Ancient North Eurasian
In archaeogenetics, the term Ancient North Eurasian (ANE) is the name given to an ancestral component that represents descent from the people similar to the Mal'ta–Buret' culture or a population closely related to them. The genetic component ANE descends from Ancient South Eurasian.[note 1]
The ANE lineage is defined by association with MA-1, or "Mal'ta boy", the remains of an individual who lived during the Last Glacial Maximum, 24,000 years ago, discovered in the 1920s. Populations genetically similar to MA-1 were an important genetic contributor to Native Americans, Central Asians, Europeans, South Asians, and East Asians, in order of significance. Lazaridis et al. (2016:10) note "a cline of ANE ancestry across the east-west extent of Eurasia." Flegontov et al. (2015) found that the global maximum of ANE ancestry occurs in modern-day Kets, Mansi, Native Americans, Nganasans and Yukaghirs. Additionally it has been reported in ancient Bronze-age-steppe Yamnaya and Afanasevo cultures. 42% of South American Native American ancestry originates from ANE peoples, while between 14% and 38% of North American Native American ancestry may originate from gene flow from the Mal'ta Buret people. This difference is caused by the penetration of posterior Siberian migrations into the Americas, with the lowest percentages of ANE ancestry found in Eskimos and Alaskan Natives, as these groups are the result of migrations into the Americas roughly 5,000 years ago. The other gene flow in Native Americans appears to have an Eastern Eurasian origin. Gene sequencing of another south-central Siberian people (Afontova Gora-2) dating to approximately 17,000 years ago, revealed similar autosomal genetic signatures to that of Mal'ta boy-1, suggesting that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum.
Genomic studies also indicate that ANE was introduced to Europe by way of the Yamna/Yamnaya culture, long after the Paleolithic. The ANE genetic component is visible in tests of the Yamnaya people, and seems to make up 50% of their ancestry indirectly. It is also reported in modern-day Europeans (7%–25% ANE admixture), but not of Europeans predating the Bronze Age.
Groups derived from the Ancient North EurasiansEdit
Eastern European Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) is a lineage derived predominantly (75%) from ANE. It is represented by two individuals from Karelia, one of Y-haplogroup R1a-M417, dated c. 8.4 kya, the other of Y-haplogroup J, dated c. 7.2 kya; and one individual from Samara, of Y-haplogroup R1b-P297, dated c. 7.6 kya. This lineage is closely related to the ANE sample from Afontova Gora, dated c. 18 kya. After the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, the WHG and EHG lineages merged in Eastern Europe, accounting for early presence of ANE-derived ancestry in Mesolithic Europe. An Afontova Gora 3 female individual dated to c. 14.7 kya, is the earliest known individual with the derived allele of KITLG responsible for blond hair in modern Europeans, and is recorded in Mesolithic Eastern Europe as associated with the EHG lineage.
Caucasus Hunter-Gatherer (CHG) is represented by the Satsurblia individual dated ~13 kya (from the Satsurblia cave in Georgia), and carried 36% ANE-derived admixture. While the rest of their ancestry is derived from the Dzudzuana cave individual dated ~26 kya, which lacked ANE-admixture, Dzudzuana affinity in the Caucasus decreased with the arrival of ANE at ~13 kya Satsurblia.
Iran Neolithic (Iran_N) individuals dated ~8.5 kya carried 50% ANE-derived admixture and 50% Dzudzuana-related admixture, marking them as different from other Near-Eastern and Anatolian Neolithics who didn't have ANE admixture. Iran Neolithics were later replaced by Iran Chalcolithics, who were a mixture of Iran Neolithic and Near Eastern Levant Neolithic.
- "Ancient South Eurasian" (ASE) is also known as Eastern Non-Africans (ENA) in genetic literature. Lazaridis et al. (2016) describes ANE as "a population on the Onge→Han cline." (p.23; cf. Figure 3, A and Figure S11.3, Table S11.6)
- Flegontov & Changmai et al. 2015.
- Lazaridis et al. 2016.
- Haak & Lazaridis et al. 2015.
- Raghavan & Skoglund et al. 2014.
- Mathieson et al. 2018.
- Lazaridis et al. 2018.
- Dolitsky, A.B.; Ackerman. R.E.; et al. (1985). "Siberian Paleolithic Archaeology: Approaches and Analytic Methods". Current Anthropology. 26 (3): 361–78. doi:10.1086/203280.
- Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; et al. (Feb 11, 2016). "Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry". Scientific Reports. 6: 20768. arXiv:1508.03097. Bibcode:2016NatSR...620768F. doi:10.1038/srep20768. PMC 4750364. PMID 26865217.
- Haak, W.; Lazaridis, I.; et al. (2015). "Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe". Nature. 522 (7555): 207–11. arXiv:1502.02783. Bibcode:2015Natur.522..207H. doi:10.1038/nature14317. PMC 5048219. PMID 25731166.
- Mathieson, I. (2018). "The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe". Nature. 555: 197–203. doi:10.1038/nature25778. = bioRxiv, (19 September 2017), doi:10.1101/135616.
- Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; et al. (2014). "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans". Nature. 513 (7518): 409–13. arXiv:1312.6639. Bibcode:2014Natur.513..409L. doi:10.1038/nature13673. PMC 4170574. PMID 25230663.
- CITEREFLazaridis_et_al.2016 Lazaridis, Iosif; Nadel, Dani; Rollefson, Gary; et al. (16 June 2016). "Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East". Nature. 536 (7617): 419–424. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..419L. bioRxiv 059311. doi:10.1038/nature19310. PMC 5003663.
- Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; et al. (2014). "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian Genome Reveals Dual Ancestry of Native Americans". Nature. 505 (7481): 87–91. Bibcode:2014Natur.505...87R. doi:10.1038/nature12736. PMC 4105016. PMID 24256729.
- Lazaridis; Anna Belfer-Cohen; et al. (2018). "Paleolithic DNA from the Caucasus reveals core of West Eurasian ancestry". bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/423079.