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List of human evolution fossils

  (Redirected from List of hominina fossils)

The following tables give an overview of notable finds of hominin fossils and remains relating to human evolution, beginning with the formation of the tribe Hominini (the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages) in the late Miocene, roughly 7 to 8 million years ago.

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare, this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated.

Most of the early fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. After 1.5 million years ago (extinction of Paranthropus), all fossils shown are human (genus Homo). After 11,500 years ago (11.5 ka, beginning of the Holocene), all fossils shown are Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans), illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations.

Contents

Late Miocene (7.2 – 5.5 million years old)Edit

The chimpanzee–human divergence likely took place during about 10 to 7 million years ago.[1] The list of fossils begins with Graecopithecus, dated some 7.2 million years ago, which may or may not still be ancestral to both the human and the chimpanzee lineage. For the earlier history of the human lineage, see Timeline of human evolution#Hominidae, Hominidae#Phylogeny.

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Site Discovered by Now located at
  El Graeco 7.2 Ma Graecopithecus freybergi 2017 (1944) Greece, Bulgaria Pyrgos Vassilissis, Azmaka Böhme (Tübingen), Spassov (BAS) Met, Athens; Tübingen, Germany
  TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma[2] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Toros-Menalla, Djurab Desert Michel Brunet, Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
  BAR 1000'00 6 Ma[3] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Lukeino Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,
  ALA-VP 1/20[4] 5.65±0.15 Ma Ardipithecus kadabba 1997 Ethiopia Middle Awash Yohannes Haile-Selassie

Pliocene (5.3 – 2.58 million years old)Edit

Image Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Lothagam mandible (KNM-LT 329) [5] 5.25±0.25 Ma Australopithecus(?) 1967 Kenya A.D. Lewis[6]
  Ardi 4.4 Ma[7] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
  KNM-LT 329 4.6±0.4 Ma[8] Australopithecus anamensis 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis, Bryan Patterson[9][10][11]
KNM-TH 13150 4.7±0.55 Ma[12] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya Kiptalam Cheboi[9]
  KNM-KP 271 4 Ma[13] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kanapoi, Kenya Bryan Patterson[9]
  Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominin 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
  LH 4 3.4±0.5 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[14]
  KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
  KT-12/H1 (Abel) 3.5 Ma Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Mamelbaye Tomalta and Michel Brunet N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
  KNM-WT 40000 (Flat Faced Man)[15] 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[16]
BRT-VP-3/14 3.4±0.1 Ma Australopithecus deyiremeda 2015 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie[17]
  Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus prometheus(?) 1994 Sterkfontein, South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
  DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
  AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
  AL 200-1 3.1±0.1 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
  AL 129-1 3.1±0.1 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson
  AL 444-2[18] 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1992 Afar Region, Ethiopia Yoel Rak
[19] LD 350-1 2.775±0.025 Ma[20] Homo(?) 2013 Ethiopia Chalachew Seyoum

PleistoceneEdit

Lower Paleolithic: 2.58 – 0.3 million years oldEdit

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
  Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
  KNM-WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
  BOU-VP-12/130[21] 2.5 Ma Australopithecus garhi 1997 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
  UR 501 (Uraha jawbone) 2.4±0.1 Ma Homo rudolfensis[22] 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
  STS 71[23] 2.6±0.2 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson
  STS 52 2.3 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom
  STS 5 (Mrs. Ples)
(STS 14)[24]
2.05 Ma[25] Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom
  TM 1517[26] 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche
  MH1 (Karabo)[27][28] 1.98 Ma[29] Australopithecus sediba 2008 Malapa, South Africa Lee R. Berger
  KNM-ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
  KNM-ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[30]
  OH 24
(Twiggy)
[31]
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
  SK 48 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1948 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom
  OH 8[32] 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania
  OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
  D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2001 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
  D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2003 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
  D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2005 (published in 2013) Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM-ER 62000–62003[33] 1.84±0.06 Ma Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
  OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
  KNM-ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster[34] (aka Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
StW 53 1.75±0.25 Ma[35] Homo gautengensis 1976 Sterkfontein, South Africa A. R. Hughes
  SK 847[36] 1.75±0.25 Ma Homo habilis 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa
  DNH 7
(Eurydice)
[37]
1.75±0.25 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
  KNM-ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Yuanmou Man 1.7 Ma
or 0.6-0.5 Ma (disputed)[38]
Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
  KNM-ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
  KNM-ER 732[39] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
  KNM-ER 23000[40] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
  KNM-WT 17400[41][42] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Not known[43] Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana) Kenya unknown[43] National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenia)
  KNM-WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1984 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
  SK 46[44] 1.65±0.15 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom
  Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
  OH 9
(Chellean Man)
[45]
1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania Louis Leakey
  KNM-ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
  Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.46±0.03 Ma Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
  KNM-ER 3883 1.5±0.1 Ma Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525[46][47] 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia A. Amzaye
  Atapuerca Jawbone[48] 1.2 Ma Homo sp. 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
  Kocabas 1.1 Ma[49] Homo erectus [50] 2002 Turkey M. Cihat Alçiçek
  Daka 1.0 Ma Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
  Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
  ATD6-15 and ATD6-69

(Niño de la Gran Dolina 342)

0.9 Ma[51] Homo erectus 1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
  Sangiran 2 1.15±0.45 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
  Madam Buya[52] 1.0±0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate National Museum of Eritrea
  Trinil 2
Pithecanthropus-1
or
Java Man
[53]
0.85±0.15 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois
  Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif[54] 0.7 Ma Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg & B. Hoffstetter
  Sangiran 17[55] 0.7 Ma Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
  Peking Man 0.73±0.05 Ma[56] Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
  Bodo[57] 0.6 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
  Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
0.5 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
  Saldanha man[58] 0.5 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove Man 0.5 Ma[59] Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK Natural History Museum
  Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
0.45 Ma Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
[60] Hexian[61] 0.45±0.5 Ma Homo erectus 1980 China
Argil
Ceprano Man[62][63]
0.45±0.5 Ma Homo cepranensis
/Homo heidelbergensis
1994 Ceprano, Italy Italo Biddittu Servizio di antropologia, Soprintendenza ai beni culturali, Regione Lazio, Italy
  Gawis cranium 0.35±1.5 Ma Homo erectus/Homo sapiens 2006 Ethiopia Asahmed Humet
  Skull 5 (Miguelón) 0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
  Aroeira 3 0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 2014 Portugal João_Zilhão Museu Nacional de Arqueologia, Lisbon
  Salé[64][65][66] 0.4 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1971 Morocco A quarry worker
  Swanscombe Man[67] 0.4 Ma Homo Neanderthalensis 1935, 1936, 1955 Swanscombe Alvan T Marston, John J Wymer and Adrian Gibson Natural History Museum
  Ndutu[68] 0.35 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
  Steinheim Skull 0.35 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany
  Dinaledi Chamber hominins 0.325±0.09 Ma[69] Homo naledi 2013 South Africa Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 – 50,000 years oldEdit

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
  Jebel Irhoud 1–5 286±32 ka[70] Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
  Samu 275±25 ka Homo heidelbergensis 1964 Hungary László Vértes
  Florisbad Skull 259±35 ka early Homo sapiens
or Homo heidelbergensis
or Homo helmei
1932 South Africa T. F. Dreyer, G. Venter
  Galilee Man 250±50 ka Homo heidelbergensis 1925 Israel Francis Turville-Petre
Saccopastore 1 250 ka[71] Homo neanderthalensis 1929 Italy Mario Grazioli
  Ngandong 7 250 ka Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Bontnewydd (Pontynewydd) 230 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1981 UK
Apidima 1
(LAO 1/S1)
210 ka[72] Homo sapiens 1978 Apidima Cave / Greece Theodore Pitsios[73]
[74] Dali 209±23 ka (disputed)[75][76] Homo erectus
or
Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
  Petralona 1 200±40 ka[77] Homo heidelbergensis (uncertain) 1960 Greece
Misliya-1 187±13 ka[78] Homo sapiens 2002 Israel Israel Hershkovitz
Omo remains 195±5 ka[79] Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
Apidima 2
(LAO 1/S2)
170 ka[72] Homo neanderthalensis 1978 Apidima Cave / Greece Theodore Pitsios[73]
  Penghu 1 160±30 ka or 40±30 ka[80] Homo tsaichangensis[81][82][83] c. 2008 Taiwan National Museum of Natural Science
  Herto remains[84] 160 ka Homo sapiens 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
Xiahe mandible 160 ka[85] Denisovan 1980 China
Altamura Man 151±21 ka[86] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Italy in situ
[87] LH 18 120±30 ka Homo sapiens 1976 Ngaloba beds at Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[88]
  Tabun C1[89] 120 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
Denisova 8 110 ka[90][91] Homo sp. Altai 2010 Russia
  Krapina 3[92] 113.5±13.5 ka[93] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
  Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe 1, Rhodesian Man)
c. 110 ka(?) Homo rhodesiensis (Homo heidelbergensis) 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
  Qafzeh 6[94] 95±5 ka[93] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville M Stekelis
  Qafzeh 9 100-90 ka[93] Homo sapiens[95] 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Scladina 103±23 ka[93] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Belgium
  Skhul 5 100±20 ka Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul 9 100±20 ka Homo sapiens Israel
[96] Klasies River Caves 100±25 ka Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
  Eve's footprints 117 ka Homo sapiens 1995 South Africa David Roberts & Lee R. Berger
[97] Denny[98][99] 90 ka Hybrid – (Homo neanderthalensis/Homo sapiens denisova) 2012 Denisova Cave / Siberia / Russia Viviane Slon & Svante Pääbo Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany)
Obi-Rakhmat 1[100] 75 ka[93] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
  Teshik-Tash Skull[101] 70 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
  La Ferrassie 1 70 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
  Shanidar 1 70±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
  La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
  Kebara 2 (Moshe)[102] 60 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1983 Israel Lynne Schepartz
[103] Amud 7 55±5 ka Homo neanderthalensis Israel
  LB 1 (Hobbit) 55±5 ka Homo floresiensis 2003 Liang Bua, Indonesia Peter Brown
Manot 1 55 ka Homo sapiens 2008 Israel [104]
  La Quina 5[citation needed] 52.5±7.5 ka[93] Homo neanderthalensis France
  La Quina 18[citation needed] 52.5±7.5 ka[93] Homo neanderthalensis France
  Tam Pa Ling Cave[105] 54.5±8.5 ka[105][106] Homo sapiens 2009 Laos

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 – 11,500 years oldEdit

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
  Mungo Man 50±10 ka Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
  Mt. Circeo 1[107] 50±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
SID-00B 49.2±2.5 ka[108] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Kents Cavern 4 maxilla 43.5±2.5 ka Homo sapiens 1927 UK
  Amud 1[109] 41 ka[110] Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
  Neanderthal 1[111] 40 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
  Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40 ka Homo sp. Altai 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
  hominin toe bone 40 ka Homo sp. Altai (possible Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid) 2010 Russia
  Oase 1 42-37 ka[112] Homo sapiens (EEMH x Neanderthal hybrid) 2002 Romania
Kostenki-14 (Markina Gora) 40-37 ka[113] Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1954 Russia
SID-20[114] 37.30±0.83 ka[108] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Balangoda man 37 ka Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
  Hofmeyr Skull 36 ka Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
  Wadjak 1[115] 33±4.5 ka[116] Homo sapiens (proto-Australoid[117]) 1888 Indonesia
Red Lady of Paviland 33 ka Homo sapiens 1823 UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32 ka Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
  Engis 2 40±10 ka[93][118] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
  Gibraltar 1 40±10 ka[93] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
  Le Moustier 40±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
  Denisovan tooth 40±10 ka Homo sp. Altai 2000 Russia
  Cro-Magnon 1 30 ka Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1868 France Louis Lartet
WLH-50 29±5 ka Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
  Predmost 3[119] 26 ka Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic K.J. Maska
[120] Lapedo Child 24.5 ka Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens 1998 Portugal João Zilhão
[120] Eel Point 24 ka Homo sapiens 1997
MA-1 (Mal'ta boy) 24 ka Homo sapiens (ANE) 1920s
 [121] Minatogawa 1 17±1 ka Homo sapiens 1970 Japan Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University
Tandou[122][123] 17 ka Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
  Gough's Cave[124][125] 14.7 ka Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru Skull 13 ka[126] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
"Kotias"[127] 13 ka Homo sapiens (CHG) Kotias Klde cave, Georgia
Arlington Springs Man 13 ka[128] Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
  Chancelade find 14.5±2.5 ka[129] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Villabruna 1 14 ka Homo sapiens (WHG) 1988 Italy
Bichon man 13.7 ka Homo sapiens (WHG) 1956 Switzerland
Red Deer Cave 13±1.5 ka Uncertain, possibly Homo sapiens 1979 China Darren Curnoe?

Holocene (11,500 – 5,000 years old)Edit

Name Age Culture /
association
Year
discovered
Country
  Luzia 11.5 ka[130] Paleo-Indian 1975 Brazil
[131] Cerro Sota 2[132] 11 ka 1936 Chile
"Satsurblia" 10 ka Caucasian Epipaleolithic (CHG)[127] Georgia
  Kow Swamp 1 13–9 ka 1968 Australia
  Talgai Skull[133] 10±1 ka 1886 Australia
  La Brea Woman 10 ka Paleo-Indian 1914 United States
  Combe Capelle 9.6 ka (7600 BC)[134] European Mesolithic 1909 France
  Cheddar Man 9 ka (7000 BC) British Mesolithic 1903 UK
  Kennewick Man 9 ka (7000 BC) North American Mesolithic 1996 United States
  Tepexpan man 8±3 ka Paleo-Indian 1947 Mexico
  Loschbour man[135] 8 ka (6000 BC) European Mesolithic (WHG) 1935 Luxembourg
  Minnesota Woman 7.9±0.1 ka Paleo-Indian 1931 Minnesota, United States
Lothagam 4b (Lo 4b)[136] 7.5±1.5 ka[137] 1965-1975 Kenya
  Ötzi 5.3 ka (3300 BC) European Neolithic 1991 Ötztal Alps, Italy

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog nameEdit

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Gibbons, Ann. The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books (2007). ISBN 978-1-4000-7696-3
  • Hartwig, Walter Carl (2002-04-11). Hartwig, Walter (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press (2002). Reprinted 2004. Bibcode:2002prfr.book.....H. ISBN 978-0-521-08141-2.
  • Johanson, Donald & Wong, Kate. Lucy's Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. Three Rivers Press (2009). ISBN 978-0-307-39640-2
  • Jones, Steve; Martin, Robert D.; Pilbeam, David R (Editors). (1994). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human evolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (Note: this book contains very useful, information dense chapters on primate evolution in general, and human evolution in particular, including fossil history).
  • Leakey, Richard & Lewin, Roger. Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes us Human. Little, Brown and Company (1992). ISBN 0-316-90298-5
  • Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Penguin Books (1987). ISBN 0-14-022638-9
  • Morwood, Mike & van Oosterzee, Penny. A New Human: The Startling Discovery and Strange Story of the 'Hobbits' of Flores, Indonesia. Smithsonian Books (2007). ISBN 978-0-06-089908-0
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen. Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. Constable (2003). ISBN 1-84119-697-5
  • Roberts, Alice. The Incredible Human Journey: The Story of how we Colonised the Planet. Bloomsbury (2009). ISBN 978-0-7475-9839-8
  • Shreeve, James. The Neanderthal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins. Viking (1996). ISBN 0-670-86638-5
  • Stringer, Chris. The Origin of Our Species. Allen Lane (2011). ISBN 978-1-84614-140-9
  • Stringer, Chris & Andrews, Peter. The Complete World of Human Evolution. Thames & Hudson (2005). ISBN 0-500-05132-1
  • Stringer, Chris & McKie, Robin. African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. Jonathan Cape (1996). ISBN 0-224-03771-4
  • van Oosterzee, Penny. The Story of Peking Man. Allen & Unwin (1999). ISBN 1-86508-632-0
  • Walker, Allan & Shipman, Pat. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1996). ISBN 0-297-81670-5
  • Wade, Nicholas. Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of our Ancestors. Penguin Press (2006). ISBN 978-0-7156-3658-9
  • Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E. (1985). 'Human Biology and Behaviour: An anthropological perspective (4th ed.). Boston: Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-673-39013-4CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) (Note: this book contains very accessible descriptions of human and non-human primates, their evolution, and fossil history).
  • Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7146-0.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "In effect, there is now no a priori reason to presume that human-chimpanzee split time are especially recent, and the fossil evidence is now fully compatible with older chimpanzee–human divergence dates [7 to 10 Ma]" White TD, Asfaw B, Beyene Y, et al. (October 2009). "Ardipithecus ramidus and the paleobiology of early hominids". Science. 326 (5949): 75–86. Bibcode:2009Sci...326...64W. doi:10.1126/science.1175802. PMID 19810190.
  2. ^ Brunet, Michel; Guy, Franck; Pilbeam, David; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Ahounta, Djimdoumalbaye; Beauvilain, Alain; Blondel, Cécile; Bocherens, Hervé (2002). "A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa". Nature. 418 (6894): 145–151. doi:10.1038/nature00879. PMID 12110880.
  3. ^ "Bar 10200'". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2010-01-23. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  4. ^ "Ardipithecus kadabba". efossils. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  5. ^ M. Kissel, J. Hawks, "What are the Lothagam and Tabarin Mandibles?", PaleoAnthropology 2015: 37−43, doi:10.4207/PA.2015.ART94. "once considered plausible candidates for status as the earliest hominin (e.g., Kramer 1986; Ward and Hill 1987). Recent fieldwork, though, has lessened the relevance of these fossils by recovering samples from horizons more than two million years earlier. Yet despite the increase of comparative samples, these two mandibular fragments remain difficult to diagnose. Here we consider the morphology and dental metrics of these two specimens in comparison to the larger samples of Miocene and early Pliocene hominins recovered during the last fifteen years. We show, based on molar size, that KNM-TH 13150 is consistent with the hypodigm of Ardipithecus, while the Lothagam mandible is not consistent with Ardipithecus in its molar dimensions. These results have important biogeographic implications and hint at a more complex Early Pliocene hominin phylogeny than previously appreciated."
  6. ^ Bernard Wood, Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Human Evolution (2011), 887.
  7. ^ Amos, Jonathan (2009-10-01). "Fossil finds extend human story". BBC News.
  8. ^ I. A. N., McDougall; Craig, Feibel (1999). "Numerical age control for the Miocene-Pliocene succession at Lothagam, a hominoid-bearing sequence in the northern Kenya Rift". Journal of the Geological Society. 156 (4): 731–745. Bibcode:1999JGSoc.156..731M. doi:10.1144/gsjgs.156.4.0731.
  9. ^ a b c Hill, Andrew; Ward, Steven (1988). "Origin of the Hominidae: the record of African large hominoid evolution between 14 My and 4 My". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 31 (59): 49–83. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330310505.
  10. ^ Patterson B, Behrensmeyer AK, Sill WD (June 1970). "Geology and fauna of a new Pliocene locality in north-western Kenya". Nature. 226 (5249): 918–21. Bibcode:1970Natur.226..918P. doi:10.1038/226918a0. PMID 16057594.
  11. ^ Lothagam mandible fragment Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
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