Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63. It was isolated in 1901 and is named after the continent of Europe. It is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3, but the oxidation state +2 is also common. All europium compounds with oxidation state +2 are slightly reducing. Europium has no significant biological role and is relatively non-toxic compared to other heavy metals. Most applications of europium exploit the phosphorescence of europium compounds. Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe; only about ×10−8% of all matter in the universe is europium. 5
|Appearance||silvery white, with a pale yellow tint; but rarely seen without oxide discoloration|
|Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)||151.964(1)|
|Europium in the periodic table|
|Atomic number (Z)||63|
|Group, period||group n/a, period 6|
|Electron configuration||[Xe] 4f7 6s2|
Electrons per shell
|2, 8, 18, 25, 8, 2|
|Phase (at STP)||solid|
|Melting point||1099 K (826 °C, 1519 °F)|
|Boiling point||1802 K (1529 °C, 2784 °F)|
|Density (near r.t.)||5.264 g/cm3|
|when liquid (at m.p.)||5.13 g/cm3|
|Heat of fusion||9.21 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||176 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||27.66 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||3, 2, 1 (a mildly basic oxide)|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 1.2|
|Atomic radius||empirical: 180 pm|
|Covalent radius||198±6 pm|
|Crystal structure||body-centered cubic (bcc)|
|Thermal expansion||poly: 35.0 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)|
|Thermal conductivity||est. 13.9 W/(m·K)|
|Electrical resistivity||poly: 0.900 µΩ·m (at r.t.)|
|Magnetic susceptibility||+34,000.0·10−6 cm3/mol|
|Young's modulus||18.2 GPa|
|Shear modulus||7.9 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||8.3 GPa|
|Vickers hardness||165–200 MPa|
|Discovery and first isolation||Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1896, 1901)|
|Main isotopes of europium|
Europium is a ductile metal with a hardness similar to that of lead. It crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice. Some properties of europium are strongly influenced by its half-filled electron shell. Europium has the second lowest melting point and the lowest density of all lanthanides.
Europium becomes a superconductor when it is cooled below 1.8 K and compressed to above 80 GPa. This is because europium is divalent in the metallic state, and is converted into the trivalent state by the applied pressure. In the divalent state, the strong local magnetic moment (J = 7/2) suppresses the superconductivity, which is induced by eliminating this local moment (J = 0 in Eu3+).
Europium is the most reactive rare-earth element. It rapidly oxidizes in air, so that bulk oxidation of a centimeter-sized sample occurs within several days. Its reactivity with water is comparable to that of calcium, and the reaction is
- 2 Eu + 6 H2O → 2 Eu(OH)3 + 3 H2
Because of the high reactivity, samples of solid europium rarely have the shiny appearance of the fresh metal, even when coated with a protective layer of mineral oil. Europium ignites in air at 150 to 180 °C to form europium(III) oxide:
- 4 Eu + 3 O2 → 2 Eu2O3
- 2 Eu + 3 H2SO4 + 18 H2O → 2 [Eu(H2O)9]3+ + 3 SO2−
4 + 3 H2
Eu(II) vs. Eu(III)Edit
Although usually trivalent, europium readily forms divalent compounds. This behavior is unusual to most lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. The +2 state has an electron configuration 4f7 because the half-filled f-shell gives more stability. In terms of size and coordination number, europium(II) and barium(II) are similar. For example, the sulfates of both barium and europium(II) are also highly insoluble in water. Divalent europium is a mild reducing agent, oxidizing in air to form Eu(III) compounds. In anaerobic, and particularly geothermal conditions, the divalent form is sufficiently stable that it tends to be incorporated into minerals of calcium and the other alkaline earths. This ion-exchange process is the basis of the "negative europium anomaly", the low europium content in many lanthanide minerals such as monazite, relative to the chondritic abundance. Bastnäsite tends to show less of a negative europium anomaly than does monazite, and hence is the major source of europium today. The development of easy methods to separate divalent europium from the other (trivalent) lanthanides made europium accessible even when present in low concentration, as it usually is.
Naturally occurring europium is composed of 2 isotopes, 151Eu and 153Eu, with 153Eu being the most abundant (52.2% natural abundance). While 153Eu is stable, 151Eu was recently found to be unstable to alpha decay with half-life of +11
−3×1018 years, 5 giving about 1 alpha decay per two minutes in every kilogram of natural europium. This value is in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. Besides the natural radioisotope 151Eu, 35 artificial radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 150Eu with a half-life of 36.9 years, 152Eu with a half-life of 13.516 years, and 154Eu with a half-life of 8.593 years. All the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives shorter than 4.7612 years, and the majority of these have half-lives shorter than 12.2 seconds. This element also has 8 meta states, with the most stable being 150mEu (t1/2=12.8 hours), 152m1Eu (t1/2=9.3116 hours) and 152m2Eu (t1/2=96 minutes).
The primary decay mode for isotopes lighter than 153Eu is electron capture, and the primary mode for heavier isotopes is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 153Eu are isotopes of samarium (Sm) and the primary products after are isotopes of gadolinium (Gd).
Europium as a nuclear fission productEdit
Like other lanthanides, many isotopes, especially isotopes with odd mass numbers and neutron-poor isotopes like 152Eu, have high cross sections for neutron capture, often high enough to be neutron poisons.
152Eu (half-life 13.516 years) and 154Eu (half-life 8.593 years) cannot be beta decay products because 152Sm and 154Sm are non-radioactive, but 154Eu is the only long-lived "shielded" nuclide, other than 134Cs, to have a fission yield of more than 2.5 parts per million fissions. A larger amount of 154Eu is produced by neutron activation of a significant portion of the non-radioactive 153Eu; however, much of this is further converted to 155Eu.
155Eu (half-life 4.7612 years) has a fission yield of 330 parts per million (ppm) for uranium-235 and thermal neutrons; most of it is transmuted to non-radioactive and nonabsorptive gadolinium-156 by the end of fuel burnup.
Depletion or enrichment of europium in minerals relative to other rare-earth elements is known as the europium anomaly. Europium is commonly included in trace element studies in geochemistry and petrology to understand the processes that form igneous rocks (rocks that cooled from magma or lava). The nature of the europium anomaly found helps reconstruct the relationships within a suite of igneous rocks.
Divalent europium (Eu2+) in small amounts is the activator of the bright blue fluorescence of some samples of the mineral fluorite (CaF2). The reduction from Eu3+ to Eu2+ is induced by irradiation with energetic particles. The most outstanding examples of this originated around Weardale and adjacent parts of northern England; it was the fluorite found here that fluorescence was named after in 1852, although it was not until much later that europium was determined to be the cause.
Europium is associated with the other rare-earth elements and is, therefore, mined together with them. Separation of the rare-earth elements is a step in the later processing. Rare-earth elements are found in the minerals bastnäsite, loparite-(Ce), xenotime, and monazite in mineable quantities. Bastnäsite is an orthophosphate mineral LnPO
4 (Ln denotes a mixture of all the lanthanides except promethium), loparite-(Ce) is an oxide, and xenotime is a fluorocarbonate LnCO3F. Monazite also contains thorium and yttrium, which complicates handling because thorium and its decay products are radioactive. For the extraction from the ore and the isolation of individual lanthanides, several methods have been developed. The choice of method is based on the concentration and composition of the ore and on the distribution of the individual lanthanides in the resulting concentrate. Roasting the ore and subsequent acidic and basic leaching is used mostly to produce a concentrate of lanthanides. If cerium is the dominant lanthanide, then it is converted from cerium(III) to cerium(IV) and then precipitated. Further separation by solvent extractions or ion exchange chromatography yields a fraction which is enriched in europium. This fraction is reduced with zinc, zinc/amalgam, electrolysis or other methods converting the europium(III) to europium(II). Europium(II) reacts in a way similar to that of alkaline earth metals and therefore it can be precipitated as carbonate or is co-precipitated with barium sulfate. Europium metal is available through the electrolysis of a mixture of molten EuCl3 and NaCl (or CaCl2) in a graphite cell, which serves as cathode, using graphite as anode. The other product is chlorine gas.
A few large deposits produce or produced a significant amount of the world production. The Bayan Obo iron ore deposit contains significant amounts of bastnäsite and monazite and is, with an estimated 36 million tonnes of rare-earth element oxides, the largest known deposit. The mining operations at the Bayan Obo deposit made China the largest supplier of rare-earth elements in the 1990s. Only 0.2% of the rare-earth element content is europium. The second large source for rare-earth elements between 1965 and its closure in the late 1990s was the Mountain Pass rare earth mine. The bastnäsite mined there is especially rich in the light rare-earth elements (La-Gd, Sc, and Y) and contains only 0.1% of europium. Another large source for rare-earth elements is the loparite found on the Kola peninsula. It contains besides niobium, tantalum and titanium up to 30% rare-earth elements and is the largest source for these elements in Russia.
Europium compounds tend to exist trivalent oxidation state under most conditions. Commonly these compounds feature Eu(III) bound by 6–9 oxygenic ligands, typically water. These compounds, the chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, are soluble in water or polar organic solvent. Lipophilic europium complexes often feature acetylacetonate-like ligands, e.g., Eufod.
Europium metal reacts with all the halogens:
- 2 Eu + 3 X2 → 2 EuX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I)
This route gives white europium(III) fluoride (EuF3), yellow europium(III) chloride (EuCl3), gray europium(III) bromide (EuBr3), and colorless europium(III) iodide (EuI3). Europium also forms the corresponding dihalides: yellow-green europium(II) fluoride (EuF2), colorless europium(II) chloride (EuCl2), colorless europium(II) bromide (EuBr2), and green europium(II) iodide (EuI2).
Chalcogenides and pnictidesEdit
Europium forms stable compounds with all of the chalcogens, but the heavier chalcogens (S, Se, and Te) stabilize the lower oxidation state. Three oxides are known: europium(II) oxide (EuO), europium(III) oxide (Eu2O3), and the mixed-valence oxide Eu3O4, consisting of both Eu(II) and Eu(III). Otherwise, the main chalcogenides are europium(II) sulfide (EuS), europium(II) selenide (EuSe) and europium(II) telluride (EuTe): all three of these are black solids. EuS is prepared by sulfiding the oxide at temperatures sufficiently high to decompose the Eu2O3:
- Eu2O3 + 3 H2S → 2 EuS + 3 H2O + S
The main nitride is europium(III) nitride (EuN).
Although europium is present in most of the minerals containing the other rare elements, due to the difficulties in separating the elements it was not until the late 1800s that the element was isolated. William Crookes observed the phosphorescent spectra of the rare elements including those eventually assigned to europium.
Europium was first found in 1890 by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who obtained basic fractions from samarium-gadolinium concentrates which had spectral lines not accounted for by samarium or gadolinium. However, the discovery of europium is generally credited to French chemist Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, who suspected samples of the recently discovered element samarium were contaminated with an unknown element in 1896 and who was able to isolate it in 1901; he then named it europium.
When the europium-doped yttrium orthovanadate red phosphor was discovered in the early 1960s, and understood to be about to cause a revolution in the color television industry, there was a scramble for the limited supply of europium on hand among the monazite processors, as the typical europium content in monazite is about 0.05%. However, the Molycorp bastnäsite deposit at the Mountain Pass rare earth mine, California, whose lanthanides had an unusually high europium content of 0.1%, was about to come on-line and provide sufficient europium to sustain the industry. Prior to europium, the color-TV red phosphor was very weak, and the other phosphor colors had to be muted, to maintain color balance. With the brilliant red europium phosphor, it was no longer necessary to mute the other colors, and a much brighter color TV picture was the result. Europium has continued to be in use in the TV industry ever since as well as in computer monitors. Californian bastnäsite now faces stiff competition from Bayan Obo, China, with an even "richer" europium content of 0.2%.
Frank Spedding, celebrated for his development of the ion-exchange technology that revolutionized the rare-earth industry in the mid-1950s, once related the story of how he was lecturing on the rare earths in the 1930s, when an elderly gentleman approached him with an offer of a gift of several pounds of europium oxide. This was an unheard-of quantity at the time, and Spedding did not take the man seriously. However, a package duly arrived in the mail, containing several pounds of genuine europium oxide. The elderly gentleman had turned out to be Herbert Newby McCoy, who had developed a famous method of europium purification involving redox chemistry.
Relative to most other elements, commercial applications for europium are few and rather specialized. Almost invariably, its phosphorescence is exploited, either in the +2 or +3 oxidation state.
It is a dopant in some types of glass in lasers and other optoelectronic devices. Europium oxide (Eu2O3) is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and fluorescent lamps, and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors. Color TV screens contain between 0.5 and 1 g of europium oxide. Whereas trivalent europium gives red phosphors, the luminescence of divalent europium depends strongly on the composition of the host structure. UV to deep red luminescence can be achieved. The two classes of europium-based phosphor (red and blue), combined with the yellow/green terbium phosphors give "white" light, the color temperature of which can be varied by altering the proportion or specific composition of the individual phosphors. This phosphor system is typically encountered in helical fluorescent light bulbs. Combining the same three classes is one way to make trichromatic systems in TV and computer screens. Europium is also used in the manufacture of fluorescent glass. One of the more common persistent after-glow phosphors besides copper-doped zinc sulfide is europium-doped strontium aluminate. Europium fluorescence is used to interrogate biomolecular interactions in drug-discovery screens. It is also used in the anti-counterfeiting phosphors in euro banknotes.
An application that has almost fallen out of use with the introduction of affordable superconducting magnets is the use of europium complexes, such as Eu(fod)3, as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy. Chiral shift reagents, such as Eu(hfc)3, are still used to determine enantiomeric purity.
A recent (2015) application of europium is in quantum memory chips which can reliably store information for days at a time; these could allow sensitive quantum data to be stored to a hard disk-like device and shipped around the country. 
There are no clear indications that europium is particularly toxic compared to other heavy metals. Europium chloride, nitrate and oxide have been tested for toxicity: europium chloride shows an acute intraperitoneal LD50 toxicity of 550 mg/kg and the acute oral LD50 toxicity is 5000 mg/kg. Europium nitrate shows a slightly higher intraperitoneal LD50 toxicity of 320 mg/kg, while the oral toxicity is above 5000 mg/kg. The metal dust presents a fire and explosion hazard.
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 112. ISBN 0-08-037941-9.
- Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
- Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
- Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
- "Periodic Table: Europium". Royal Society of Chemistry.
- Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
- Johansson, Börje; Rosengren, Anders (1975). "Generalized phase diagram for the rare-earth elements: Calculations and correlations of bulk properties". Physical Review B. 11 (8): 2836–2857. Bibcode:1975PhRvB..11.2836J. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.11.2836.
- Debessai, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hamlin, J.; Schilling, J.; Shimizu, K. (2009). "Pressure-Induced Superconducting State of Europium Metal at Low Temperatures". Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (19): 197002. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102s7002D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.197002. PMID 19518988.
- Hamric, David (November 2007). "Rare-Earth Metal Long Term Air Exposure Test". elementsales.com. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- "Chemical reactions of Europium". Webelements. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- Cooley, Robert A.; Yost, Don M.; Stone, Hosmer W. (1946). "Europium(II) Salts". Inorganic Syntheses. 2. pp. 69–73. doi:10.1002/9780470132333.ch19. ISBN 978-0-470-13233-3.
- McGill, Ian (2005), "Rare Earth Elements", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 31, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, p. 199, doi:10.1002/14356007.a22_607.
- Belli, P.; et al. (2007). "Search for α decay of natural europium". Nuclear Physics A. 789: 15–29. Bibcode:2007NuPhA.789...15B. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.001.
- Nucleonica (2007–2011). "Nucleonica: Universal Nuclide Chart". Nucleonica: Universal Nuclide Chart. Nucleonica. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- Tables of Nuclear Data, Japan Atomic Energy Agency Archived June 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- Oh, S. Y.; Chang, J.; Mughabghab, S. (2000). "Neutron cross section evaluations of fission products below the fast energy region". doi:10.2172/759039.
- Inghram, Mark; Hayden, Richard; Hess, David (1947). "Activities Induced by Pile Neutron Bombardment of Samarium". Physical Review. 71 (9): 643–643. Bibcode:1947PhRv...71..643I. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.71.643.
- Hayden, Richard; Reynolds, John; Inghram, Mark (1949). "Reactions Induced by Slow Neutron Irradiation of Europium". Physical Review. 75 (10): 1500–1507. Bibcode:1949PhRv...75.1500H. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.75.1500.
- Meinke, W. W.; Anderson, R. E. (1954). "Activation Analysis of Several Rare Earth Elements". Analytical Chemistry. 26 (5): 907–909. doi:10.1021/ac60089a030.
- Farrar, H.; Tomlinson, R. H. (1962). "Cumulative yields of the heavy fragments in U235 thermal neutron fission". Nuclear Physics. 34 (2): 367–381. Bibcode:1962NucPh..34..367F. doi:10.1016/0029-5582(62)90227-4.
- Inghram, Mark; Hayden, Richard; Hess, David (1950). "U235 Fission Yields in the Rare Earth Region". Physical Review. 79 (2): 271–274. Bibcode:1950PhRv...79..271I. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.79.271.
- Fajans, Kasimir; Voigt, Adolf (1941). "A Note on the Radiochemistry of Europium". Physical Review. 60 (7): 533–534. Bibcode:1941PhRv...60..533F. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.60.533.2.
- Maestro, Patrick. "Lanthanides". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 14. pp. 1096–1120. doi:10.1002/0471238961.120114201901021. ISBN 978-0-471-23896-6.
- Sinha, Shyama P.; Scientific Affairs Division, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1983). "The Europium anomaly". Systematics and the properties of the lanthanides. pp. 550–553. ISBN 978-90-277-1613-2.
- Bill, H.; Calas, G. (1978). "Color centers, associated rare-earth ions and the origin of coloration in natural fluorites". Physics and Chemistry of Minerals. 3 (2): 117–131. Bibcode:1978PCM.....3..117B. doi:10.1007/BF00308116.
- Allen, Robert D. (1952). "Variations in chemical and physical properties of fluorite" (PDF). Am. Mineral. 37: 910–30.
- Valeur, Bernard; Berberan-Santos, Mário N. (2011). "A Brief History of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence before the Emergence of Quantum Theory". Journal of Chemical Education. 88 (6): 731–738. Bibcode:2011JChEd..88..731V. doi:10.1021/ed100182h.
- Mariano, A.; King, P. (1975). "Europium-activated cathodoluminescence in minerals". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 39 (5): 649–660. Bibcode:1975GeCoA..39..649M. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(75)90008-3.
- Sidike, Aierken; Kusachi, I.; Yamashita, N. (2003). "Natural fluorite emitting yellow fluorescence under UV light". Physics and Chemistry of Minerals. 30 (8): 478–485. Bibcode:2003PCM....30..478S. doi:10.1007/s00269-003-0341-3.
- Przibram, K. (1935). "Fluorescence of Fluorite and the Bivalent Europium Ion". Nature. 135 (3403): 100–100. Bibcode:1935Natur.135..100P. doi:10.1038/135100a0.
- Gupta, C. K.; Krishnamurthy, N. (1992). "Extractive metallurgy of rare earths". International Materials Reviews. 37: 197–248.
- Morais, C.; Ciminelli, V. S. T. (2001). "Recovery of europium by chemical reduction of a commercial solution of europium and gadolinium chlorides". Hydrometallurgy. 60 (3): 247–253. doi:10.1016/S0304-386X(01)00156-6.
- McCoy, Herbert N. (1936). "Contribution to the chemistry of europium". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 58 (9): 1577–1580. doi:10.1021/ja01300a020.
- Neikov, Oleg D.; Naboychenko, Stanislav; Gopienko, Victor G.; Frishberg, Irina V. (2009-01-15). Handbook of Non-Ferrous Metal Powders: Technologies and Applications. p. 505. ISBN 978-1-85617-422-0.
- Lawrence J. Drewa; Meng Qingrunb & Sun Weijun (1990). "The Bayan Obo iron-rare-earth-niobium deposits, Inner Mongolia, China". Lithos. 26 (1–2): 43–65. Bibcode:1990Litho..26...43D. doi:10.1016/0024-4937(90)90040-8.
- Xue-Ming Yang; Michael J. Le Bas (2004). "Chemical compositions of carbonate minerals from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China: implications for petrogenesis". Lithos. 72 (1–2): 97–116. Bibcode:2004Litho..72...97Y. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2003.09.002.
- Chengyu Wu (2007). "Bayan Obo Controversy: Carbonatites versus Iron Oxide-Cu-Au-(REE-U)". Resource Geology. 58 (4): 348. doi:10.1111/j.1751-3928.2008.00069.x.
- Hedrick, J.; Sinha, S.; Kosynkin, V. (1997). "Loparite, a rare-earth ore (Ce, Na, Sr, Ca)(Ti, Nb, Ta, Fe+3)O3". Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 250: 467–470. doi:10.1016/S0925-8388(96)02824-1.
- Archer, R. D.; Mitchell, W. N.; Mazelsky, R. (1967). "Europium (II) Sulfide". Inorganic Syntheses. 10. pp. 77–79. doi:10.1002/9780470132418.ch15. ISBN 978-0-470-13241-8.
- Crookes, W. (1905). "On the Phosphorescent Spectra of S δ and Europium". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 76 (511): 411–414. Bibcode:1905RSPSA..76..411C. doi:10.1098/rspa.1905.0043. JSTOR 92772.
- Demarçay, Eugène-Anatole (1901). "Sur un nouvel élément l'europium". Comptes rendus. 132: 1484–1486.
- Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements. XVI. The rare earth elements". Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (10): 1751. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1751W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1751.
- Srivastava, A. M.; Ronda, C. R. (2003). "Phosphors" (PDF). The Electrochemical Society Interface: 48–51.
- Spedding, Frank H. (1949). "Large-scale separation of rare-earth salts and the preparation of the pure metals". Discussions of the Faraday Society. 7: 214. doi:10.1039/DF9490700214.
- Corbett, John D. (1986). "Frank Harold Spedding". Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. 80 (5): 106. Bibcode:1986PhT....39e.106H. doi:10.1063/1.2815016.
- Caro, Paul (1998-06-01). "Rare earths in luminescence". Rare earths. pp. 323–325. ISBN 978-84-89784-33-8.
- Bamfield, Peter (2001). "Inorganic Phosphors". Chromic phenomena: technological applications of colour chemistry. pp. 159–171. ISBN 978-0-85404-474-0.
- Gupta, C. K.; Krishnamurthy, N. (2005). "Ch. 1.7.10 Phosphors". Extractive metallurgy of rare earths (PDF). CRC Press. ISBN 0-415-33340-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2012.
- Jansen, T.; Jüstel, T.; Kirm, M.; Mägi, H.; Nagirnyi, V.; Tõldsepp, E.; Vielhauer, S.; Khaidukov, N.M.; Makhov, V.N. "Site selective, time and temperature dependent spectroscopy of Eu 3+ doped apatites (Mg,Ca,Sr) 2 Y 8 Si 6 O 26". Journal of Luminescence. 186: 205–211. doi:10.1016/j.jlumin.2017.02.004.
- Blasse, G.; Grabmaier, B. C. Luminescent Materials | SpringerLink. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-79017-1.
- Jansen, Thomas; Böhnisch, David; Jüstel, Thomas (2016-01-01). "On the Photoluminescence Linearity of Eu2+ Based LED Phosphors upon High Excitation Density". ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology. 5 (6): R91–R97. doi:10.1149/2.0101606jss. ISSN 2162-8769.
- Lakshmanan, Arunachalam (2008). "Persistent Afterglow Phosphors". Luminescence and Display Phosphors: Phenomena and Applications. ISBN 978-1-60456-018-3.
- "Europium and the Euro". Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- Cotton, Simon (2006). "Euro banknotes". Lanthanide and actinide chemistry. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-470-01006-8.
- Richards, Stephen; Hollerton, John (2011). Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-470-71092-0.
- Pavia, Donald L; Lampman, Gary M (2009). Introduction to spectroscopy. ISBN 978-0-495-11478-9.
- Wenzel, Thomas J (2007). Discrimination of chiral compounds using NMR spectroscopy. ISBN 978-0-471-76352-9.
- Cotton, Simon (2006). Lanthanide and actinide chemistry. ISBN 978-0-470-01006-8.
- Gschneidner, Karl A; Bünzli, Jean-Claude; Pecharsky, Vitalij K (2005). Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. ISBN 978-0-444-52028-9.
- "Quantum hard drive breakthrough". Phys.org. 8 January 2015
- Haley, Thomas J.; Komesu, N.; Colvin, G.; Koste, L.; Upham, H. C. (1965). "Pharmacology and toxicology of europium chloride". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 54 (4): 643–5. doi:10.1002/jps.2600540435. PMID 5842357.
- Bruce, D.; Hietbrink, Bernard E.; Dubois, Kenneth P. (1963). "The acute mammalian toxicity of rare earth nitrates and oxides*1". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 5 (6): 750. doi:10.1016/0041-008X(63)90067-X.
- Lenntech BV. "Europium (Eu) – Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects". Lenntech Periodic Table. Lenntech BV. Retrieved July 20, 2011.