Garden City, New York

Garden City is a village in Nassau County, on Long Island, in New York, United States. It is the Greater Garden City area's anchor community. The population was 23,272 at the 2020 census.[2]

Garden City, New York
Incorporated Village of Garden City
Garden City's town center in August 2017.
Garden City's town center in August 2017.
Nickname(s): 
"Stewart's Folly"
Location in Nassau County and the state of New York.
Location in Nassau County and the state of New York.
Garden City, New York is located in Long Island
Garden City, New York
Garden City, New York
Location within the state of New York
Garden City, New York is located in New York
Garden City, New York
Garden City, New York
Garden City, New York (New York)
Garden City, New York is located in the United States
Garden City, New York
Garden City, New York
Garden City, New York (the United States)
Coordinates: 40°43′37″N 73°38′59″W / 40.72694°N 73.64972°W / 40.72694; -73.64972Coordinates: 40°43′37″N 73°38′59″W / 40.72694°N 73.64972°W / 40.72694; -73.64972
Country United States
State New York
County Nassau County, New York
TownsHempstead
North Hempstead
Incorporated1919
Founded byAlexander Turney Stewart
Government
 • MayorCosmo Veneziale
 • Trustees
Trustees' List
Area
 • Total5.35 sq mi (13.86 km2)
 • Land5.33 sq mi (13.80 km2)
 • Water0.03 sq mi (0.06 km2)
Elevation
89 ft (27 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total23,272
 • Density4,213.55/sq mi (1,626.98/km2)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
11530
Area code(s)516
FIPS code36-28178
GNIS feature ID0950875
Websitewww.gardencityny.net

The Incorporated Village of Garden City is primarily located within the Town of Hempstead, with the exception being a small area at the northern tip of the village located within the Town of North Hempstead.

HistoryEdit

Early yearsEdit

 
The Cathedral of the Incarnation, the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Long Island, was built in 1871.

In 1869, the Irish-born millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart bought a portion of the lightly populated Hempstead Plains.[3] In a letter, Stewart described his intentions for Garden City:

Having been informed that interested parties are circulating statements to the effect that my purpose in desiring to purchase the Hempstead Plains is to devote them to the erection of tenement houses, and public charities of a like character, etc. I consider it proper to state that my only object in seeking to acquire these lands is to devote them to the usual purposes for which such lands, so located, should be applied that is, open them by constructing extensive public roads, laying out the lands in parcels for sale to actual settlers, and erecting at various points attractive buildings and residences, so that a barren waste may speedily be covered by a population desirable in every respect as neighbour taxpayers and as citizens. In doing this I am prepared and would be willing to expend several millions of dollars.[4]

The central attraction of the new community was the Garden City Hotel, designed by the acclaimed firm of McKim, Mead & White.[5] Although the original structure, as well as that which replaced it at the end of the 19th century, were torn down following a fire, a rebuilt hotel still stands on the original grounds, as do many nearby Victorian homes.[citation needed] Access to Garden City was provided by the Central Railroad of Long Island, another Stewart project which he undertook at the same time; the railroad's Hempstead Branch opened in 1873.[5][6]

Stewart's wife, Cornelia, founded the St. Paul's School for boys, St. Mary's School for girls,[a] a Bishop's Residence and the Gothic Cathedral of the Incarnation, which is today the center of the Episcopal Diocese of Long Island, as well as the final resting place of Alexander Turney Stewart and Cornelia Stewart. This elaborate memorial was completed in 1885. Mrs. Stewart died the following year. In 2008, the Cathedral of the Incarnation underwent a multimillion-dollar renovation and rehabilitation project, which was completed in 2012.

Voters selected Mineola (in the town of North Hempstead) to be the county seat for the new county of Nassau in November 1898[8] (before Mineola incorporated as a village in 1906 and set its boundaries), winning out over Hicksville and Hempstead.[9] The Garden City Company (founded in 1893 by the heirs of Alexander Turney Stewart)[10] donated 4 acres (1.6 ha) of land for the county buildings just south of the Mineola train station and the present-day Incorporated Village of Mineola, in the Town of Hempstead.[11][12] The land and the buildings have a Mineola postal address but are within the present-day village of Garden City,[13] which did not incorporate, or set its boundaries, until 1919. The early village did well due to its proximity to Hempstead, which was at that time the commercial center of Long Island. In time, thanks to the railroad and to automobiles, as well, Garden City’s population increased.[6]

In its early years, the press referred to Garden City as "Stewart's Folly."[3][14]

20th centuryEdit

In 1910, Doubleday, Page, and Co., one of the world's most important publishers, moved its operations, which included its own train station, to Garden City.[15] The Doubleday company purchased much of the land on the west site of Franklin Avenue, and built estate homes for many of its executives on Fourth Street. In 1916, company co-founder and Garden City resident Walter Hines Page was named Ambassador to Great Britain.[citation needed]

In 1915, the village of Garden City merged with the village of Garden City Estates to its west.[6] It became an incorporated village in 1919.[6] Garden City’s growth promoted the development of many nearby towns, including Stewart Manor, Garden City Park, Garden City South and East Garden City.[6]

In the 1920s, the community continued to grow, with houses built in Garden City Estates as well as the eastern section of Garden City. This development included the Mott Section, developed by the heirs to the Mott's apple juice fortune, which was spurred by easy access to the now-defunct Long Island Motor Parkway, as well as the establishment of the Doubleday publishing group’s corporate headquarters.[16] Doubleday's headquarters, known as Country Life Press, remained in Garden City until Bertelsmann took over the firm in the mid-1980s. The plant closed in 1988 and has been converted to offices for Bookspan, a media firm partly owned by Doubleday.[citation needed]

Housing construction slowed after the 1929 stock market crash. But in the 1930s, hundreds of houses were built to accommodate a population boom, though Garden City used a strict zoning code to preserve Stewart’s vision. Alone in central Nassau, the village retained a sense of orderly development, true to its rigorously planned roots.[5]

After World War II, following a trend of urban residents moving to the suburbs, Garden City continued to grow. Post-war construction filled out the present borders of Garden City with many split-level and ranch-style homes, with construction occurring in the town's far eastern, northern and western sections.[citation needed] The Waldorf School of Garden City was founded in 1947 (one of the first Waldorf schools in the United States), originally as a part of Adelphi University. The village's public high school was also constructed during this time.[citation needed]

In the 1960s, The World discotheque in Garden City featured multi-media supplied by USCO.[17]

In the 1970s, the old Garden City Hotel declared bankruptcy and subsequently closed, and was ultimately demolished in 1973.[18] A new Garden City Hotel was constructed on the site of the old Garden City Hotel. In 1978, fifty of the original structures collectively known as the A. T. Stewart Era Buildings were designated a national historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[19]

In 1989, the St. Paul's School also closed and in 1993 was purchased by the Village of Garden City, eventually designating St. Paul's and its property as "park land."[citation needed] St. Mary's School, the sister school of St. Paul's, was demolished in 2002.[citation needed] Since then, six large single-family houses have been built on the property.[citation needed]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the village's downtown areas (New Hyde Park Road, Seventh Street and Franklin Avenue) benefited from an urban renewal campaign and new construction. Bloomingdale's has moved from Franklin Avenue to the Roosevelt Field shopping mall. Lord & Taylor had a large freestanding location that opened in 1956 on Franklin Avenue. Several luxury restaurants have also opened in recent years along this avenue.

On December 7, 1993, the Long Island Rail Road's Merillon Avenue station, which is located within the village, was the location of the Long Island Rail Road massacre in which six people were murdered and 19 injured in a racially motivated mass shooting perpetrated by Colin Ferguson, a black Jamaican immigrant.[20]

GeographyEdit

 
U.S. Census map of Garden City.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 5.3 square miles (13.8 km2), all land. The village lost some territory between the 1990 census and the 2000 census.[21]

Garden City is located approximately 18.5 miles (29.8 km) east of Midtown Manhattan in New York City.[citation needed]

Greater Garden City areaEdit

In addition to the Village of Garden City, the Garden City 11530 ZIP code includes another incorporated village, Stewart Manor, as well as an unincorporated area of the Town of Hempstead: Garden City South (another unincorporated hamlet in Hempstead, East Garden City was part of the Greater Garden City area until it was absorbed by the neighboring hamlet of Uniondale in the 2010s).[22]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880574
19202,420
19307,180196.7%
194011,22356.3%
195014,48629.1%
196023,94865.3%
197025,3736.0%
198022,927−9.6%
199021,686−5.4%
200021,672−0.1%
201022,3713.2%
2019 (est.)22,454[23]0.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[24]

As of 2010, approximately 40% of Garden City residents identified themselves of being of Irish descent.[25][26][27]

As of the census[28] of 2010, 21,811 people lived in Garden City. The population density was 4,059.5 inhabitants per square mile (1,567.0/km2). The town included 7,555 housing units at an average density of 1,415.2 per square mile (546.3/km2). The racial makeup of the village was 88.1% White, 1.2% African American, 0.1% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, and 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.0% of the population.

Garden City included 7,386 households, out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.8% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 20.7% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the village, the population was spread out, with 26.5% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 20 to 24, 7.2% from 25 to 34, 42.6% over 45, 21.6% over 60 and 1.9% who were over the age of 85. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males.

As of the census of 2020,[29] the median income for a household in the village was $186,607. The per capita income for the village was $83,823.

GovernmentEdit

 
Garden City Village Hall in September 2021.

As of December 2021, the Mayor of Garden City is Cosmo Veneziale and the Village Trustees are Mary Carter Flanagan, Bruce Chester, John M. Delany, Terry Digan, Colleen E. Foley, Louis M. Minuto, Tom O'Brien, and Cosmo Veneziale.[30][31] The Village Administrator is Ralph V. Suozzi, the former Mayor of the City of Glen Cove and the cousin of Congressman Thomas R. Suozzi.[30][32]

The Mayor and Trustees are elected by their respective property owners associations which represent the four historical jurisdictions of the village.[30][31] The village is governed in accordance with its Community Agreement.[33]

EducationEdit

Public schoolsEdit

Garden City is served by its own school district: the Garden City Union Free School District.[34] As such, all students who reside within Garden City and attend public schools go to Garden City's schools.[34]

Private schoolsEdit

One independent school, the Waldorf School of Garden City (grades pre-K–12), and two Roman Catholic elementary schools (K–8), St. Joseph School and St. Anne School, are in Garden City.[citation needed] The former St. Paul's School and St. Mary's School are now defunct.[citation needed]

Higher educationEdit

In 1929, Adelphi College, which later became Adelphi University, moved from Brooklyn to its present 76-acre (31 ha) campus in Garden City, becoming the first four-year college in Nassau or Suffolk counties.[34]

InfrastructureEdit

TransportationEdit

RoadEdit

 
Stewart Avenue within the village in September 2021.

Clinton Road (Nassau County Route 1) traverses the village and is one of its major north-south thoroughfares.[34] Old Country Road (Nassau County Route 25) forms much of Garden City's northern border.[34] Other major roads within the village are Nassau Boulevard, New Hyde Park Road, Stewart Avenue, and Washington Avenue.[34]

The Village of Garden City maintains approximately 74 miles (119 km) of roads.[35]

Road layoutEdit

Much of Garden City's street network is laid out to resemble the traditional street grid.[5][34] A major exception is the Mott Section, which features a series of parallel, semicircular streets and numerous north-south streets connecting the crescents.[34][5]

RailEdit

 
The Garden City Long Island Rail Road station in 2009.

There are four Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) train stations in the village.[34] The stops are Stewart Manor, Nassau Boulevard, Garden City and Country Life Press on the LIRR's Hempstead Branch. There are additional stops on the LIRR Main Line just over the Garden City border at New Hyde Park, Merillon Avenue, and Mineola.[34]

BusEdit

Several bus lines traverse the village provided by Nassau Inter-County Express (NICE).[36]

UtilitiesEdit

Natural gasEdit

National Grid USA provides natural gas to homes and businesses that are hooked up to natural gas lines in Garden City.[37][38][39]

PowerEdit

PSEG Long Island provides power to all homes and businesses within Garden City.[37][40][41]

SewageEdit

Garden City is connected to sanitary sewers.[34][42][43] The village maintains a sanitary sewer system which flows into Nassau County's system, which treats the sewage from the village's system through the Nassau County-owned sewage treatment plants.[44]

WaterEdit

The Village of Garden City owns and maintains its own water system.[34][43] Garden City's water system serves the entire village with water.[34][43]

Notable landmarksEdit

 
The Garden City Hotel in 2009.

LegacyEdit

Garden City inspired the names of several nearby municipalities (as stated above), and is the namesake of Garden Village, Kentucky.[46]

Notable peopleEdit

In popular cultureEdit

  • The film The Spirit of St. Louis (1957), starring James Stewart, features Charles Lindbergh's historical flight to Paris from Roosevelt Field in Garden City in 1927. Its first few scenes occur at the Garden City Hotel, where Lindbergh had a room reserved (but did not use, contrary to the film's portrayal), and the press corps stayed who were covering the event spent the night prior to his flight;[73] Lindbergh was up all night working on his plane the night before the flight,[74] although he did have dinner and take a nap at the Garden City home of his friend, Gregory J. Brandewiede, at 105 Third Street.[citation needed] The opening shot of the film's first scene shows the hotel's front exterior and sign. Subsequent scenes take place[73] and were filmed at[75][76] Roosevelt Field.
  • Musician John Tesh's fourth album, released in 1989, is titled Garden City (Cyprus Records), an homage to his hometown, and includes a song with the same title.[77] The record company he created in 1995 and currently owns is Garden City Records.

FilmsEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The principal of the school was Charlotte Titcomb, a member of the class of 1852 at Dedham High School[7]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  2. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2020 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Garden City village, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Fischler, Marcelle S. (November 15, 1998). "An Immigrant's Vision Created Garden City". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  4. ^ Alexander Turney Stewart, Letter to the Editor, Hempstead Sentinel, 6th July 1869, quoted in C. B. Purdom, ed., Town Theory and Practice, London: Benn Brothers, 1921, p. 16-17
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mackay, Robert B. (2015). Gardens of Eden: Long Island's Early Twentieth-Century Planned Communities. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393733211.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Winsche, Richard (October 1, 1999). The History of Nassau County Community Place-Names. Interlaken, New York: Empire State Books. ISBN 978-1557871541.
  7. ^ Clarke, Wm. Horatio (1903). Mid-Century Memories of Dedham. Dedham Historical Society. p. 12.
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  9. ^ "County of Nassau Elections". The New York Times. September 1, 1898. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  10. ^ "Incorporated Village of Garden City: History". Incorporated Village of Garden City. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  11. ^ "Sites for Nassau County Buildings". The New York Times. September 29, 1898. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  12. ^ "The History of Nassau's County Seat". rootsweb. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
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  20. ^ N.Y. Train Killings Suspect Was 'Motivated By Bias' - The Washington Post
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  25. ^ United States Census 2010
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  29. ^ [https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/gardencityvillagenewyork/POP010210}}
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  73. ^ a b Film: The Spirit of St. Louis, directed by Billy Wilder, released April 20, 1957.
  74. ^ New York Times, May 20, 1962 https://www.nytimes.com/books/98/09/27/specials/lindbergh-plane.html
  75. ^ a b Wikipage: The Spirit of St. Louis (film), Production paragraph 3.
  76. ^ a b Phillips, Gene D., Some Like It Wilder: The Life and Controversial Films of Billy Wilder (Screen Classics). Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 2009, pp. 180-183.
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External linksEdit