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Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

Abundance (atom fraction) of the chemical elements in Earth's upper continental crust as a function of atomic number. The rarest elements in the crust (shown in yellow) are not the heaviest, but are rather the siderophile (iron-loving) elements in the Goldschmidt classification of elements. These have been depleted by being relocated deeper into the Earth's core. Their abundance in meteoroids is higher. Tellurium and selenium are concentrated as sulfides in the core and have also been depleted by preaccretional sorting in the nebula that caused them to form volatile hydrogen selenide and hydrogen telluride.[1].

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as mg/kg, or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm = 1%). Note that the noble gases are not included, as they form no part of the solid crust. Also not included are certain elements with extremely low crustal concentrations: technetium (atomic number 43), promethium (61), and all elements with atomic numbers greater than 83 except thorium (90) and uranium (92).

Estimates of elemental abundance are difficult because (a) the composition of the upper and lower crust are quite different, and (b) the composition of the continental crust can vary drastically by locality.[2]

Abundance of chemical elements in Earth's (continental) crust, according to various sources
Z Element Symbol Abundance in crust (mg/kg = ppm by mass), by source Annual production
Darling[3] Barbalace[4] WebElements[5] Israel Science and Technology[6] CRC[7] (2016, tonnes)[8]
8 oxygen O 466,000 474,000 460,000 467,100 461,000 (46.1%)
14 silicon Si 277,200 277,100 270,000 276,900 282,000 (28.2%) 7,200,000
13 aluminium Al 81,300 82,000 82,000 80,700 82,300 (8.23%) 57,600,000
26 iron Fe 50,000 41,000 63,000 50,500 56,300 (5.63%) 1,150,000,000
20 calcium Ca 36,300 41,000 50,000 36,500 41,500 (4.15%)
11 sodium Na 28,300 23,000 23,000 27,500 23,600 (2.36%) 255,000,000
12 magnesium Mg 20,900 23,000 29,000 20,800 23,300 (2.33%) 27,700,000
19 potassium K 25,900 21,000 15,000 25,800 20,900 (2.09%)
22 titanium Ti 4,400 5,600 6,600 6,200 5,650 (0.565%) 6,600,000
1 hydrogen H 1,400 1,500 1,400 1,400 (0.140%)
15 phosphorus P 1,200 1,000 1,000 1,300 1,050 (0.105%)
25 manganese Mn 1,000 950 1,100 900 950 (0.0950%) 16,000,000
9 fluorine F 800 950 540 290 585 (0.0585%)
56 barium Ba 500 340 340 500 425 (0.0425%)
38 strontium Sr 370 360 370 (0.0370%) 350,000
16 sulfur S 500 260 420 520 350 (0.0350%) 69,300,000
6 carbon C 300 480 1,800 940 200 (0.0200%)
40 zirconium Zr 190 130 250 165 (0.0165%) 1,460,000
17 chlorine Cl 500 130 170 450 145 (0.0145%)
23 vanadium V 100 160 190 120 (0.0120%) 76,000
24 chromium Cr 100 100 140 350 102 (0.0102%) 26,000,000
37 rubidium Rb 300 90 60 90
28 nickel Ni 80 90 190 84 2,250,000
30 zinc Zn 75 79 70 11,900,000
29 copper Cu 100 50 68 60 19,400,000
58 cerium Ce 68 60 66.5
60 neodymium Nd 38 33 41.5
57 lanthanum La 32 34 39
39 yttrium Y 30 29 33 6,000
7 nitrogen N 50 25 20 19 140,000,000
27 cobalt Co 20 30 25 123,000
21 scandium Sc 16 26 22
3 lithium Li 20 17 20 35,000
41 niobium Nb 20 17 20 64,000
31 gallium Ga 18 19 19 315
82 lead Pb 14 10 14 4,820,000
5 boron B 950[dubious ] 8.7 10 9,400,000
90 thorium Th 12 6 9.6
59 praseodymium Pr 9.5 8.7 9.2
62 samarium Sm 7.9 6 7.05
64 gadolinium Gd 7.7 5.2 6.2
66 dysprosium Dy 6 6.2 5.2
68 erbium Er 3.8 3.0 3.5
70 ytterbium Yb 3.3 2.8 3.2
72 hafnium Hf 5.3 3.3 3.0
55 caesium Cs 3 1.9 3
4 beryllium Be 2.6 1.9 2.8 220
92 uranium U 0 1.8 2.7 74,119
35 bromine Br 0.3700 3 2.4 391,000
50 tin Sn 0 2.2 2.2 2.3 280,000
63 europium Eu 2.1 1.8 2.0
33 arsenic As 1.5 2.1 1.8 36,500
73 tantalum Ta 2 1.7 2.0 1,100
32 germanium Ge 1.8 1.4 1.5 155
74 tungsten W 160.6[dubious ] 1.1 1.25 86,400
42 molybdenum Mo 1.5 1.1 1.2 227,000
67 holmium Ho 1.4 1.2 1.3
65 terbium Tb 1.1 0.9400 1.2
81 thallium Tl 0.6000 0.5300 0.850 10
71 lutetium Lu 0.8
69 thulium Tm 0.4800 0.4500 0.52
53 iodine I 0.1400 0.4900 0.450 31,600
49 indium In 0.0490 0.1600 0.250 655
51 antimony Sb 0.2000 0.2000 0.2 130,000
48 cadmium Cd 0.1100 0.1500 0.15 23,000
80 mercury Hg 0.0500 0.0670 0.085 4,500
47 silver Ag 0.0700 0.0800 0.075 27,000
34 selenium Se 0.0500 0.0500 0.05 2,200
46 palladium Pd 0.0006 0.0063 0.015 208
83 bismuth Bi 0.0480 0.0250 0.0085 10,200
78 platinum Pt 0.0030 0.0037 0.005 172
79 gold Au 0.0011 0.0031 0.004 3,100
76 osmium Os 0.0001 0.0018 0.0015
52 tellurium Te 0.0050 0.0010 0.001 2,200
44 ruthenium Ru 0.0010 0.0010 0.001
77 iridium Ir 0.0003 0.0004 0.001
45 rhodium Rh 0.0002 0.0007 0.001
75 rhenium Re 0.0004 0.0026 0.0007 47.2

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Anderson, Don L.; "Chemical Composition of the Mantle", Theory of the Earth, pp. 147-175 ISBN 0865421234
  2. ^ David Kring, Composition of Earth's continental crust as inferred from the compositions of impact melt sheets, Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII
  3. ^ "Elements, Terrestrial Abundance". www.daviddarling.info. Archived from the original on 10 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-14.
  4. ^ Barbalace, Kenneth. "Periodic Table of Elements". Environmental Chemistry.com. Retrieved 2007-04-14.
  5. ^ "Abundance in Earth's Crust". WebElements.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-14.
  6. ^ "List of Periodic Table Elements Sorted by Abundance in Earth's crust". Israel Science and Technology Homepage. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
  7. ^ ABUNDANCE OF ELEMENTS IN THE EARTH’S CRUST AND IN THE SEA, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 97th edition (2016–2017), p. 14-17
  8. ^ Commodity Statistics and Information. USGS. All production numbers are for mines, except for Al, Cd, Fe, Ge, In, N, Se (plants, refineries), S (all forms) and As, Br, Mg, Si (unspecified). Data for B, K, Ti, Y are given not for the pure element but for the most common oxide, data for Na and Cl are for NaCl. For many elements like Si, Al, data are ambiguous (many forms produced) and are taken for the pure element. U data is pure element required for consumption by current reactor fleet [1]. WNA.
  • BookRags, Periodic Table.
  • World Book Encyclopedia, Exploring Earth.
  • HyperPhysics, Georgia State University, Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust.
  • Data Series 140, Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States, Version 2011, USGS [2].
  • Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2007