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This is a list of the 118 chemical elements which have been identified as of 2019. A chemical element, often simply called an element, is a species of atoms which all have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e., the same atomic number, or Z).[1]

Perhaps the most popular visualization of all 118 elements is the periodic table of the elements, a convenient tabular arrangement of the elements by their chemical properties that uses abbreviated chemical symbols in place of full element names, but the simpler list format presented here may also be useful. Like the periodic table, the list below organizes the elements by the number of protons in their atoms; it can also be organized by other properties, such as atomic weight, density, and electronegativity. For more detailed information about the origins of element names, see List of chemical element name etymologies.

ListEdit

Note that the physical properties of elements depend on the isotope.

List of chemical elements
Z[I] Symbol Element Origin of name[2][3] Group Period Atomic weight[4][5] Density Melting point[6] Boiling point C[I] Electro­negativity Abundance in Earth's crust[II]
(u (±)) (g/cm3) (K) (K) (J/g · K) (χ)[I] (mg/kg)
 
1 H Hydrogen Greek elements hydro- and -gen, meaning 'water-forming' 1 1 1.008[III][IV][V][VI] 0.00008988 14.01 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400
2 He Helium Greek hḗlios, 'sun' 18 1 4.002602(2)[III][V] 0.0001785 [VII] 4.22 5.193 0.008
3 Li Lithium Greek líthos, 'stone' 1 2 6.94[III][IV][V][VIII][VI] 0.534 453.69 1560 3.582 0.98 20
4 Be Beryllium beryl, a mineral (ultimately from the name of Belur in southern India) 2 2 9.0121831(5) 1.85 1560 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8
5 B Boron borax, a mineral (from Arabic bawraq) 13 2 10.81[III][IV][V][VI] 2.34 2349 4200 1.026 2.04 10
6 C Carbon Latin carbo, 'coal' 14 2 12.011[III][V][VI] 2.267 3800 4300 0.709 2.55 200
7 N Nitrogen Greek nítron and -gen, meaning 'niter-forming' 15 2 14.007[III][V][VI] 0.0012506 63.15 77.36 1.04 3.04 19
8 O Oxygen Greek oxy- and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming' 16 2 15.999[III][V][VI] 0.001429 54.36 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000
9 F Fluorine Latin fluere, 'to flow' 17 2 18.998403163(6) 0.001696 53.53 85.03 0.824 3.98 585
10 Ne Neon Greek néon, 'new' 18 2 20.1797(6)[III][IV] 0.0008999 24.56 27.07 1.03 0.005
11 Na Sodium English soda (the symbol Na is derived from New Latin natrium, coined from German Natron, 'natron') 1 3 22.98976928(2) 0.971 370.87 1156 1.228 0.93 23600
12 Mg Magnesium Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece 2 3 24.305[VI] 1.738 923 1363 1.023 1.31 23300
13 Al Aluminium alumina, from Latin alumen (gen. aluminis), 'bitter salt, alum' 13 3 26.9815384(3) 2.698 933.47 2792 0.897 1.61 82300
14 Si Silicon Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium) 14 3 28.085[V][VI] 2.3296 1687 3538 0.705 1.9 282000
15 P Phosphorus Greek phōsphóros, 'light-bearing' 15 3 30.973761998(5) 1.82 317.30 550 0.769 2.19 1050
16 S Sulfur Latin sulphur, 'brimstone' 16 3 32.06[III][V][VI] 2.067 388.36 717.87 0.71 2.58 350
17 Cl Chlorine Greek chlōrós, 'greenish yellow' 17 3 35.45[III][IV][V][VI] 0.003214 171.6 239.11 0.479 3.16 145
18 Ar Argon Greek argós, 'idle' (because of its inertness) 18 3 39.948[III][V][VI] 0.0017837 83.80 87.30 0.52 3.5
19 K Potassium New Latin potassa, 'potash' (the symbol K is derived from Latin kalium) 1 4 39.0983(1) 0.862 336.53 1032 0.757 0.82 20900
20 Ca Calcium Latin calx, 'lime' 2 4 40.078(4)[III] 1.54 1115 1757 0.647 1 41500
21 Sc Scandium Latin Scandia, 'Scandinavia' 3 4 44.955908(5) 2.989 1814 3109 0.568 1.36 22
22 Ti Titanium Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology 4 4 47.867(1) 4.54 1941 3560 0.523 1.54 5650
23 V Vanadium Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja 5 4 50.9415(1) 6.11 2183 3680 0.489 1.63 120
24 Cr Chromium Greek chróma, 'colour' 6 4 51.9961(6) 7.15 2180 2944 0.449 1.66 102
25 Mn Manganese corrupted from magnesia negra; see Magnesium 7 4 54.938043(2) 7.44 1519 2334 0.479 1.55 950
26 Fe Iron English word (the symbol Fe is derived from Latin ferrum) 8 4 55.845(2) 7.874 1811 3134 0.449 1.83 56300
27 Co Cobalt German Kobold, 'goblin' 9 4 58.933194(3) 8.86 1768 3200 0.421 1.88 25
28 Ni Nickel Nickel, a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology 10 4 58.6934(4) 8.912 1728 3186 0.444 1.91 84
29 Cu Copper English word, from Latin cuprum, from Ancient Greek Kýpros 'Cyprus' 11 4 63.546(3)[V] 8.96 1357.77 2835 0.385 1.9 60
30 Zn Zinc Most likely from German Zinke, 'prong' or 'tooth', though some suggest Persian sang, 'stone' 12 4 65.38(2) 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70
31 Ga Gallium Latin Gallia, 'France' 13 4 69.723(1) 5.907 302.9146 2673 0.371 1.81 19
32 Ge Germanium Latin Germania, 'Germany' 14 4 72.630(8) 5.323 1211.40 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5
33 As Arsenic French arsenic, from Greek arsenikón 'yellow arsenic' (influenced by arsenikós, 'masculine' or 'virile'), from a West Asian wanderword ultimately from Old Iranian *zarniya-ka, 'golden' 15 4 74.921595(6) 5.776 1090 [IX] 887 0.329 2.18 1.8
34 Se Selenium Greek selḗnē, 'moon' 16 4 78.971(8)[V] 4.809 453 958 0.321 2.55 0.05
35 Br Bromine Greek brômos, 'stench' 17 4 79.904[VI] 3.122 265.8 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4
36 Kr Krypton Greek kryptós, 'hidden' 18 4 83.798(2)[III][IV] 0.003733 115.79 119.93 0.248 3 1×10−4
37 Rb Rubidium Latin rubidus, 'deep red' 1 5 85.4678(3)[III] 1.532 312.46 961 0.363 0.82 90
38 Sr Strontium Strontian, a village in Scotland 2 5 87.62(1)[III][V] 2.64 1050 1655 0.301 0.95 370
39 Y Yttrium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 3 5 88.90584(1) 4.469 1799 3609 0.298 1.22 33
40 Zr Zirconium zircon, a mineral 4 5 91.224(2)[III] 6.506 2128 4682 0.278 1.33 165
41 Nb Niobium Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology 5 5 92.90637(1) 8.57 2750 5017 0.265 1.6 20
42 Mo Molybdenum Greek molýbdaina, 'piece of lead', from mólybdos, 'lead' 6 5 95.95(1)[III] 10.22 2896 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2
43 Tc Technetium Greek tekhnētós, 'artificial' 7 5 [98][X] 11.5 2430 4538 1.9 ~ 3×10−9[XI]
44 Ru Ruthenium New Latin Ruthenia, 'Russia' 8 5 101.07(2)[III] 12.37 2607 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001
45 Rh Rhodium Greek rhodóeis, 'rose-coloured', from rhódon, 'rose' 9 5 102.90549(2) 12.41 2237 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001
46 Pd Palladium the asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time 10 5 106.42(1)[III] 12.02 1828.05 3236 0.244 2.2 0.015
47 Ag Silver English word (The symbol derives from Latin argentum) 11 5 107.8682(2)[III] 10.501 1234.93 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075
48 Cd Cadmium New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos 12 5 112.414(4)[III] 8.69 594.22 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159
49 In Indium Latin indicum, 'indigo' (colour found in its spectrum) 13 5 114.818(1) 7.31 429.75 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25
50 Sn Tin English word (The symbol derives from Latin stannum) 14 5 118.710(7)[III] 7.287 505.08 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3
51 Sb Antimony Latin antimonium, the origin of which is uncertain: folk etymologies suggest it is derived from Greek antí ('against') + mónos ('alone'), or Old French anti-moine, 'Monk's bane', but it could plausibly be from or related to Arabic ʾiṯmid, 'antimony', reformatted as a Latin word. (The symbol derives from Latin stibium 'stibnite'.) 15 5 121.760(1)[III] 6.685 903.78 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2
52 Te Tellurium Latin tellus, 'the ground, earth' 16 5 127.60(3)[III] 6.232 722.66 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001
53 I Iodine French iode, from Greek ioeidḗs, 'violet') 17 5 126.90447(3) 4.93 386.85 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45
54 Xe Xenon Greek xénon, neuter form of xénos 'strange' 18 5 131.293(6)[III][IV] 0.005887 161.4 165.03 0.158 2.6 3×10−5
55 Cs Caesium Latin caesius, 'sky-blue' 1 6 132.90545196(6) 1.873 301.59 944 0.242 0.79 3
56 Ba Barium Greek barýs, 'heavy' 2 6 137.327(7) 3.594 1000 2170 0.204 0.89 425
57 La Lanthanum Greek lanthánein, 'to lie hidden' 3 6 138.90547(7)[III] 6.145 1193 3737 0.195 1.1 39
58 Ce Cerium the dwarf planet Ceres, considered a planet at the time 6 140.116(1)[III] 6.77 1068 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5
59 Pr Praseodymium Greek prásios dídymos, 'green twin' 6 140.90766(1) 6.773 1208 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2
60 Nd Neodymium Greek néos dídymos, 'new twin' 6 144.242(3)[III] 7.007 1297 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5
61 Pm Promethium Prometheus of Greek mythology 6 [145][X] 7.26 1315 3273 1.13 2×10−19[XI]
62 Sm Samarium samarskite, a mineral named after Colonel Vasili Samarsky-Bykhovets, Russian mine official 6 150.36(2)[III] 7.52 1345 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05
63 Eu Europium Europe 6 151.964(1)[III] 5.243 1099 1802 0.182 1.2 2
64 Gd Gadolinium gadolinite, a mineral named after Johan Gadolin, Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist 6 157.25(3)[III] 7.895 1585 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2
65 Tb Terbium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 6 158.925354(8) 8.229 1629 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2
66 Dy Dysprosium Greek dysprósitos, 'hard to get' 6 162.500(1)[III] 8.55 1680 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2
67 Ho Holmium New Latin Holmia, 'Stockholm' 6 164.930328(7) 8.795 1734 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3
68 Er Erbium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 6 167.259(3)[III] 9.066 1802 3141 0.168 1.24 3.5
69 Tm Thulium Thule, the ancient name for an unclear northern location 6 168.934218(6) 9.321 1818 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52
70 Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, a village in Sweden 6 173.045(10)[III] 6.965 1097 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2
71 Lu Lutetium Latin Lutetia, 'Paris' 6 174.9668(1)[III] 9.84 1925 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8
72 Hf Hafnium New Latin Hafnia, 'Copenhagen' (from Danish havn) 4 6 178.49(2) 13.31 2506 4876 0.144 1.3 3
73 Ta Tantalum King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology 5 6 180.94788(2) 16.654 3290 5731 0.14 1.5 2
74 W Tungsten Swedish tung sten, 'heavy stone' (The symbol is from wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite) 6 6 183.84(1) 19.25 3695 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3
75 Re Rhenium Latin Rhenus, 'the Rhine' 7 6 186.207(1) 21.02 3459 5869 0.137 1.9 7×10−4
76 Os Osmium Greek osmḗ, 'smell' 8 6 190.23(3)[III] 22.61 3306 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002
77 Ir Iridium Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow 9 6 192.217(2) 22.56 2719 4701 0.131 2.2 0.001
78 Pt Platinum Spanish platina, 'little silver', from plata 'silver' 10 6 195.084(9) 21.46 2041.4 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005
79 Au Gold English word (the symbol Au derives from Latin aurum) 11 6 196.966570(4) 19.282 1337.33 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004
80 Hg Mercury Mercury, Roman god of commerce, communication, and luck, known for his speed and mobility (the symbol Hg derives from the element's Latin name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydrárgyros, 'water-silver') 12 6 200.592(3) 13.5336 234.43 629.88 0.14 2 0.085
81 Tl Thallium Greek thallós, 'green shoot or twig' 13 6 204.38[VI] 11.85 577 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85
82 Pb Lead English word (the symbol Pb derives from Latin plumbum) 14 6 207.2(1)[III][V] 11.342 600.61 2022 0.129 1.87 14
83 Bi Bismuth German Wismut, from weiß Masse 'white mass', unless from Arabic 15 6 208.98040(1)[X] 9.807 544.7 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009
84 Po Polonium Latin Polonia, 'Poland' (the home country of Marie Curie) 16 6 [209][X] 9.32 527 1235 2.0 2×10−10[XI]
85 At Astatine Greek ástatos, 'unstable' 17 6 [210][X] 7 500 2.2 3×10−20[XI]
86 Rn Radon radium 18 6 [222][X] 0.00973 202 211.3 0.094 2.2 4×10−13[XI]
87 Fr Francium France 1 7 [223][X] 1.87 281.0 890 0.7 ~ 1×10−18[XI]
88 Ra Radium French radium, from Latin radius, 'ray' 2 7 [226][X] 5.5 973 2010 0.094 0.9 9×10−7[XI]
89 Ac Actinium Greek aktís, 'ray' 3 7 [227][X] 10.07 1323 3471 0.12 1.1 5.5×10−10[XI]
90 Th Thorium Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder 7 232.0377(4)[X][III] 11.72 2115 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6
91 Pa Protactinium proto- (from Greek prôtos, 'first, before') + actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium 7 231.03588(1)[X] 15.37 1841 4300 1.5 1.4×10−6[XI]
92 U Uranium Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System 7 238.02891(3)[X] 18.95 1405.3 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7
93 Np Neptunium Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System 7 [237][X] 20.45 917 4273 1.36 ≤ 3×10−12[XI]
94 Pu Plutonium the dwarf planet Pluto, considered the ninth planet in the Solar System at the time 7 [244][X] 19.84 912.5 3501 1.28 ≤ 3×10−11[XI]
95 Am Americium The Americas, as the element was first synthesised on the continent, by analogy with europium 7 [243][X] 13.69 1449 2880 1.13 0[XII]
96 Cm Curium Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, French physicists and chemists 7 [247][X] 13.51 1613 3383 1.28 0[XII]
97 Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California, where the element was first synthesised, by analogy with terbium 7 [247][X] 14.79 1259 2900 1.3 0[XII]
98 Cf Californium California, where the element was first synthesised 7 [251][X] 15.1 1173 (1743)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
99 Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein, German physicist 7 [252][X] 8.84 1133 (1269)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
100 Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi, Italian physicist 7 [257][X] (9.7)[XIII] (1125)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
101 Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist and inventor who proposed the periodic table 7 [258][X] (10.3)[XIII] (1100)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
102 No Nobelium Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist and engineer 7 [259][X] (9.9)[XIII] (1100)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
103 Lr Lawrencium Ernest O. Lawrence, Americans physicist 7 [266][X] (15.6)[XIII] (1900)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
104 Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist from New Zealand 4 7 [267][X] (23.2)[XIII] (2400)[XIII] (5800)[XIII] 0[XII]
105 Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia, where the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research is located 5 7 [268][X] (29.3)[XIII] 0[XII]
106 Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg, American chemist 6 7 [269][X] (35.0)[XIII] 0[XII]
107 Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr, Danish physicist 7 7 [270][X] (37.1)[XIII] 0[XII]
108 Hs Hassium New Latin Hassia, 'Hesse' (a state in Germany) 8 7 [270][X] (40.7)[XIII] 0[XII]
109 Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner, Austrian physicist 9 7 [278][X] (37.4)[XIII] 0[XII]
110 Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesised 10 7 [281][X] (34.8)[XIII] 0[XII]
111 Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist 11 7 [282][X] (28.7)[XIII] 0[XII]
112 Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer 12 7 [285][X] (14.0)[XIII] (283)[XIV] (340)[XIV] 0[XII]
113 Nh Nihonium Japanese Nihon, 'Japan' (where the element was first synthesised) 13 7 [286][X] (16)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (1400)[XIII] 0[XII]
114 Fl Flerovium Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, part of JINR, where the element was synthesised; itself named after Georgy Flyorov, Russian physicist 14 7 [289][X] (14)[XIII] ~210 0[XII]
115 Mc Moscovium Moscow Oblast, Russia, where the element was first synthesised 15 7 [290][X] (13.5)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (1400)[XIII] 0[XII]
116 Lv Livermorium Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis 16 7 [293][X] (12.9)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (1100)[XIII] 0[XII]
117 Ts Tennessine Tennessee, United States (where Oak Ridge National Laboratory is located) 17 7 [294][X] (7.2)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (883)[XIII] 0[XII]
118 Og Oganesson Yuri Oganessian, Russian physicist 18 7 [294][X] (5.0)[XIII][XV] (320)[XIII] (~350)[XIII][XVI] 0[XII]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Z is the standard symbol for atomic number; C is the standard symbol for heat capacity; and χ is the standard symbol for electronegativity on the Pauling scale.
  2. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, elements are primordial – they occur naturally, and not through decay.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m The value listed is the conventional atomic-weight value suitable for trade and commerce. The actual value may differ depending on the isotopic composition of the sample. Since 2009, IUPAC provides the standard atomic-weight values for these elements using the interval notation. The corresponding standard atomic weights are:
    • Hydrogen: [1.00784, 1.00811]
    • Lithium: [6.938, 6.997]
    • Boron: [10.806, 10.821]
    • Carbon: [12.0096, 12.0116]
    • Nitrogen: [14.00643, 14.00728]
    • Oxygen: [15.99903, 15.99977]
    • Magnesium: [24.304, 24.307]
    • Silicon: [28.084, 28.086]
    • Sulfur: [32.059, 32.076]
    • Chlorine: [35.446, 35.457]
    • Argon: [39.792, 39.963]
    • Bromine: [79.901, 79.907]
    • Thallium: [204.382, 204.385]
  7. ^ Helium does not solidify at a pressure of one atmosphere. Helium can only solidify at pressures above 25 atmospheres, which corresponds to a melting point of absolute zero.
  8. ^ The atomic weight of commercial lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  9. ^ This element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, four such elements, bismuth, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions, and thus their standard atomic weights are given.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k This element is transient – it occurs only through decay (and in the case of plutonium, also in traces deposited from supernovae onto Earth).
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x This element is synthetic – the transuranic elements 95 and above do not occur naturally, but they can all be produced artificially.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak The value has not been precisely measured, usually because of the element's short half-life; the value given in parentheses is a prediction.
  14. ^ a b With error bars: 283±11 K and 340±10 K respectively. The best experimental value for the boiling point of copernicium is 357+112
    −108
     K.
  15. ^ This predicted value is for solid oganesson, not gaseous oganesson.
  16. ^ With error bars: 350±30 K.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "chemical element". doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01022
  2. ^ "Periodic Table – Royal Society of Chemistry". www.rsc.org.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  4. ^ Wieser, Michael E.; et al. (2013). "Atomic weights of the elements 2011 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chemistry. 85 (5): 1047–1078. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-13-03-02. (for standard atomic weights of elements)
  5. ^ Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06. (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 103–118)
  6. ^ Holman, S. W.; Lawrence, R. R.; Barr, L. (1 January 1895). "Melting Points of Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Copper, and Platinum". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 31: 218–233. doi:10.2307/20020628. JSTOR 20020628.

External linksEdit

  • Atoms made thinkable, an interactive visualisation of the elements allowing physical and chemical properties to be compared