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Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference

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The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), also known as the People's PCC (人民政协, About this sound listen) or simply the PCC (政协), is a political advisory legislative body in the People's Republic of China. The organisation consists of delegates from a range of political parties and organisations, as well as independent members. The proportion of representation of the various parties is determined by established convention, negotiated between the parties.

Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
中国人民政治协商会议
Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) logo.svg
Logo of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
Abbreviation CPPCC
Formation 21 September 1949
Type Constitutional convention(Historical)
Popular United Front
Organ for Multi-party Cooperation and Political Consultation
Purpose Unity
Construction for Socialist Modernization
Chinese unification[1]
Headquarters Beijing, People's Republic of China
Chairman
Wang Yang, CPC
Vice Chairpersons
Zhang Qingli, CPC
Liu Qibao, CPC
Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai, Nonpartisan
Tung Chee-hwa, Nonpartisan
Wan Gang, CZGP
Edmund Ho, Nonpartisan
Lu Zhangong, CPC
Wang Zhengwei, CPC
Ma Biao, CPC
Chen Xiaoguang, CDL
Leung Chun-ying, NHKA
Xia Baolong, CPC
Yang Chuantang, CPC
Li Bin, CPC
Bagatur , CPC
Wang Yongqing, CPC
He Lifeng, CPC
Su Hui, TDSGL
Zheng Jianbang, RCCKMT
Gu Shengzu, CDNCA
Liu Xincheng, CAPD
He Wei, CPWDP
Shao Hong, JS
Gao Yunlong, CDNCA
Secretary-General
Xia Baolong, CPC
Main organ
Plenum of the CPPCC(Historical)
Plenary Session & Standing Committee of National Committee, CPPCC
Website www.cppcc.gov.cn
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
Chart of CPPCC.jpg
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Short form
Simplified Chinese 人民政协
Traditional Chinese 人民政協
Literal meaning People's Political Consultation
Shortest form
Simplified Chinese 政协
Traditional Chinese 政協
Literal meaning Political Consultation
Third alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 新政协
Traditional Chinese 新政協
Literal meaning New Political Consultation

In practice, the role of the Chinese People's Political Consultive Conference is close to a legislative upper house. The largest and dominant party in the Conference is the Communist Party of China which has about two thirds of the seats. Other members are drawn from the United Front parties allied with the CPC, and from independent members who are not members of any party. The Conference is intended to be more representative and be composed of a broader range of people than is typical of government office in the People's Republic of China.

The National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (Chinese: 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Zhèngzhì Xiéshāng Huìyì Quanguo Weiyuanhui, shortened Chinese: 全国政协; pinyin: Quánguó Zhèngxié; literally: "National PCC") typically holds a yearly meeting at the same time as plenary sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC). Both CPPCC National Committee and NPC plenary sessions are often called the "National Lianghui" (Two Sessions), making important national level political decisions.

A less common translation is "the National Congress". This translation is discouraged, as it causes confusion with the National People's Congress as well as with the National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

The organisational hierarchy of the CPPCC includes the National Committee and regional committees. Regional committees of the CPPCC include the provincial, prefecture, and county level. According to Article 19, Section 2 of the Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the relationship between the National Committee and the regional committees is a relationship of guidance (no direct leadership). So are the relationships between upper-level regional committees and lower-level committees. Operating budgets on each level are independently administered by the financial administrations for the region, making the National committee and all regional committees separate individual entities. An indirect leadership, however, exists via the United Front Departments on each level.

The composition of the political advisors in the PCC, consisting of 2158 members, changes according to national objectives and priorities. Previously dominated by senior figures in real-estate, state-owned companies and "princelings", the PCC of 2018 is primarily composed of individuals from China's burgeoning technology sector.[2]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
The first Plenum of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in 1949

The Conference dated prior to the existence of People's Republic of China. During negotiations between the Communist Party of China and the Kuomintang in 1945, the two parties agreed to open multiparty talks on post-World War II political reforms via a Political Consultative Conference. This was included in the Double Tenth Agreement. This agreement was implemented by the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China, who organised the first Political Consultative Assembly from January 10–31, 1946. Representatives of the Kuomintang, Communist Party of China, Chinese Youth Party, and China Democratic League, as well as independent delegates, attended the conference in Chongqing.

In 1949, with the Communist Party having gained control of most of mainland China, they organised a "new" Political Consultative Conference in September, inviting delegates from various friendly parties to attend and discuss the establishment of a new state. This conference was then renamed the People's Political Consultative Conference. The first conference approved the Common Program, which served as the de facto constitution for the next five years. The conference approved the new national anthem, flag, capital city, and state name, and elected the first government of the People's Republic of China. In effect, the first People's Political Consultative Conference served as a constitutional convention.

From 1949 to 1954, the conference became the de facto legislature of the PRC. In 1954, the Constitution transferred this function to the National People's Congress.

Present roleEdit

The role that CPPCC plays in the Chinese government is stated in the preamble of the PRC Constitution. In practice, its role and powers are somewhat analogous to an advisory legislative upper house and there have been proposals to formalise this role in the PRC Constitution.

"The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, a broadly based representative organization of the united front which has played a significant historical role, will play a still more important role in the country’s political and social life, in promoting friendship with other countries and in the struggle for socialist modernization and for the reunification and unity of the country. The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come."

—Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China[3]

But according to China's official Xinhua News Agency, It is neither a body of state power nor a policymaking organ, but an important platform for democratically participating in state affairs. In practice, CPPCC members serve as advisors for the government and legislative and judicial organs.[4]

The Communist Party of China and the aligned "democratic parties" participate in the CPPCC. Besides political parties, CPPCC also invites of representatives from various sectors of society.[5] The parties and groups which are represented in the CPPCC are:

  1. Communist Party of China
  2. Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang
  3. China Democratic League
  4. China Democratic National Construction Association
  5. China Association for Promoting Democracy
  6. Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party
  7. China Party for Public Interest
  8. September 3 Society
  9. Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League
  10. Communist Youth League of China
  11. All-China Federation of Trade Unions
  12. All-China Women's Federation
  13. All-China Youth Federation
  14. All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce
  15. China Association for Science and Technology
  16. All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots
  17. All-China Federation of Returned Overseas
  18. Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong
  19. Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong
  20. Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions
  21. Liberal Party (Hong Kong)
  22. New Century Forum
  23. New Territories Association of Societies
  24. Macau United Citizens Association
  25. Macau Business Interest Union
  26. Macau Union of Professional Interests
  27. Progress Promotion Union/General Union of the Macao Residents' Associations
  28. Union for Development/The Women's General Association of Macau

National CommitteeEdit

 
Building of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference

Standing CommitteeEdit

Chairmen

Past Chairmen of the Committee and the current Chairman:

  1. Mao Zedong
  2. Zhou Enlai
  3. Deng Xiaoping
  4. Deng Yingchao
  5. Li Xiannian
  6. Li Ruihuan
  7. Jia Qinglin
  8. Yu Zhengsheng
  9. Wang Yang (since March 2018)
Current Vice Chairpersons
Current Secretary-General

Special CommitteesEdit

The CPPCC National Committee has 10 Special Committees:

  1. Committee for Handling Proposals (提案委员会)
  2. Committee for Economic Affairs (经济委员会)
  3. Committee for Agriculture and Rural Affairs (农业和农村委员会)
  4. Committee of Population, Resources and Environment (人口资源环境委员会)
  5. Committee of Education, Science, Health and Sports (教科卫体委员会)
  6. Committee for Social and Legal Affairs (社会和法制委员会)
  7. Committee for Ethnic and Religious Affairs (民族和宗教委员会)
  8. Committee of Culture, History and Study (文化文史和学习委员会)
  9. Committee for Liaison with Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Overseas Chinese (港澳台侨委员会)
  10. Committee of Foreign Affairs (外事委员会)

Annual sessionsEdit

Composition of membersEdit

There have been 2200 members in the 12th National Committee of CPPCC since June 2017:[6]

Seats for Political Parties (536 in all)
Seats for People's organizations (307 in all)
Seats for Sectors (1357 in all)

The People’s Political Consultative DailyEdit

The People’s Political Consultative Daily (《人民政协报》) is the press window of information on direct policies and viewpoints of the CPPCC. Like most of the Chinese political organs, the newspaper serves as the mouthpiece and press for the conference. Compared with other governmental newspapers, such as The People's Daily or The PLA Daily, The People’s Political Consultative Daily is not as hard line, but rather smooth in terms of wording. This is geared towards the nature of the organisation which many non-party members also participate in the conference.

Regional committeesEdit

  • CPPCC province-level committees
  • CPPCC prefecture-level committees
  • CPPCC county-level committees

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.cppcc.gov.cn/2011/12/16/ARTI1513309180827898.shtml
  2. ^ "Tech entrepreneurs dominate as China's political advisers in IT push". South China Morning Post. 2018-03-04. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
  3. ^ "The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China". www.npc.gov.cn.
  4. ^ Q&A: Roles and functions of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference www.xinhuanet.com
  5. ^ "Charter of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference". www.cppcc.gov.cn.
  6. ^ :zh:中国人民政治协商会议第十二届全国委员会委员名单. www.cppcc.gov.cn (in Chinese).

External linksEdit