List of massacres in China
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The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in China.
|Guangzhou massacre||878–879||Guangzhou||120,000||Foreign merchants (Muslim Arabs, Muslim Persians, Zoroastrian Persians, Christians, and Jews) were killed.|
|Sichuan massacre||1645-1646||Sichuan, China||1,000,000 est.||There is no reliable figure, but estimated 1 million out of 3 million Sichuanese were massacred mainly by the army of Zhang Xianzhong.|
|Yangzhou massacre||1645||Yangzhou||=?< 300,000 (modern estimate)|
|Dzungar genocide||1755–1757||Dzungar Khanate||540,000||480,000 to 600,000 deaths. 80% of population killed|
|Ningpo Massacre||1800s||Ningbo||40||Cantonese pirates supported by the Qing massacred 40 Portuguese pirates.|
|Jindandao incident||1891||Inner Mongolia||150,000 - 500,000||Ethnic tensions led a Chinese secret society, Jindandao, to revolt and kill 150,000 - 500,000 Mongols.|
|Port Arthur massacre||1894, November 21||Lüshunkou, Liaoning||4500||1000–20,000|
|Kucheng Massacre||1895, August 1||Gutian, Fujian||11||11 British Missionaries killed by a fasting folk religious group on August 1, 1895|
|Taiyuan Massacre||1900, July||Taiyuan, Shanxi||45|
|Shanghai massacre of 1927||1927, April 12||Shanghai||1200||300–400 direct deaths. 5000 missing|
|Kuomintang Anti-Communist massacre||1928||Nationwide in China||300,000||Mass executions of both alleged and actual communists by the nationalist Kuomintang.|
|Communist purge in Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet||1931-1935||Most parts of Ganzhou and every part of Tingzhou||700,000||Occurred in the mountainous parts which are almost entirely only populated by Hakkas of Jiangxi and Fujian.|
|Kizil massacre||1933, June||near Kashgar, Xinjiang||800|
|Kashgar massacre||1934||Kashgar, Xinjiang||2,000-8,000|
|Nanjing Massacre||1937, December 13||Nanjing||110,000||40,000–300,000 deaths.The death toll is disputed, ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred, to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000. Most other nations believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000, based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict, and another estimate of the civilian toll (excluding soldiers and POWs) is about 40,000–60,000, which corresponds to the figures from three sources.|
|Changjiao massacre||1943, May 9–12||Changjiao, Hunan||30,000|
|1947–1951 landlord purges||1948-1951||Nationwide in China||1,000,000 to 4,500,000||Liquidation of the landlord class in struggle sessions.|
|February 28 incident||1947, February 28–May 16||Taiwan||5,000 to 28,000||Beginning of the White Terror campaign. The Chinese Kuomintang-led government imposed martial law until 1987.|
|Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries||1950–1951||Nationwide in China||1,200,000||712,000 to 2,000,000|
|Daoxian massacre||1967, August 13 – October 17||Daoxian, Hunan||4,519||A massacre during the Cultural Revolution.|
|Qitaihe prosperous club explosion||1979， December 1||Qitaihe||86||Qitaihe Dongfeng commune rich and powerful brigade club workers in the screening of the film suddenly exploded, the house collapsed, killing 86 people on the spot, wounded 222 people. After the case, the Public Security Bureau lasted 55 days, cracked the big bloody murder case, criminal Xu Fenghao, Xu Fengde was arrested according to law.|
|Tiananmen Square protests of 1989||1989, June 4||Beijing Tiananmen Sq.||1,000-10,000||Between 241 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died and the official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded.Amnesty International's estimates puts the number of deaths at several hundred to close to 1,000. NATO intelligence reported around 7,000 and the Soviet Union reported around 10,000. As many as 10,000 estimated people were arrested during the protests.|
|Thousand Island Lake robbery killings||1994, March 31||Zhejiang Province||32||24 Taiwanese tourists, 6 crew members, and 2 mainland Chinese passengers on board the "Hai Rui" sightseeing cruise were robbed and murdered. The incident cast a shadow over cross-strait relations.|
|Ghulja Incident||1997, February 5||Ghulja, Xinjiang||9||Demonstrations in Ghulja were violently put down by police after two days of protesting. Official reports put the death toll at 9. |
|Long wins round robbery||1998 November 15||Shanwei||23||Guangdong Province, Shanwei City, the territory of an armed robbery case, the Hong Kong shipping company "Changsheng" million tons of cargo ship on the 23 Chinese expatriate crew were all killed after the corpse of the sea.|
|Kunming massacre||2014, March 1||Kunming||33 (including four perpetrators)|
- James B. Parsons (May 1957). "The Culmination of a Chinese Peasant Rebellion: Chang Hsien-chung in Szechwan, 1644-46". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.2307/2941233. JSTOR 2941233.
- Struve (1993) (note at p. 269), following a 1964 article by Zhang Defang, notes that the entire city's population at the time was not likely to be more than 300,000, and that of the entire Yangzhou Prefecture, 800,000.
- Geometric mean of 480 and 600 thousand rounded up to nearest ten thousand.
- Barnouin, Barbara and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006. ISBN 962-996-280-2. Retrieved at <https://books.google.com/books?id=NztlWQeXf2IC&printsec=frontcover&dq=zhou+enlai&hl=en&ei=wBkuTdKyB4H_8AaJucigAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false> on March 12, 2011. p.38
- Mao: The Unknown Story. p. 133.
- Geometric mean of 40 and 300 thousand rounded to nearest 10 thousand.
- Masaaki Tanaka claims that very few citizens were killed, and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokō (The "Nanking Massacre" as Fabrication).
- "Why the past still separates China and Japan" Robert Marquand (August 20, 2001) Christian Science Monitor. States an estimate of 300,000 dead.
- "''The Nanking Atrocities: Fact and Fable''". Wellesley.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Geometric mean 712,000 and 2 million rounded to nearest 100 thousand.
- Yang Kuisong (2008). "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries". The China Quarterly. 193: 102–121. doi:10.1017/S0305741008000064.(subscription required)summary at China Change blog
- Changyu, Li. "Mao's "Killing Quotas." Human Rights in China (HRIC). 26 September 2005, at Shandong University" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- 富强俱乐部爆炸案, (October 12, 2006)
- Zhang 2001, p. 436.
- 第67期：千岛湖事件(组图), (April 25, 2008)
- "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27.
- 长胜轮23人惨案一主犯落网 大海盗张军红即将受审, (June 24, 2002)
- "Kunming massacre: Has the global jihad reached China?". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-21.