb and gun attack on Shia mosque, Al Jazeera (August 3, 2018)
    - Suicide bomb attack on Afghan Shi'ite mosque kills 39, 80 injured, Reuters (August 3, 2018)
    - Suicide attack on mosque in Afghanistan’s Gardez kills 48, ReliefWeb (August 6, 2018)
  3. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1986/09/11/world/synagogue-victims-mourned-at-rites.html
  4. ^ Gunman 'dressed as police officer' storms shrine and massacres 14 people, Metro (October 12, 2016)
    - ISIS claims attack on shia mourners in Kabul, The Iran Project (October 12, 2016)
  5. ^ India pilgrims die in attack, Eugene Register-Guard (July 22, 2001)
    Seshnag death dance, The Tribune (July 23, 2001)
    5 pilgrims among 11 killed in Amarnath blast, Rediff.com (July 21, 2001)
    Terror along the Amarnath trek as blast kills 13, Rediff.com (July 21, 2001)
    Sheshnag attack was handiwork of lone Lashkar militant: Saxena, Rediff.com (August 9, 2001)
    A troubled trek Archived 2008-08-15 at the Wayback Machine, Frontline (Volume 19 – Issue 17)
  6. ^ 9 Hindus Die In Attack On Pilgrims In Kashmir, The New York Times (August 7, 2002)
    Ultra massacres 9 yatris, The Tribune (August 7, 2002)
  7. ^ 转载一九八一年邯郸市周兰普行凶杀人重大政治案(回忆), (July 15th, 2014)
  8. ^ White Supremacist Sentenced to Death By a Pretoria Court, The New York Times (May 26, 1989)
  9. ^ Election tragedy – Eight persons killed, The Age (February 27, 1936)
    Inquiry into Ceylon election outrage, The Straits Times (March 7, 1936)
    Murder appeal to privy council, The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (December 23, 1936)
    Trial under armed guard, The Straits Times (January 4, 1937)
  10. ^ Tessler, Mark A.: A History of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; Indiana University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-253-20873-4 (p. 661)
  11. ^ Umoja, Akinyele Omowale (2003), We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement, New York University Press, ISBN 9780814725245
  12. ^ Jordanian soldier kills 7 Israeli schoolgirls, CNN (March 13, 1997)
    Israelis mourn slain schoolgirls, CNN (March 14, 1997)
    Madman slays 7 Israeli girls[permanent dead link], New York Daily News (March 14, 1997)
  13. ^ A Life of Resistance: A Special Report, The New York Times (December 14, 1995)
    An Emergency Exit Had Been Blocked In Blaze in Harlem, The New York Times (December 14, 1995)
    8 killed in rampage gunfire, arson attack on 125th St.[permanent dead link], Daily News (December 9, 1995)
  14. ^ Kazakhstan: Taraz city attack kills at least three, BBC News (November 12, 2011)
    Islamist militant kills seven in attack in Kazakh city, Chicago Tribune (November 12, 2011)
    'Islamist' gunman kills seven in Kazakhstan, Agence France-Presse (November 12, 2011)
    Islamist kills 7 people, including 5 police, in rampage in Kazakhstan, blows himself up, The Washington Post (November 12, 2011)
    Двоих сотрудников ДКНБ и пятерых полицейских в Таразе убил последователь джихадизма, Kazakhstan Today (November 12, 2011)
    Террорист нигде не работал и не учился, но хорошо стрелял, Kazakhstan Today (November 13, 2011)
  15. ^ Taliban Detainee Goes on Killing Spree in Afghan Prison, Voice of America (September 24, 2018)
    Afghan War Casualty Report: Sept. 6-27, The New York Times (September 28, 2018)
  16. ^ Six Israelis slain by Arab gunman, The New York Times (January 18, 2002)
    – Fourteen terror victims still hospitalized, Jerusalem Post (January 18, 2002)
  17. ^ Israeli Army Assailed Over Glider Raid, The New York Times (November 28, 1987)
    Israel Death from the Skies, Time (December 7, 1987)
  18. ^ Staff writers (24 January 1974). "2 Arabs Face Athens Court, Plead Guilty". Eugene Register-Guard. United Press International. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  19. ^ Guard convicted in five killings, St. Paul Pioneer Press (April 7, 1991)
    Israel: Slayings by Egyptian "intolerable", Spokane Chronicle (November 26, 1990)
    ]https://www.jta.org/1991/04/08/archive/egyptian-policeman-gets-12-years-for-killing-and-wounding-israelis]
  20. ^ "Calcutta High Court upholds Aftab Ansari's death sentence". NDTV.com. 2010-02-05. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  21. ^ Top Sunni lawmaker killed outside Baghdad mosque, Associated Press (June 13, 2009)
    Killing sparks fears of sectarian clashes, The National (June 14, 2009)
    الشخص الذي اغتال العبيدي يدعى «أحمد جاسم إبراهيم» Archived 2012-03-17 at the Wayback Machine, alarab.com.qa (June 13, 2009)
    تشييع جثمان حارث العبيدي بحضور كبار مسؤولي الدولة, almustaqbal.com (June 14, 2009)
  22. ^ Saudi Arabia: 5 Killed at Prayer Hall; New ISIS Branch Claims Responsibility, The New York Times (October 16, 2015)
    Who is the Saihat Husseiniya Attacker in Saudi Arabia? PICS & VIDEO
  23. ^ Five Eyes for an Eye, Time (October 8, 1956)
    Three archeologists killed by gunfire, Eugene Register-Guard (September 24, 1956)
  24. ^ Jüdischer Terrorist tötet vier Personen in einem Bus im Norden Israels, Newsletter der Botschaft des Staates Israel in Berlin (August 5, 2005)
    Die letzten Momente des Nathan-Zaada, Newsletter der Botschaft des Staates Israel in Berlin (August 8, 2005)
  25. ^ White man's shooting spree in black settlement ignites racial tensions, International Herald Tribune (January 24, 2008)
    Johan Nel must now face the music[dead link], Sowetan (November 19, 2008)
    White teenage racist admits South Africa killing spree, The Daily Telegraph (November 17, 2008)
    Rot in jail! – Skierlik shooter is sentenced Archived 2008-12-03 at the Wayback Machine, Sowetan (November 21, 2008)
  26. ^ Dreadful affair at Broken Hill, The Advertiser (January 2, 1915)
    Outlawry – Train attacked by Turks, The Sydney Morning Herald (January 2, 1915)
    Wild scenes at Broken Hill, The Sydney Morning Herald (January 4, 1915)
    Broken Hill Outrage, The Age (January 6, 1915)
    Barrier Shooting – Inquest on Victims, The Sydney Morning Herald (January 8, 1915)
  27. ^ Three Israelis killed in restaurant attack, CNN (March 5, 2002)
    Policeman, two civilians killed in Tel Aviv terrorist attack, Jerusalem Post (March 6, 2002)
  28. ^ 2 Israelis killed in Tel Aviv attack, The New York Times (March 18, 1992)
    Stabbing spree kills 2 Israelis, injures 14, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (March 18, 1992)
    Palestinian kills two, wounds 19 in street rampage, St. Petersburg Times (March 18, 1992)
    Historical amnesia, Jerusalem Post (April 3, 1992)
  29. ^ Two teens killed in bus attack – Gunman hits Jerusalem bus at rush hour, wounds dozens, Jerusalem Post (November 5, 2001)
    Palestinian militant fires on bus, leaving at least two dead, The Miami Herald (November 5, 2001)
    Gunman, 2 others die in attack on Jerusalem bus, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (November 5, 2001)
    Two teens killed in bus attack. Gunman hits Jerusalem bus at rush hour, wounds dozens Archived 2011-06-12 at the Wayback Machine, Jerusalem Post (November 5, 2001)
    Sixteen injured in Jerusalem bus shooting, breakingnews.ie (November 4, 2001)
  30. ^ Gunman's attack kills two Israelis, St. Petersburg Times (January 23, 2002)
    Two die after Jerusalem shooting, CNN (January 23, 2002)
  31. ^ Gay center attack / New witness accounts could lead detectives to shooter, Haaretz (August 5, 2009)
    Police conduct reenactment of Tel Aviv gay attack, The Jerusalem Post (August 5, 2009)
    LGBT center shooting was 'revenge for sexual assault', The Jerusalem Post (June 11, 2013)
  32. ^ Sudan Mosque Attack, BBC News (November 3, 1997)
    Muslim radicals attack mosque in Wad Madani; two dead, 10 injured, AFP (November 3, 1997)
    "Extremist" Muslim sect members attack worshippers, kill two, Suna news agency (November 4, 1997)